Unit 2 Grammar
The -ing form as the Subject and Object
Objective To learn the -ing form as the subject and object.
Look at the following sentences. 1. It’s
no pleasure looking through these any longer … (必修1) 2. How can the runners enjoy competing in winter? (必修2) 3. Leaving the moon's gravity was not as painful as leaving the earth's. (必修3)
Sentences from this unit: 1. Since then, finding ways to grow more rice has been his life goal. 2. As a young man, he saw the great need for increasing the rice output. 3. Dr Yuan searched for a way to increase rice harvests without expanding the area of the fields.
4. He enjoys listening to violin music, playing mah-jong, swimming and reading. 5. Spending money on himself or leading a comfortable life also means very little to him. 6. Just dreaming for things, however, costs nothing. 7. Dr Yuan awoke from his dream with the hope of producing a kind of rice that could feed more people.
1. It’s no pleasure _______ looking through these any longer … 2. How can the runners enjoy competing _________ in winter? 3. _______ Leaving the moon's gravity was not as painful as leaving the earth's. finding ways to grow more 4. Since then, _______ rice has been his life goal. 5. As a young man, he saw the great need for _________ increasing the rice output.
6. Dr Yuan searched for a way to increase expanding the area rice harvests without __________ of the fields. listening to violin music, 7. He enjoys _________ playing swimming and _______. reading _______ mah-jong, _________ leading a 8. Spending ________ money on himself or _______ comfortable life also means very little to him. dreaming for things, however, costs 9. Just __________ nothing. 10. Dr Yuan awoke from his dream with the producing a kind of rice that hope of __________ could feed more people.
1. _____ provides us with essential
nutrients (营养), while ______
provides us with oxygen.
A. To eat; breathing
B. Eating; to breathe
C. Eating; breathing
D. Eaten; breathed
2. Have you forgotten ___ $1000 from me last month? Will you please remember ____ it tomorrow? A. borrowing; to bring
B. to borrow; bring
C. borrowed; bringing
D. borrowing; bringing
3. My brother keeps ____ me with my work. A. to help B. help C. helping D. helped 4. We should often practise ____ English with each other. A. to speak B. spoke C. speak D. speaking
5. The story was so funny that we ___.
A. couldn’t help laugh
B. can’t but laugh
C. couldn’t help laughing
D. couldn’t help but to laugh
6. Though it sounds a bit too dear (昂 贵), it is worth ______. A. being bought B. buying C. to buy D. buying it 7. He devoted his life to _____ the atomic theory. A. study B. be studied C. studying D. have studied
8. We are both looking forward to ____
A. going on vocation (休假)
B. go on vocation
C. be going on vocation
D. have gone on vocation
9. Once the heart stops _____, death follows at once. A. beating B. to beat C. being beaten D. to be beating 10. We are now busy _____ for the examination. A. to prepare B. preparing C. prepared D. being prepared
以上我们已经通过归纳总结和练习 对本课的语法内容有了一定的了解， 下面就让我们根据 之前练习的考察情 况进一步选择讲解
动词-ing形式 1. 动词-ing形式的构成：是在动词末 加 -ing 形式构成。 如：do-doing, be-being, ask-asking, etc. 否定形式：not + -ing 构成 2. 动词-ing形式不能单独作谓语，没 人称和数的变化，但可以有自己的 宾语和状语，还有时态和语态的变化。
having been done
I remember being taken to Wuhan when I was a very small child. (动词-ing的一般被动态) She admitted having opened the box. (动词-ing的完成式) How about the two of us taking a walk down the garden? (动词-ing的复合结构)
Playing _______ football is my favourite sport. _______
My sister enjoys
________ alone on standing the seashore.
amusing The cartoon is _________.
developing country. China is a ___________
singing in his room. We heard Tommy _______
reading a newspaper. She sat at the desk _______
动词-ing 形式能在 句中作主语、宾语、 表语、定语、宾语补 足语和状语。
说出下面句中动词-ing部分在句中作什 么成分。 Playing football is my favourite sport. playing football used as the subject My sister enjoys standing alone on the seashore. standing used as the object The cartoon is amusing. amusing used as the predicative
China is developing country. developing used as the attribute We heard her singing in her room. singing used as the object complement She sat at the desk reading a newspaper.
reading used as the adverbial
的用法。 The -ing form as
the subject and object
动词-ing形式作主语 1. 直接置于句首 (1)Playing tricks on others is something we should never do. 捉弄别人是我们万万不能干的。 (2)Learning new words is very important for me. 学习新单词对我来说非常重要。 (3)Talking is easier than doing. 说比做容易。
2. 用形式主语it，把真正的主语-ing形式移 置句尾。但这种句子形式有一定的限 制，作表语的只能是某些形容词或少数 名词。 (1)It is useless trying to argue with Shylock. 和夏洛克争辩是没有什么用的。 (2)It’s worth making the effort. 这事值得努力去做。 (3)It is pleasant working with you. 跟你在一起工作是令人愉快的。
常用-ing形式作主语的句型有： It + be + a waste of time doing 做……是浪费时间的 It is/was no good/use doing 做……是没益/用处的 It is/was hardly/scarcely worth doing 做……不值得 It is/was worth/worthwhile doing 做……是值得的 There is no sense in doing 做……没有道理
动词-ing形式作宾语 1. 只能后接动词-ing形式作宾语的动词或短 语，常见的有avoid, consider, enjoy, keep, finish, suggest, dislike, delay, escape, cannot help, imagine, mind, miss, practise, cannot stand, excuse, fancy, give up, put off, risk等。 I can’t avoid going. 我不能不去。
2. 既可接动词-ing又可接不定式作宾语的 动词，常见的有：begin, start, continue, like, love, prefer, mean, forget, remember, hate等。
I hope they continue to fight for equal justice after I'm gone. Diana and Roy Jarvis are determined to continue working when they reach retirement age.
A. 在like, love, hate, prefer等动词之后， 用-ing或不定式意义上没有什么不 同，只是侧重点有些不同，动词-ing形 式表示泛指的动作，不定式表示具体 的一次性动作。 B. 在begin/start, continue之后，用动 词-ing和不定式，意义无甚区别， 尤其是当主语是人的时候。
C. 在动词forget, remember, regret之 后，用动词-ing与不定式意义不同。 动词-ing表示动作先于谓语发生， 不定式表示后于谓语动作。 I remember posting the letter. 我记得我已把信寄了。 I’ll remember to post the letter. 我会记着去寄信的。 I shall never forget seeing the famous writer. 我永远不会忘记见到过那位著名作家。 Don’t forget to write to your mother. 不要忘了给你母亲写信。
D. 在try, mean之后，意义各不相同， 如try to do (设法)，try doing (试试)， mean to do (打算，有意要做)，mean doing (意思是，意味着)。 We must try to get everything done in time. 我们必须设法及时把一切搞好。 Let’s try doing the working in some other way. 我们用别的方法做这个工作试试。 I didn’t mean to make you angry. 我并不想让你生气。 Your plan would mean spending hours. 你的计划意味着要花费几个小时。
E. go on doing和go on to do:
go on doing 继续做一直在做的事；
go on to do 接着做另一件事。
Please go on doing the same exercise.
Please go on to do the other exercise.
F. stop doing与stop to do: stop doing 停止做; stop to do 停下正在干的事去干另一件事。 We stopped talking.
We stopped to talk.
3. 作介词宾语 下列短语中的to都是介词，所以后面 跟名词或-ing形式：devote to, object to, pay attention to, get down to, lead to, look forward to, stick to, be used to等。 In doing our work, we must pay attention to ways and means. He was looking forward to working with the new manager.
动词-ing形式由动词原形 + -ing 构成。
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I. Choose the best answer.
1. It’s necessary to be prepared for a job interview. ______ the answers ready will be of great help. (2005北京) A. To have had B. Having had C. Have D. Having
2. — Can I smoke here? — Sorry. We don’t allow ______ here. (2007江苏) A. people smoking B. people smoke C. to smoke D. smoking 3. All the staff in our company are considering _____ to the city centre for the fashion show. (2007上海春) A. to go B. going C. to have gone D. having gone
4. — Robert is indeed a wise man. — Oh, yes. How often I have regretted ______ his advice! (2007安徽) A. to take B. taking C. not to take D. not taking 5. I hear they’ve promoted Tom, but he didn’t mention ____ when we talked on the phone. (2008江西) A. to promote B. having been promoted C. having promoted D. to be promoted
6. Distinguished guests and friends, welcome to our school. _____ the ceremony of the 50th Anniversary this morning are our alumni (校友) from home and abroad. (2009江苏) A. Attend B. To attend C. Attending D. Having attended
7. Ladex doesn't feel like ______ abroad. Her parents are old. (2011四川) A. study B. studying C. studied D. to study 8. ______ basic first-aid techniques will help you respond quickly to emergencies. (2013福建) A. Known B. Having known C. Knowing D. Being known
II. Complete the sentences with –ing forms of these verbs. draw drink help spend be able to copy
1. Being ___________ able to paint well takes a long time. 2. They say that ________ drinking a lot of water is good for you. Copying a picture is a good way to 3. ________ learn to paint.
4. ________ Drawing is my favourite hobby. Helping other people makes me 5. _______ feel good.
6. — What do you enjoy most in life?
Spending time with good — _________
friends. It’s really good fun.
III. Translate the following sentences.
1. 打孩子弊大于利。 Beating a child will do more harm ______________ than good. 2. 我建议去海边度假。 suggest going to the seaside on I ________________________ holiday. 3. 只抱怨不行动是无用的。 complaining without It is no use ____________________ taking action _____________.
4. 在我们家里不容许吸烟。 allow smoking in our house We don’t ________________________. 5. 是该开始考虑你自己的未来了。 thinking It is time to get down to _________ about your future ________________. 6. 菲尔公开承认犯了一个严重错误。 making a serious Phil openly admitted _______________ mistake ________. 7. 与你交谈是一件开心的事。 talking with you It is a great pleasure _______________.
IV. 阅读下面的短文，按照句子结构的语 法性和上下文连贯的要求，在空格处 使用动词的适当形式填空。 meeting I crossed the street to avoid ________ (meet) him, but he saw me and came running towards me. It was no use pretending __________ (pretend) that I had not seen him, so I waved to him. I never enjoy meeting _______ (meet) Nigel Dykes. He never has anything to do.
No matter how busy you are, he always coming (come) with you. I insists on _______ had to think of a way of preventing him from following me around all morning. 'Hello, Nigel,' I said. 'Fancy meeting you here!' 'Hi, Elizabeth,' Nigel answered. 'I was just wondering how to spend the morning — until I saw you. You're not doing (do) anything, are you?' busy ______
'No, not at all,' I answered. 'I'm going to ...' coming (come) 'Would you mind my _______ with you?' he asked, before I had speaking (speak). finished ________ 'Not at all,' I lied, 'but I'm going to the dentist.' 'Then I'll come with you,' he answered. 'There's always plenty to read in the waiting room!