1.elect 选择；决定做某事；选举某人 elect to do sth=choose/decide to do sth 选择/决定做某事 elect sb to be/as 选举某人成为/担任--职务 She elected to become a lawyer.她决定当医生。 We elected James to be chairman.我们选出詹姆斯当主席。 2.occ
ur vi.发生，出现，被想到 sth occur to sb(主意或想法突然)浮现于脑中，被想起 It occurs to sb. that… 突然想起… When did the accident occur ? 那事故是什么时候发生的？ The words of the song occurred to me suddenly .我突然想起了那歌的歌词。 翻译：我突然想到我把女朋友留在半路。 It occurs to me that I left my girlfriend halfway . 翻译：It occurs to me that he owes me 5 yuan .我突然想到他欠我 5 元钱。 “某人突然想起”的多种表达 sth. occurs to sb. sth. strikes sb. sth. comes to sb. It occurs to sb. that 从句 It strikes sb. that 从句 It crosses one’s mind that 从句 3.indicate vt.指出；标示；表明；暗示 indicate sth (to sb) 翻译：a sign indicating the right road to follow 指示应走道路的标识 （1）With a nod of his head,he indicated to me where I should sit. （他向我示意） （2）A res sky at night indicates fine weather the following day .（暗示明天天气好） 5.grasp vt.抓住，抓紧； 理解，领会 (1)I grasped him by the arm .我抓住他胳膊。 (2)They failed to grasp the importance of his word . 他们没有理解他的话的重要性。 n. 抓住,理解 have a good/complete/profound grasp of 对--好/充分/深刻的理解 He has a good grasp of English grammar .他英语语法掌握的很好。 Within/beyond one’s grasp (1)为人能/不能抓到的（2）为人能/不能理解的 6.live on (1)继续存在（2）靠-------生活,以----为主食。 live with 忍受，忍耐 live up to （one's ideal/promise/expection）符合.不辜负 live through 经历过，经过--之后还活着 用 live 的相关短语填空 (1)He died ten years ,but his memory lives on . (5)He lived through g both world wars. (2)He had to live on 40 pounds. (6)You will have to live with his hot temper, I am (3)We live on rice. afraid. (4)I find it difficult for me to live up to my mothers ideal. 7.by means of 用----方法,借助于---by all means 当然可以，没有问题 by this means 用这种方法， by no means 决不 (1)Thoughts can also be expressed by means of music. (2)"Can I borrow your car?” "By all means " (3)By no means should you tell him about it.你绝不能把这件事告诉他。 means 手段， 方法。 的单复数同形 ， means 作主语是应根据具体的情况来确定谓语动词的单复数形式。 Every possible means ________ been tried，and we find only ________ this means can we do it well. A. have，in B. have，by C. has，in D. has，by 8.make a life 习惯于新的生活方式，工作等；创造生活 make a living（勉强）谋生 Live /lead a simple/happy life 过着简朴/幸福的生活 most people are so busy to make a living that they forget to make a life . 4.Keep up (1)vi.（rain,snow,good weather）维持,坚持,不落后;vt.沿袭（old customs/traditions）古老的风俗 /传统等 As senior 3 students, it is important to keep up a good state of mind .（保持好的思想状态。 ）
Any pupil who cannot keep up has to repeat the year.（跟上） 3.back to back 背靠背 face to face 面对面 mouth to mouth 嘴对嘴 shoulder to shoulder 并肩 heart to heart 交心 head to head 交头接耳 arm in arm 手挽手 hand in hand 手牵手 (1) Our seats on the train were back to back. （背靠背的） 4.Team up with 与---合作或一起工作 （1）We have to learn to team up with others if we want to get along with others. （2）It's a pleasure to team up with such excellent workers.和这样出色的工人一起干活真愉快。 (3)He didn't want to team up with anybody.他不想与任何人合作。 (4)the two companies have teamed up to develop a new racing car. 那两个公司已合作研制新型赛车。 7.mark out 画线，标出---界线， tennis court, car-park, etc 网球场，停车场 ）制定 （a （1）In doing my reading, I often mark out what I regard as important in a book （2）The directions of rural development have been marked out。农村发展的规划已制定出来了。 8.take in 1)包括，吸收 The tour takes in some famous castles .我们的旅行包括些有名的城堡。 This kind of cloth takes in water easily .这种布料吸水很好。 (2)欺骗 Don’t be taken in by his tricks.不要被他的花招蒙骗。 (3)领会，理解 Before you translate a sentence, you should first take in the meaning of the words . 翻译句子之前，首先要理解单词的含义 take off (飞机)起飞，脱下，(事业)兴旺 take for 把…误作 take on 呈现，雇佣 take up 占据，从事，开始对…感兴趣 take over 接管 take away 拿走，消除（疾病等） (1) The business of the company was growing so fast that the manager had to ___ more clerks. A. take in B. take on C. turn down D. give out (2)(07辽宁) Don’t be ___ by products promising to make you lose weight quickly. A. taken off B. taken out C. taken away D. taken in 9.a great/ good many 许多，很多 拓展 （1）many,a great/ good many,a few, a (good/ large) number of,scores of + 复数名词,谓语用复数 the majority of (2) much, a little a good/ great deal of,a large amount of （3）a lot of lots of a quantity of plenty of
复数名词+复数谓语 + 不可数名词+单数谓语
（4）Large amounts of +不可数名词+复数谓语 Quantities of+复数名词/不可数名词+复数谓语 A mass of +复数名词/不可数名词+单数谓语 masses of +复数名词/不可数名词+复数谓语 Many a/ more than one +单数名词+单数谓语 活学活用-----用 have 的正确形式填空 （1）A large number of students have a great amount of homework that has to be done at home, so large quantities of housework have been left undone. （2） We have ___English books but we don’t have time to read. A. a great many B. a good deal C. a great deal of D. a great many of （3）______ food are needed. Which of the following is wrong?
A. Quantities of B. Masses of C. Large amounts of D. Lots of 10.apply for (a job /post /passport /visa /scholarship )申请工作/职位/护照/签证/奖学金 拓展：apply sth to 1.涂,敷;将...铺在表面[(+to)] The nurse applied the ointment to the wound.护士把药膏敷到伤口上。 2.应用;实施[(+to)] We should apply both theories to the language classroom.我们应把两种理论都运用到语言教室中去。 3.使起作用;用上--，适合[(+to)] You can't apply the rule to every case.这条规则并不是在每种情况下都能适用的。 What you said doesn't apply to me .你所说的并不适合我。 4.(后常接 oneself)使致力(于),使专心从事[(+to)] He applied himself to learning French.他致力于学习法语。 11.句子 1.California is the third largest state in the USA but has the largest population. (1)the third largest state 是序数词修饰最高级，意为“第三大 ” 形容词或副词的最高级前可加序数词，表示第几长/大/快----如: The Yellow River is the second longest river （第二长的河）in China. He ran the third fastest （第三快）in the race. (2)当最高级前有物主代词，或名词所有格时，最高级前不加定冠词 the 如：Friday is my busiest day. Do you know what is____river? a.Africa's second longest b. The Africa second longest C.the second Africa's longest d.Africa's the second longest 2.It also has the distinction of being the most multicultural state in the USA,having attracted people from all over the world.(做结果状语) (1)A small plane crashed into a hillside five miles east of the city,killing all four people on board . 机上四人受害(kill) (2)European football is played in more than 80 countries, making it one of the most popular games in the world. (NMET1998全国卷)(使它是世界最受欢迎的比赛之一)(make) (3) The child fell, striking his head against the door .(头撞在门上)（strike） 3.Exactly when the first people arrived in what we know as California, (宾语从句)no one really knows. =the place that we know as California， （定语从句)----------------------(1)Pay attention to what the teacher said .注意老师所说的。(what) (2)He was deeply displeased by what had occurred that day 他对那天发生的事感到很不快 (displeased, what) (3)Your success will largely depend upon what you do and how you do it .(你做什么和怎样做) Eg: Geroge washington was born in____is now the state of Virgina. A.where B.which C.what D.that (此四项供下两题用) (1)Pudong development zone is no longer rural area__that _it used to be. (2)Pudong development zone is no longer what it used to be 4.however it is likely that Native Americans were in California at least fifteen thousands years ago. (1)本句中 it 为形式主语，真正的主语从句是 that 引导的主语从句。 (2)likely 很有可能 常见搭配有： It's likely that--------=it's possible/probable that-------- 可能-----It's likely for sb to do sth 某人可能做某事 Sb/sth be likely to do sth 某人/某物可能--------Eg: studies show that people are more___to suffer back problems if they always sit before computers screens for long hours. A. likely B.possible C.probable D.sure
5.Of the first Spanish to go to California, the majority were religious men,whose ministry was to teach the Catholic religious to the natives. to go to California-(不定式做后置定语) 不定式做后置定语常见用法有： （1）不定式表将来的动作 （2）修饰序数词，the last,最高级，the only 等，或被这些词限定的名词。 （3）修饰抽象名词 ability,chance,idea,opportunity,way reason,time，wish,decision 等 （4）不定式与其所修饰的名词可能是动宾关系;不及物动词构成的不定式做定语，要加上适当的介词和被 修饰的名词形成逻辑上的动宾关系. Eg.(1)The train to arrive (将要来的火车)was from London． (2)She was the first boy to be caught cheating (被抓住作弊)in the exam (3)The way he thought of to solve the problem (解决这个问题) is effective. (4)She has a lot of work to do (有很多工作要做) in the morning． (5)I need a pen to write with ．我需要一支笔写字 6.Although Chinese immigrant began to arrive during the Gold Rush Period,it was the building of the rail network from the west to the east coast that brought even larger number to California in the 1860s. 强调句型的结构： 基本结构：it is/was +强调成分+that/who+其他 特殊疑问式：特殊疑问词+is/was it +that +其他 not until 强调句型：it +is/was+not until-----+that +其他 Eg:(1)It was last night that （就是昨天晚上）I saw a girl with long hair in white.(it) (2)How was it that (是怎样)the pig knocked into the wall.(it) (3)It was not until we had stayed for weeks （就是我们才呆了几个星期） that I found that she turned out to be a thief.（it） 7. It is believed that-------It is said that------------It is supposed that------It is hoped that----------It is reported that--------It is suggested that------It is believed that the thief or thieves entered the house through the front door. It is said by the Bible that Adam is the very first human being in the world. It is suggested that the meeting ( should ) be put off. 8.When he reached the North Pole,he found nothing exciting except for a sign marking the spot,--Your writing is good except for a few grammar mistakes. 易混淆词 辨析 例句 except/but 表示“除了--之外”除去的部分不包括在内，两 (1)No one knows our teacher's 者能互换，但在 no, all, nothing, no one 等后面 address but Jim. 多用 but 另 except,还可跟介词,也可跟从句 (2)Mr Green usually goes to work by bus when it rains. besides "除--之外还有--"除去的部分包括在内 Besides hot dogs,he likes pork. except for "除了--之外"表示整体肯定，部分修正，用于排 The room is empty except for 除非同类的事物，for 表示细节的修正 a broken chair. No one knew Mr Beson's address ____his daughter. A. except B. excepts C. only D. besides 2. Do you know any other foreign language ______ English? A. except B. but C. beside D. besides 3. I know nothing about the young lady ________ she is from Beijing. A. except B. except for C. except that D. besides 4. Sandy could do nothing but ________ to his teacher that he was wrong.
D. to admit