英语的名词分为专有名词和普通名词两大类。 1．专有名词是指个人、团体、地方、机构或事物等所专有的名称，它的第一个字母必须大写。 如：Einstain, Beijin
g, Asia 等。 2．普通名词是指一类人、一类事物、某种物质抽象概念的名称，可分为： 个体名词（可数，如：worker, father, book, tree, school 等） ； 集体名词（可数，如：people, family, class, team 等） ； 物质名词（不可数，如：iron, paper, snow, water, chalk, gold 等） ； 抽象名词（不可数，如：life, thought, idea, strength 等） 。 注意：可数、不可数是英文名词和中文名词的一个重要差异——即学习的重点。而很多英 语名词具有双重性。即，名词的类别不是固定不变的，它们会根据词义的变化和场合的不同而 相互转换，其名词类别的转换可归纳如下： 1、个体名词转抽象名词或抽象名词转个体名词 e.g. Our school is not far from my home.（个体）我们学校离我家不远。 School is over at six.（抽象）六点钟放学。 2、物质名词转个体名词或个体名词转物质名词 e.g. He broke a piece of glass.（物质）他打破了一块玻璃。 He broke a glass.（个体）他打破了一个杯子。 3、个体名词转专有名词 e.g. His father is a teacher.（个体）他父亲是个教师。 “What are you doing there?” Father asked.（专有） “你在那儿干什么？”父亲问道。
名词分为可数（有单、复数形式）和不可数名词（只有单数形式） 。 1、可数名词单数变复数： ① 一般加 s ：lesson → lessons, pen → pens ② 以 s, x, ss, ch, sh, o 结尾的加 es ：buses, boxes, classes, watches, brushes, hero → heroes 但有些以 o 结尾的名词，是加 s 构成复数：kilo → kilos, piano → pianos, radio → radios, photo → photos, zoo → zoos ③ 以辅音字母 + y 结尾的改 y 为 i，再加 es ：city → cities, story → stories ④ 以 f 或 fe 结尾的，一般将 f 或 fe 改为 v，再加 es ：knife → knives, leaf → leaves 但有些以 f 结尾的名词，是在 f 后加 s，构成复数形式：belief → beliefs, roof → roofs, safe （保险箱）→ safes, proof（证据）→ proofs, chief → chiefs, handkerchief → handkerchiefs 2、有些名词，不按上述规则构成其复数形式，有以下几种情况： ① 单复数形式相同：Chinese, Japanese, deer, sheep ② 不规则变化：man → men, woman → women, goose → geese, foot → feet, tooth → teeth, child → children, mouse → mice, ox → oxen 。但是，German → Germans ③ 复合名词的复数形式： editor-in-chief → editors-in-chief, daughter-in-law → daughters-in-law, grown-up → grown-ups, woman teacher → women teachers, man driver → men drivers
3、注意以下几个名词单复数问题 ① 物质名词一般不用复数形式,但有些物质名词要用复数形式来表示不同的类别,如：fishes 各种鱼，fruits 各种水果，steels 各种钢材。 ② 物质名词表示数量时， 一般用表示数量的短语来表示。 如： a cup of tea, three bags of apples, four pieces of bread。 ③ 有些抽象名词的复数形式表示不同的含义。如：work（工作）→ works（著作） ，arm（手 臂）→ arms（军火） ，glass（玻璃）→ glasses（眼镜） ，cloth（布）→ clothes（衣服） 。 ④ 定冠词加上姓氏的复数形式，表示全家人或夫妇二人；姓氏的复数形式前不加冠词，则 表示若干个姓…的人。如：the Wangs 王家，three Wangs 三个姓王的。 ⑤ 只用作单数的复数形式的名词。如：physics, mathematics, news, the United States ⑥ 有些名词形似单数，但实为复数。如：police, people, cattle ⑦ 有些名词如被看作整体时就作单数用，如被看作组成该集体的各个成员时就作复数用。 如：class, family, couple, audience, government, public ⑧ 有些抽象名词在具体化时，可以复数形式出现。 表示特指时，可和定冠词连用；表示“某 种”或“一次”意义时，可和不定冠词连用。如：How did you smooth away the difficulties?（指 各种具体困难） ；It is a great pleasure to talk with you.；What a surprise!
名词的所有格在句中表示所有关系，作定语用。 1、 有生命名词的所有格一般在词尾加上 “’” 或 “’s” 。 如： Tom’s bike, Engles’s (Engles’) works, a works’ school, Women’s Day, the editor-in-chief’s office 2、如果一个事物为两个人所有，只在后一个名词的词尾加“’s” ，如果不是共有，就要在两 个名词的词尾都加上 “’s” 。 如： Tom and Mike’s room. （共有） ， Tom’s and Mike’s books. （不共有） 。 3、表示时间、距离、国家、城市的无生命名词，可以在词尾加“’s”或“’”表示所有格， 如：today’s papers, ten minutes’ walk 4、表示店铺或某人的家时，常在名词所有格之后省去 shop, house, home。如：the tailor’s 5、无生命名词的所在格通常用 of 短语来表示。如：the window of the room 6、 表示有生命的名词有时也可用 of 短语来表示所有关系， 而且当该名词带有较长的定语时。 如：the teachers of the No. 1 Middle School. 7、双重所有格结构前的被修饰名词通常指整体中的部分或一个，双重所有格只能用于有生 命的名词，这个名词是确定的。被修饰名词前有不定冠词、指示代词、疑问代词、不定代词或数 词等限定词时，一般只能用双重所有格。如：an old friend of my uncle’s, a daughter of Mrs Green’s, the house of one of my friends
表材料、地点、用途、性质、泛指时间、整体等普通名词可以作定语，一般用单数形式。 e.g. stone figures（石像） ；paper money（纸币） ；country music（乡村音乐） ；table cloth（桌 布） ； river bank （河岸） ； school gate （校门口） ； book stores （书店） ； traffic lights （交通灯） ； summer holidays（暑假） ；evening dress（晚礼服） 。 但在个别情况下，也有需用复数的。 e.g. sports meet（运动会） ；the United States government（美国政府） ；students reading-room （学生阅览室） ；goods train（货车） ；two men doctors（两个男医生） 。
(五） 关于特殊名词的具体考点如下： 1．容易误用为复数的不可数名词：(这些名词一般不能用作复数，谓语动词用单数) advice 建议，忠告 living 生活，生计 equipment 装备，设备 progress 前进，发展 furniture 家具，设备 scenery 风景，景色 information 通知；信息 machinery 机器，机械 knowledge 知识，学问 traffic 交通流量 baggage / luggage 行李，皮箱 trouble 烦恼，麻烦 cash 现金 thunder 雷声，轰隆声 apparatus 仪器 weather 天气，处境 clothing 衣服 work 工作，劳动 paper 纸，钞票 luck 运气，幸运 technology 工艺，技术 jewelry 珠宝 2． 复数形式的名词用于单数概念，其谓语动词用单数。(这些名词一般为表示学科或 疾病的名词) economics 经济学 measles 麻疹 physics 物理学 mumps 腮腺炎 mathematics 数学 rickets 软骨病，佝偻病 dynamics 动力学 news 新闻 The United States 美国 The New York Times 纽约时报 三、主谓一致关系
英语中，主语和谓语在数、性和格上应该保持一致，但在实际应用中很容易被忽视，尤 其是主语和谓语之间出现插入语，故考试中经常考到主谓一致。除了以上特殊名词谓语有特 殊要求外，现将主谓一致的考点归纳如下： 1． 复数原则：两个或者两个以上的名词由 and 连接作主语时；主语由 both ? and ? 连接 时，谓语动词用复数。 Baseball and swimming are usually summer sports. Both bread and butter are sold in that grocery. 那个杂货店既卖面包，也卖黄油。 2． 就近原则： 由 either ? or ? ; neither ? nor ?; not only?but also?; ?or ?； there be ?等引导的主语， 谓语动词的单复数取决于最靠近动词的名 词的单复数。 Not only the students but also their teacher is invited to attend the party. 3． 就远原则：主语，＋ as well as +另一个主语，谓语动词的单复数取决于第一个 主语的名词的单复数。 My mother, as well as my two brothers, has a key to the office. 我母亲，还有我的两个哥哥都有一把办公室的钥匙。 同例：with?; together with?; along with?; including?; in addition to?; besides ?; except?; as much as?; accompanied by ?; rather than?等等 4． 表示时间、距离、价值、量度的复数名词作主语时谓语动词用单数。 One hundred dollars is a large sum for the poor . Twenty days have passed since I met her last time. 自从我上次见到她到现在已经过去二十天。 ( twenty days 这里不作整体看待， 故谓 语动词用复数。)
1. [14 江苏]27. She was put under house arrest two years ago but remained a powerful ________ in last year’s election. A. symbol B. portrait C. identity D. statue 2. [14 安徽]29． — Why not buy a second-hand car first if you don't have enough money for a new one? — That's a good . A. saying B. question C. suggestion D. account 3. [14 福建]26. —Could you tell me the____ of making such tasty cakes? — Well, I just follow the directions in the cookbook. A. feature B. plan C. cost D. trick 4. [14 湖北] 21. Her ______ for writing was a desire for women to get the right to higher
education. A. motivation B. qualification C. talent D. technique 5. [14 湖北]22. When Richard said, “You are much more agreeable and prettier now,” Joan’s face turned red at the unexpected ______. A. command B. comparison C. compliment D. contribution
6. [浙江卷]6.We most prefer to say yes to the ______ of someone we know and like. A. attempts B. requests C. doubts D. promises 7. [14 湖南]32. All we need a small piece of land where we can plant various kinds of fruit trees throughout the growing seasons of the year. A.are B. was C. is D. were 8. [14 天津]3. Wind is now the world’s fastest growing ________ of power. A. source B. sense C. result D. root
【2013 湖北】21. Poetry written from the ______ of the urban youth tends to reveal their anxiety over a lack of sense of belonging. A. perspective B. priority C. participation D. privilege 【2013 湖北】22. Carbon dioxide, which makes a ______ between us and the sun, prevents heat from getting out of the atmosphere easily, so the earth is becoming warmer. A. difference B. comparison C. connection D. barrier 【2013 湖北】30. An artist who was recently traveling on a ferry to the southern island discovered ______ a long lost antique Greek vase. A. at random B. by chance C. in turn D. on occasion
【2013 江苏】33. With inspiration from other food cultures, American food culture can take a for the better. A. share B. chance C. turn D. lead 【2013 江西】22. Whenever I made mistakes, the teacher pointed them out with ______. A. curiosity B. satisfaction C. envy D. patience 【2013 辽宁】23. The accident caused some______ to my car, but it’s nothing serious.
A. harm B. injury C. ruin D. damage 【2013 天津】7. While she was in Paris, she developed a for fine art. A. way B. relation C. taste D. habit 【2013 浙江】4. As the world’s population continues to grow, the ______ of food becomes more and more of a concern. A. worth B. supply C. package D. list 【2013 福建】23. The famous musician, as well as his students, _______ to perform at the opening ceremony of the 2012 Taipei Flower Expo. A. were invited B. was invited C. have been invited D. has been invited 【2013 湖南】33. The university estimates that living expenses for international students ________ around $8,450 a year, which ________ a burden for some of them. A. are；is B. are；are C. is；are D. is；is 【 2013 江 苏 】 21. Generally, students’ inner motivation with high expectations from others _________ essential to their development. A. is B. are C. was D. were 【2012 全国卷 II】1. The Harry Potter books are quite popular; they are in great ___ in this city. A. quality B. progress C. production D. demand 【2012 湖北】 2. The furniture, with its modem style and bright colors, suits modem houses and their gardens, but looks in the garden of a traditional home. A. out of question B. out of order C. out of sight D. out of place 【2012 湖北】3. It is important to have your eyes examined regularly to check for any sign of eye disease that may not have any A. symptom B. similarity C. sample D. shadow 【2012 湖北】4.. The officer insisted that Michael did not follow the correct in applying for a visa. A. pattern B. procedure C. program D. perspective 【2012 福建】5. –Why do you choose to work in an international travel agency? -- Well, you know, English is my _______. So it is my best choice. A. strength B. talent C. ability D. skill 【2012 福建】6. China has been pushing the reform of public hospitals ______ all its citizens. A. in charge of B. for the purpose of C. in honor of D. for the benefit of 【2012 山东】7. My first ____ of him was that he was a kind and thoughtful young man. A. expression B. attention C. satisfaction D. impression 【2012 天津】8. You are working too hard. You’d better keep a ____ between work and relaxation. A. promise B. lead C. balance D. diary 【2012 江西 9. You’d better write down the phone number of that restaurant for future
_____. A. purpose
【2012 四川】10. He will come to understand your efforts sooner or later. It’s just a matter of _____. A. luck B. value C. time D. fact
【2012 浙江】11. Your ____ as a student will be excellent if you develop a habit of reflecting on how you learn. A. operation B. growth C. performance D. character 【2012 江苏】12— Can I help you with it? — I appreciate your ______, but I can manage it myself. A. advice B. question C. offer D. idea 【2012 江苏】13. —Thank God you’re safe! — I stepped back, just ______ to avoid the racing car. A. in time B. in case C. in need D. in vain 14.（2011 山东）There’s a _____ in our office that when it’s somebody’s birthday, they bring in a cake for us all to share. A. tradition B. balance C. concern D. relationship 15.（2011 江苏 27）Teachers have to constantly update their knowledge in order to maintain their professional . A. consequence B. independence C. competence D. intelligence 16. （2011 四川 13） Always remember put such dangerous things as knives out of children’s . A. touch B. sight C. reach D. distance 17.（2011 湖北 21） “Tommy, run! Be quick! The house is on fire!” the mother shouted, with______ clearly in her voice. A . anger B. rudeness C. regret D. panic 18.（2011 湖北 22）Giving up my job to go back to full-time education was a big________, but now I know it was the best decision I ever made. A. project B. commitment C. competition D. ambition 19.（2011 福建 26）The lack of eco-friendly habits among the public is thought to be a major ________of global climate change. A. result B. cause C. warning D. reflection 20. (2011 江西 31) What’s the_____, in your opinion, of helping him if he doesn’t make an effort to help himself? A. sympathy B. theme C. object D. point 21. （2011 浙江 18） Anyway, I can't cheat him－it's against all my________. A. emotions B. principles C. regulations D. Opinions （10 安徽） 22. I haven’t seen Sara since she was a little girl, and she has changed beyond_______
（10 江西） 23 Last year the number of students who graduated with a driving license reached 200,000, a (n) ______ of 40,000 per year. A average B number C amount D quantity
（10 山东）24. Those who suffer from headache will find they get ______ from this medicine. A. relief B. safety C. defense D. shelter for the television.
（10 天津）25. James took the magazines off the little table to make A. room B. area C. field D. position
（10 江苏） 26. The doctor is skilled at treating heart trouble and never accepts any gift from his patients, so he has a very good_____. A. expectation B. reputation C. contribution D. civilization of foods that suit all tastes and
（湖北）27. This restaurant has become popular for its wide pockets. A. division B. area C. range D. circle
28. After the earthquake, the first thing the local government did was to provide homeless families. A. accommodation B. occupation C. equipment D. furniture.
29. ________(不会用)a computer makes it more difficult for him to do his academic research. (use) （10 浙江）30. The school advisers help you talk through your problem but they don’t give you any direct ______. A. solution B. target C. measure D. Function
2013 ADBCD DCBBA A 1--5DDABA6--10DDCBC11-15CCANot being able to use/Being ubable to use/Not being capable of using/Being incapable of usingA16-20CAAAB21-25CDACC26-30DBBDB 各地模拟试题 1.----Eric almost always wins the science_______. -----That`s because his projects are extremely well presented. A price B award C praise D reward
2.---I hope the arrangements meet with your_____.-----Yes.I`m quite satisfied. A conflict B prejudice C approval D dilemma 3.My grandmother always said you should sweat to reduce the_____when you have the flu. A medicine B illness C fever D pressure 4.In the botanical garden we can find a(an)_____of plants that range from tall trees to small flowers. A species B groups C amount D. variety 5.The government has agreed to get rid of______on press freedom A directions B restrictions C introductions D congratulations 6.Chinese arts have won the ______of a lot of people outside China. A enjoyment B appreciation C entertainment D reputation 7.Haier Company produced a new type of refrigerator of high quality and pretty appearance;only_____is that it takes up too much room. A advantage B drawback C profit D mistake 8.Cloning human beings is a _______topic with some considering it a scientific development while others strongly against it. A conventional B controversial C contradictory D concrete 9.The theory is based on a series of wrong ________,so it can`t be put into practice. A assumptions B objections C regulations D comments 10.He could not have succeeded without the ____of his wife. A management B construction C invitation D support 11.At the _____of the lecture ,I always asked the children if they had any questions they wanted to ask me. A conclusion B challenge C exhibition D reservation 12 As a magician,his _____spread all over the world ,making him more popular. A character B reputation C direction D relationship 13.The health department can play a central role in leading a major_____to prevention of air pollution. A method B way C means D approach 14.More and more schools are carrying out some reforms of the present educational system to provide students with fair _______to education. A access B manner C means D approach 15.Simple______for fitting the model together are printed on the box. A information B introduction C directions D explanations 16.A beekeeper has a ______to motivate the bees by leaving some honey in the hive--not so much in case that bees stop working . A trick B tool C talent D desire 17.If he takes on the project,he will face the greatest _______of his career. A ceremony B challenge C phenomenon D achievement 18.We all consider it a best ______to solving the problem. A access B method C means D approach
19.---Would you like this gold necklace ,Madam? ------It`s beautiful ,but out of my price______. A control B reach C aim D range 20.Julie went through a period of emotional______after she failed in that important examination. She feels better now. A occupation B adjustment C negotiation D commitment 21.A good way to break the ______of eating too quickly is to put your knife and fork down after each mouthful. A tradition B convenience C habit D leisure 22.Experts present at the meeting raised a(an)_____to the project,saying that it would cost too much. A objection B barrier C introduction D contribution 23.You`ve put forward a wonderful plan ,Amy, but we have to get _______from the manager before we carry it out . A .ambition B approval C sympathy D dignity 24.Just now my mother went to the supermarket and bought_______. A three dozen egg B three dozens eggs C three dozens of eggs D three dozen eggs 25.Few of us may have the _____to queue long for something free ,even if we are free. A time B patience C chance D pleasure 26.Beck is an honest businessman. Our company and his had a lot of _____in the past five years. A deals B disagreement C rewards D sales 27.To my _______,my son ,though poor in maths,passed the exam after a long time of hard work. A astonishment B relief C disappointment D sorrow 28.He was faced with the______of whether or not to return to his country after he got the doctor`s degree in American. A situation B evironment C circumstance D dilemma 29.The boy looked at his Christmas gift with an_______of satisfaction. A expection B imagination C expression D appreciation 30.The children who are addicted to playing computer games are all driven by___at first. A curiosity B benefit C surprise D satisfaction 31.In Scandinavian countries it is common_____for the husband to stay at home to look after the baby. A use B practice C sence D idea 32.---Hello ,Jack .Tracy here .It`s about our_____on Sunday morning .I`m afraid I can`t make it now. ----That`s OK ,but you need to find another date. A admission B application C agreement D appointment 33.He became the ______of criticism by the readers for his newly-published book. A target B theme C fortune D figure 34.With international_______and education exchanges increasing every year,the nomber of Chinese Students studying abroad has increased rapidly. A cooperation B competition C construction D conflict
35.Aithough the average reader spends more than 4,000 pounds on books in their lifetime,55percent Say they buy them for decoration and have no _____of reading them. A advantage B attempt C evidence D intention 36.I was impressed by Leonard`s confidence and certainty over against his brother`s weakness and_______. A courage B strength C violence D hesitation 37.---Are you still willing to lend money to your roommate? ----Yes ,I have always held the_____that he is an honest fellow. A custom B truth C fact D belief 38.Plenty of____-has been paid by the government to safety issures of the children on school buses. A concentration B attention C influence D attraction 39.---Do you give _____to what John said ? -----No ,I don`t .He always telling lies. A comfort B way C credit D access 40.Some fruits are so easily harvested in this area that they are never of great_____. A fare B benefit C help D worth 41.Nowadays more and more people regard traveling as part of their life ,and Chinese transport has been strengthened for the holiday travel______. A agent B diploma C dilemma D boom 42.Some students think they enjoy reading because of interest ,but others argue that a better score is their main_______. A recognition B attaction C occupation D mativation 43.A complete______of information added to the difficulty in finishing the project on time. A collection B absence C expense D effect 44.---I think this house is overcharged. -----Don`t you think it worthwhile? It is with good _____to the downtown A neighbour B entrance C access D place 45.Usually a child`s behavior is a _____of his family environment. A recognition B reflection C return D record 46.---What impressed you most during your stay in Britain? ----I had the____of meeting the Queen when she visited our school. A treaty B privilege C inspiration D exploration 47.It`s reported that many wars broke out in the Middle East.What`s your_____of the situation there? A allowance B appointment C assessment D adjustment 48.With no rain for three months and the food supplies running out ,the ____here is getting worse. A case B condition C state D situation 49.Working hard is not a _____of great success ,but it is among the essential requirements. A sign B signal C guarantee D mark 50 I came round in hospital and didn`t know where I was .Everything was a______.
A blank B silence C break D shock 51.If I buy more than one ,will you give me a ______? A discount B change C bargain D compromise 52.Rose is Mr Smith`s secretary, so she has_____to all his business e-mails. A power B account C way D access 53.---I really admire the people full of _____,I`m always tired. ----You`d better take more exercise. A power B strength C force D energy 54.Have you heard the traffic______that happened in Yatai Street last week? A accident B affair C incident D event 55.Shelly had prepared carefully for her biology examination so that she could be sure of passing it at her first_______. A intention B effort C attempt D sight 56.---These days ,he has stayed up late into night in order to get good marks in the follwing monthly test . -----It`s no _____that he seems tired and asleep in class every day. A wonder B problem C doubt D question 57.In order to protect the environment,people are greatly encouraged to travel by public_____. A transport B service C means D transfer 58.The rise in consumer spending is an encouraging_____that the economy may be recovering. A symptom B solution C subject D sign 59.I sent a big bunch of flowers to the nurse as an _____of thanks for her taking good care of my grandpa in the nursing home. A attitude B impression C appreciation D expression 60.As a student volunteer ,he enjoyed his ____of work in the program to help the disabled. A share B profession C activity D intention 61.Lack of _____of culture difference to local customs can cause problems. A existence B revolution C awareness D evidence 62.---Everybody knows smoking is harmful to heath,but still so many people smoke. ----Exactly ! So our country is planning to start a _____against smoking. A war B campaign C motion D struggle 63.The TV series of Gong became popular and the theme song Love the feed sung by Yang Mi was a______at once and loved by young people. A shock B strike C hit D beat 64.I have to reschedule the appointment with you since there is a _____in my arrangement. A contract B contrast C connection D conflict 65.Two of my friends are having their weddings on the same day ,and I`m in a real____about which one to go to . A situation B choice C trick D dilemma 66.It is a good idea to make a brief_____of the main points of your speech to get yourself across to
the audience.. A comment B summary C guide D framewwork 67.China ,in company with other peace--loving countries ,has consistently stood for the complete___of the use of nuclear weapons. A declaration B inspiration C prohibition D recognition 1-5BCCDB6-10DBBAD11-15ABDAC16-20ABDDB21-25CABDB26-30ABDCA31-35BDAAD 36-40DDBCD41-45DDBCB46-50BCDCA51-55ADDAC56-60AADDA61-65CBCDD66-67BC Made by Mr Qiao May 27th 2014