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Rational Cloze


Rational Cloze
从语法填空题空格的设置来看,至少应当包括以下 4 个特点 一、考查语法。每一个空格的设置都必定涉及到某一条或某几条语法规则,不会 单纯考查单词的拼写和词组的用法。 例 1 In Greece, women had little freedom. Wealthy women hardly left their houses, but they

______ (allow) to attend weddings and some festivals. 解析:因 allow 与 they 在逻辑上是动宾关系,要用被动语态,用 be allowed; 由 had, left 可知 be 是一般过去式;主语是复数 they,be 的过去式是 were, 答案是 were allowed。 点评:此题就涉及到动词的时态、语态和主谓一致三条语法规则。 例 2 The ______ why I was sad was that he didn't understand me.

解析:因为 why 引导的定语从句,前面的先行词一定是 reason。 点评:此题看起来好像是考查填入恰当的名词,但实际上是考查定语从句。 二、考虑语境。既然采用短文的形式来考查语法,其目的就是要利用短文有较强 语境的特点来命题,否则,就不如用单句来考查语法了。也就是说,考生要填出 正确答案, 至少需理解整个句子的意思或各分句之间的逻辑关系,或者需要理解 前后几个句子,甚至整个段落或篇章。 例4 Several changes have brought wild animals to the . Foremost,

air and water quality in many cities have improved as a result of the 1970's pollution control efforts? 解析:在冠词 the 后必定是名词,再根据下句可确定要填 cities。 点评:本题若只根据设空句本身,而不阅读并理解下文,是不可能填出正确答案 的。 三、考点分散。基本上一个空格代表一个语法点,10 个空有可能涉及到 10 个语 法点,至少也得有 7 个语法点。笔者认为,即使对一些非常重要的语法项目,如 动词时态、非谓语动词、不定代词等,单独一项也可能是一空,至多两空,设三 空的可能性是极小的。 四、适当提示。但是若涉及到动词的时态、语态、非谓语动词、词类转换等需要 词形变化的空格.

例7

Oil prices have risen by 32 percent since the start of the year,

_____(reach) a record US$ 57.65 a barrel on April 4. 解析:reach 及后面的内容是伴随着谓语动词的发生而产生的自然结果,用现在 分词作状语,故填 reaching。 例8 It would be ______ (believe) that such an honest fellow should have

betrayed his friends! 解析:因为在系动词 be 后作表语,要用 believe 的形容词形式 believale;由 句意“这样一个老实人竟会出卖朋友,真难以置信!”可知,还要在前面加上表 示相反意义的前缀 un,答案为 unbelievable。 五、出题一般涉及到以下几个方面:1)动词与介词或副词搭配构成的固定动词 短语; 2)冠词的用法; 3)连词的用法,包括从属连词和并列连词; )派生词的用法; 5)动词的适当形式; 6)情态动词的用法; 7)定语从句、名词性从句的引导词等。 解答语法填空题的八条思路 根据语法知识进行填充 根据逻辑关系进行填充 根据语篇标志进行填充 语篇是指比单个句子长的语言单位(句群、段落、篇章等)。语篇间往往有标明 内在联系的词,我们称这些词为“语篇标志词”。如表示结构层次的有 first, second, third, finally 等;表示逻辑关系的有 thus,therefore,so 等;表 示转折关系或变换话题的有 however, but, by the way 等。“语篇标志词”对 迅速理清文章的脉络,弄清上下文关系很有帮助。 4.根据固定词组进行填充

熟练掌握一些常见的词组,如 as a matter of, be proud of, by the way, come from, congratulate?on?, devote?to?, earn one’s living, keep one’s word, make up one’s mind 等,对解题很有帮助。 5. 根据句型搭配进行填,就是根据一些常用的句型搭配,如 so/such?that?, it is?(for sb.) to do sth., There is no doubt that?, there is no sense in doing sth.等来解题。 6. 根据词汇知识进行填充 指根据某些词语在用法上的特殊搭配来解题。如下列各类动词必须牢记:只能接 动词的-ing 形式作宾语的动词,只能接 to do 作宾语的动词,接 to do 作补语 的动词,接 do 作补语的动词,接 doing 或 done 作补语的动词,对句式搭配要求 较为特别的词语,等等。 7. 根据生活常识进行填充 I crossed the street to avoid 1 (meet) him, but he saw me and came 2 3 (pretend) that I had not seen (meet) Nigel Dykes. He never

running towards me. It was no use him, so I waved to him. I never enjoy has anything on 考策略 1.不断记忆,积累词汇。 5 4

(do). No matter how busy you are, he always insists

(come) with you.meetingpretendingmeetingto docoming 三、备

语法填空题对单词提出了比以前更高的要求,它不但要求考生认识单词,还要求 能写出一些要求的单词。这就要求考生平时不断地记忆单词,不断地积累词汇, 千方百计地把我们的词汇量提高上去。考试时才能随心所欲的写出单词,填出固 定搭配。 2.夯实基础,学好语法。 英语的基础知识琐碎繁杂,不是一朝一夕就能掌握的,它要求我们平时多听,多 读,多记,夯实自己的基础知识;我们还要坚定不移地加强语法的学习,尤其是 长句、 难句、 复杂句的分析。 只有这样, 才能为综合能力的提高打下坚实的基础。 3.大声朗读,培养语感。

语感是一种对语言、语段或词句的感受能力,是一种看不见摸不着的东西,但在 做完形填空题时又是必不可少的东西。娴熟的语感的形成不是一蹴而就的,要在 平时的学习过程中多听,多读,尤其是大声朗读犹为重要。在早读或晚读时间, 抛开顾忌,放开喉咙,大声朗读,对培养语感是非常重要的。如果通过朗读能够 多背诵一些课文是再好不过的了。语感在你的朗读和背诵课文的过程中,不知不 觉地逐步形成了。 4.坚持不懈,多做练习。 语法填空是一种新题型, 考生在前几年都不曾练过的。但是高考中又占了总分的 十分之一,非常重要。因此要求考生在考前一段时间要大量练习这种题型,不断 练习,不断总结,不断提高,高考时才能处变不惊,轻松应对。 Will _1_ matter if you don’t take your breakfast? Recently a test __2__ _ (give) in the United Sates. Those tests included people of different ____3___ from 12 to 83. During the experiment, these people were given all kinds of breakfasts, and sometimes they got __4_ breakfast at all. Special tests were set up to see ___5___ well their bodies worked and when they had eaten__6_certain kind of breakfast. The results show that if a person eats a proper breakfast, he or she will work with better effect ___7__ if he or she has no breakfast. This fact appears to be ______8______ (especial) true if a person works ___9__ his brains. For example, if a student eats fruit, eggs, bread and milk before going to school, he will learn more quickly and listen with___10__ (much) attention in class.itwere givenagesnohowathanespeciallywithmore


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