Multiple-Choice Questions (1 point for each, 15 points for total)
1. One characteristic common to all behaviorist learning theories is an emphasis on: a
. The importance of rewards b. The effect of the environment on learning c. How one learns by observing the behavior of others d. The importance of every single event in a person’s life 2. Ivan Pavlov conducted a series of studies that led him to propose his theory of classical conditioning. In these studies Pavlov observed how a dog learned to: a. Bark when meat was presented b. Bark when meat was taken away c. Salivate to a simple stimulus such as a light d. Wake up when a bright visual stimulus (such as a light) was presented 3. Which one of the following alternatives describes a conditioned stimulus in classical conditioning? a. A stimulus that follows the conditioned response b. A stimulus that follows the unconditioned response c. A stimulus that begins to elicit a response it has not previously elicited d. A stimulus that elicits a response without any prior learning being necessary 4. Which one of the following responses is most likely to be learned through classical conditioning? a. Feeling anxious around horses b. Taking a walk on a nice day c. Waving to a friend d. Doing homework 5. If we want to apply a classical conditioning view of learning to our teaching behaviors, we should: a. Make sure students know which stimuli they should respond to. b. Reinforce acceptable behaviors and ignore unacceptable ones. c. Reinforce acceptable behaviors and punish unacceptable ones. d. Plan classroom activities that students find enjoyable.
6. Which one of the following statements best describes the phenomenon of generalization in behaviorist learning theories? a. Learning a complex skill is much easier once students have learned other, simpler skills. b. Students sometimes make an inappropriate response in a particular situation even when they have responded correctly in that situation on numerous other occasions. c. Students think that because their classmates are allowed to behave in a particular way, such behavior is acceptable for themselves as well. d. When students learn to respond to a certain stimulus in a particular way, they are likely to respond to similar stimuli in the same way. 7. Which one of the following situations illustrates extinction of a classically conditioned response? a. Alfonso thinks school is a waste of time because he doesn’t learn anything he can use in his own life. b. Brian experiences more and more anxiety about mathematics as his math problems become increasingly challenging. c. Over time Carla becomes less nervous about tests because she finds that she can succeed at them. d. Deirdre doesn’t like keeping her desk clean because she has too much stuff to arrange it all neatly inside. 8. The basic idea underlying instrumental conditioning is that: a. Responses are learned primarily through repetition. b. Responses are affected by the consequences that follow them. c. Learners are more motivated to acquire some behaviors than others. d. Stimulus-response associations, once learned, are permanent. 9. Classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning are two types of learning described by behaviorists. A major difference between them is that: a. Classical conditioning deals almost exclusively with stimuli, whereas instrumental conditioning deals almost exclusively with responses. b. Classical conditioning deals almost exclusively with responses, whereas instrumental conditioning deals almost exclusively with stimuli. c. Classically conditioned responses are voluntary, whereas responses learned through instrumental conditioning are involuntary. d. Classically conditioned responses are involuntary, whereas responses learned through instrumental conditioning are voluntary.
10. Which one of the following is a primary reinforcer? a. A penny b. A hundred dollars c. A glass of water d. Praise 11. In three of the following situations, positive reinforcement is occurring. In which situation is positive reinforcement not occurring? a. Sara begins behaving better in class when Ms. Jones allows her to spend extra time with her friends for exhibiting appropriate behavior. b. Mr. Lewis consistently praises Mark for completing his independent seatwork on time, and Mark’s work habits improve. c. Ms. Villareal scolds Jeremy every time he speaks out of turn, but Jeremy’s speaking out is increasing rather than decreasing. d. Mr. Salazar smiles at Ellen every time she acts appropriately toward her classmates, but Ellen’s social behaviors don’t improve. 12. George enjoys being on the debating team, but he is taken off the team when he inadvertently utters an obscene word during a debate. Being taken off the team is an example of: a. Reinforcement of an incompatible behavior b. Negative reinforcement c. Presentation punishment d. Removal punishment 13. Which one of the following accurately describes the difference between negative reinforcement and punishment? a. Negative reinforcement increases the frequency of behavior, whereas punishment decreases it. b. Both consequences decrease behavior, but punishment is more likely to make students angry and defiant. c. Negative reinforcement always decreases the frequency of behavior, whereas punishment often increases it. d. Negative reinforcement is essentially the same as punishment, but without the negative connotations that punishment has. 14. In Mr. Medeiros’s classroom, students are given play money each time they turn in an assignment; they receive additional amounts of money if the assignment is turned in on time and if it is done correctly. At the end of each week, students can use their play money to purchase special privileges (free time, special privileges, etc.). Mr. Medeiros’s approach can best be characterized as: a. Intermittent reinforcement
b. A group contingency c. A token economy d. A contingency contract 15. Which one of the following statements most accurately describes intermittent reinforcement? a. The reinforcement a student receives becomes stronger over time. b. A particular response is reinforced on some occasions but not on others. c. A primary reinforcer is used at first, but it is gradually replaced by a secondary reinforcer. d. One response is reinforced for a while, then another response is reinforced, then another, and so on, over a period of several weeks or months.
Essay Questions (5 points for each, 15 points for total )
1. Behaviorist theories share a number of common underlying assumptions. Describe three assumptions that behaviorists make and the implication of each one for classroom practice. 2. Edward was accidentally hurt in his physical education class last week when a large boy ran into him and knocked the breath out of him. Edward is now afraid to go to physical education. Explain this situation in terms of classical conditioning, identifying the UCS, UCR, CS, and CR. 3.David is continually fighting with other children. Devise a plan to eliminate the fighting by using a combination of (1) reinforcement of incompatible behavior and (2) punishment. In your discussion, be sure to explain: a. What incompatible behavior(s) you will reinforce b. What reinforcer you will use, and why c. What punishment you will use, and why