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高中英语外研版必修四module2grammar


Period 3
Module 2 Traffic Jam

Grammar Imperatives
(祈使句)

What do they mean?

No smoking!

Parking!

Don’t drink!

Atten

tion!

Grammar-1. Look & Say Look at the signs and say what they do.

Don’t go Don’t walk. / Turn right. faster No than 90 pedestrians. kph.

They give instructions

Don’t Don’t stop. turn left. / No / No left parking turn.

一.祈使句的定义

定义: 用于表达命令、请求、劝告、警告、
禁止等的句子叫做祈使句。

Look at the following sentences:

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Go and wash your hands. (去洗手。——命令) Be quiet, please.(请安静。——请求) Be kind to our sister. (对姊妹要和善。——劝告) Look out!Danger!(小心!危险!—警告) Keep off the grass. (勿践草坪。——禁止)

Can you tell me what are imperatives?

主语 祈使句无_____,主语you常______; 省去
感叹号 降调 朗读应当用______,句末常标______。

原形 Don’t 动词_____谓语当,句首加_____变否定;

Are the following sentences imperative? (discuss in pairs)
He is always sleeping in the class. (×) It’s a beautiful day, isn’t it?

(× )

Tell me your name, please? (√)

Will he come tonight? (×) (√) Mary, come here!

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二.祈使句的结构

1. Observation What’re the features of imperative?
Listen to me carefully.
Come in and sit down, please. Don’t close the window – it’s hot. Be quiet! Be a good boy! Let’s try our best to improve our environment.

2. Conclusion
◆ 肯定结构:
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Do 型 (以行为动词开头) Stand up! Don’t stand up! / Never stand up! Be 型 (以be动词开头) Be careful. Don’t be late./ Never be late. Let型 (以let开头) Let him in.

Let me help you.

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◆ 否定结构: ① Do型和Be型的否定式都是在句首加don’t构成。 如:不要忘记我! Don’t forget me! ② Let型的否定式有两种:―Don’t + let + 宾语 + 动词原形 + 其它成分”和“Let + 宾语 + not + 动 词原形 + 其它成分”。如:别让他走。 Don’t let him go. / Let him not go. ③ 有些可用no开头, 用来表示禁止性的祈使句。 如:禁止吸烟!禁止钓鱼! No smoking! No fishing!

用祈使句完成下列句子。
go, keep, look, ride, stop, stay, watch out Go 1. _____ on the pavement (人行道). Ride 2. _____ in the bicycle lanes. 3. Stop at red traffic lights. ______ 4. ______ the rules of the road. Keep

go, keep, look, ride, stop, stay, watch out

5.Watch out for pedestrians (行人). _________ Look 6. ______ behind you before you turn right or left. Don’t stay 7. __________ in the middle of the road.

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三.祈使句的礼貌表达

Discuss in pairs:
Do you know how to make imperatives

more polite?

1. Observation Do you know how to make imperatives more polite?

Open the window, please. Will you go fishing with me this afternoon? Would you do me a favor? Could you show me how to get to the railway station? Hand the dictionary to me, will you? Let’s go out for a walk, shall we? Why don’t you get something to drink? I suggest we (should) take the train.

2. Summary
Will you / Would you / Could you + do…? ? ...(句末), please? ? …(句末), will you / shall we? ? Why not do …? ? Why don’t you do …? ? You’d better do ... ? Suppose / Supposing … ? I suggest …
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四.祈使句中应注意的 几个问题

What is different now?
Do be patient! Do sit down. Do write back when you receive his letter.

Tom, you clean the room.
Don’t you be late again next time!

1. 加强祈使句语气的方式:

Do / you+动词原形

2.祈使句(,) +and / or+ 简单句
是一种固定句式。
此句型为“条件与结果”并存的句式,其 中的祈使句可转化为if条件句。 e.g. Work hard and you will succeed. = If you work hard, you will succeed. Hurry up, or you will miss the last bus. = If you don’t hurry up, you will miss the last bus.

这一句式也可以演变为“名词 性短语+and+简单句”的形式。
More time, and I could have done it better. 如果多给我一些时间,我可以做得更好。

3.祈使句的附加疑问句
Open the door, will you?/(won’t you) ___________________? Open will you Don’t Don’t forget, _________________? Let us go there, ______________? will you Let’s go there at once, __________? shall we

4. 祈使句+附加信息;附加信
息常表示发出祈使动作的原因。

e.g. Put on your coat, please—it’s very cold outside. Turn down the TV set—the baby is asleep in the room.

走近高考:
1. Stand over there ___ you’ll be able to see
it better.

A. or B. while C. but D. and
2. ________ remember to turn off

the lights before you leave the lab. A. Be sure B. Do C. Make sure D. Does

3. Let us pass, _______?

A. shan’t we
C. won’t we A. shall you C. do you

B. shall we
D. will you B. will you D. don’t you

4. Wait a minute, ______?

5. ___ down the radio—the baby’s asleep in the next room. A. Turning B. Turned C. Turn D. To turn 祈使句以动词原形开头。

6 You’d better not smoke here, _______? A. will you B. shall you C. have you D. had you

有had better 的句子构成反意疑问句, 用 had 构成。

7. Don’t forget to phone me, ______? A. do you B. needn’t you C. won’t you D. will you
否定祈使句的反意疑问句用will 构成。

8. Let’s have a cup of tea, ________? A. shall you B. will you C. shall we D. won’t you 以let’s 开头的祈使句用shall we, 以let us开头的祈使句用 will you, 构成反意 疑问句。

9.________, I think, and the problem could be settled. A. If you don’t doubt your efforts

B. As you keep up your spirits
C. Making great efforts

D. A bit more efforts

10. It’s really very dangerous. One
more step, ______the baby will fall into the well. A. or C. and B. so that D. if

Grammar-6. Practice (3ms)
1. --- English has a large vocabulary, hasn’t it? A --- Yes. _______ more words and expressions and you will find it easier to read and communicate. A. Know B. Knowing C. To know D. Known D 2. Stand over there _______ you’ll be able to see it better. A. or B. while C. but D. and 3.---I’ve never seen anyone run so fast. A --- ______ David go. A. just watch B. just to watch C. just watching D. just having watched

Grammar-6. Practice (3ms)
B --- ________ .

4. --- Don't forget to my birthday party tomorrow.

A. Yes , I won’t
C. No , I will A. will you

B. No , I won’t
D. Yes, I will

A 5. Be sure to write to us, ________?

B. aren’t you

C. can you task. A. or

D. mustn’t you B. so that C. and D. if

6. One more week, ______ we will accomplish the C

Grammar-6. Practice
B 7. _____ blood if you can and many lives will be saved. A. Giving B. Give C. Given D. To give A 8. ______ this book and tell me what you think of it. A. Look through B. Look on C. Look into D. Look up D 9. ________it with me and I‘ll see what I can do. A. When left B. Leaving C. If you leave D. Leave

Homework
1. Finish the related exercises on WB. 2. Review the the grammar of this period.


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