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语法讲解:过去分词作定语和表语


Grammar
past participle used as the attribute & the predicative

Grammar

Task one
Look at the following story and find the usage of past participle (“-ed”)



Story
? A boy called Tom went to the cinema one night. It was a horror film, but he was interested in it. Sometimes he felt excited, sometimes he felt frightened. After the film, the tired boy came back home. Once home, the exhausted boy…

Key points
? “-ed” can be used as ________ attribute and be put before or after the noun that it modifies. eg. tired/exhausted/excited boy a boy called Tom ? “–ed” can also be put after the linkverbs (be, feel, become, get, seem…) predicative . and used as __________ eg. be interested in feel excited/frightened

一、过去分词作定语 1、单个的过去分词作定语时一般兼有被动和完成 的意义。

eg:a lost animal a used stamp an injured finger a broken coin a lighted candle

一只迷路的动物
一枚用过的邮票

一个受伤的手指
一枚破损的硬币

一支点燃的蜡烛

注意:过去分词作定语时,有时只有被动意义。

e.g.:spoken English

written exercises fallen leaves the risen sun a returned student a retired teacher an escaped prisoner 犯

英语口语 书面练习
落叶 升起来的太阳 一名留学生 一名退休教师 一名逃跑的囚

少数表示位移或状态改变的不及物动词的过去分词 只有完成的意义

2 、过去分词作后置定语,表示被动和/或完 成意义。 e.g. : How I regretted the hours wasted in the woods! 我多懊悔在树林浪费的时光啊! I like wearing clothes made of this kind of cloth. 我喜欢穿这种布料做的衣服。 e.g.:The books written by Lu Xun are popular. 鲁迅写的书很受欢迎 We’ll go to visit the bridge built hundreds of years ago. 我们要去看那座建于几百年前的桥。

想一想
? 什么时候用前置定语? ? 什么时候用后置定语?

单个的过去分词作定语一般放在被修饰的 名词前
过去分词短语作定语要放在被修饰的名词 后面

Task two

Please find more examples in the reading passage of each usage.

Attribute
? So many thousands of terrified people died … ? …soon the affected person died. ? He immediately told the astonished people in Broad Street … ? …that polluted water carried the virus. ? …help ordinary people exposed to cholera. ? He found that it came from the river polluted by the dirty water from London.

Predicative
? But he became inspired when he thought about help ordinary people exposed to cholera. ? He became interested in two theories that possibly explained how cholera killed people. ? He was determined to find out why.

一、过去分词作定语
3. 过去分词可作非限制性定语,相当于省略 式的定语从句。 e.g ① The books, (which were) written by Lu Xun, were very popular. ② The bridge, (which was) built in 1999, is very beautiful.

3) The question discussed was very important. = The question which had been discussed ________________________ was very important.

二、过去分词作表语 1 、过去分词作表语,表示主语的特点或所处 的状态,其前的系动词有包括 be在内的多种 形式。 e.g. : Everyone present is very inspired at his speech. 听了他的发言,在场的所有人都很振奋。 You seem frightened. 你似乎受了惊吓。

系动词
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? appear, be, become, feel, get, grow, look, prove, Remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn

2、过去分词作表语,构成的系表结构与 被动语态的区别: 过去分词作表语,强调特点或状态; 而被动语态中,强调动作。 e.g.:The book is well written. 这本书写的很好。(状态) This book was written by a soldier. 这本书是一位战士写的。(动作)

Practice: Complete the sentences using the past participle as the predicative. 1. 丢了钱他自责不已。 got blamed He ______________ about losing the money.

2、你为什么总是看上去很疲劳?这些日子睡得 好吗? look so tired Why do you always _____________ ? Do you sleep well these days?

3.我对昨晚看的电影很失望。我原以为它能 好些。 was disappointed with the film I saw I _____________________ last night, I had expected it to be better.

4. 听 说 那 位 明 星 死 了 , 人 人 都 很 惊 讶 。 Everybody was ____________to hear the shocked death of the famous film star.

5.要去动物园了,孩子们非常兴奋。 The children are really excited about ______________________ going to the zoo. 6.他的伤口感染了一种新病毒. became/was infected with His wound ______________________ a new virus.

现在分词和过去分词作定语的区别
? 现在分词:主动,正在进行 ? 过去分词:被动和/或完成

There are 220 children studying in the art school.
The experience gained will be of great value to us.

现在分词和过去分词作表语的区别
? V-ing 形式表示“令人……的” ? V-ed 形式表示“某人感到……的”

The story is interesting.
I am interested in the story.

Homework
一、语法专练

二、课时作业(三)
第一题


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