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写作常用句型与过渡词语(专四专八)


写作常用句型与过渡词语
1【常见开篇句】
1) With the rapid improvement in.../growing awareness of..., more and more.../sth.... 1?随着…的飞速发展/越来越多的关注,越来越…? (e.g. With the considerable improvement in building industry, more and more structures are being erected to set the people's minds at ease.) 例:随着建筑业的大力推进,人们对建立越来越多的房屋建筑感到宽心。? 2) Recently, sth./the problem of...has been brought to popular attention/ has become the focus of public concern. 2 近来,某事/某问题引起了人们的普遍关注/成了公众关注的焦点。? (e.g. Recently, the problem of unemployment has been brought to such popular attention that governments at all levels place it on the agenda as the first matter.) 例:近来失业问题引起了人们的普遍关注,各级政府已把它列为首要议程。? 3) One of the universal issues we are faced with/that cause increasing concern is that... 3 我们面临的一个普遍问题是… /一个越来越引人关注的普遍问题是…? (e.g. One of the universal issues that draw (cause) growing concern is whether it is wise of man to have invented the automobile.) 例:一个越来越引人关注的普遍问题是,发明汽车是否为人? 4) In the past few years, there has been a boom/sharp growth/decline in.. . 4 在过去的几年里,…经历了突飞猛进/迅猛增长/下降。? (e.g. In the past ten years, there has been a sharp decline in the number of species.) 例:在过去的几年里,物种数量骤然下降。? 5) Nowadays, more/most important/dangerous for our society is... 5 如今对我们社会更(最)为重要的(危险的)事情是…? (e.g. Nowadays, most dangerous for our society is the tendency to take advantage of each other in political circles.) 例:对我们社会最为危险的事情是政界倾向于互相利用。? 6) According to the information given in the table/graph, we can find that... 6 根据图表资料,我们可以发现…? 7) As can be seen from the table/graph/figure, there is a marked increase /decline/favorable (an unfavorable) change in... 7 根据图表(数字)显示,…明显增长(下降)/发生了有利(不利)变化。? 8) As we can see from the table/graph/figure above, drastic/considerable/ great changes have taken place in...over the period of time from...(年份)to...( 年份) 8 据上面图表(数字)所示,从某年到某年某方面发生了剧烈的(相当大的;巨大的)变 化。? 9) The table/graph shows that there is a(n) declining/increasing trend of ...from...(年 份) to...(年份) 9? 图表显示,从某年到某年某方面有下降(增长)的趋势。? 10) Anyone who takes a closer look at the data in the table/graph can be surprised to find that... 10?任何人只要仔细看一看图表中的资料就会惊讶地发现…? 11) It is a traditional practice to...in our society. 11 在我们的社会里…是一个传统的做法。? (e.g. It is a traditional practice for young people to be financially dependent on their parents for anything like marriage and housing.) 例:象婚姻和住房这些方面,年轻人在经济上依赖于他们的父母,是属于传统的做法。? 12) It has long been considered only right and proper to...(in China.) 12 (在中国)…长期以来被视为是理所应该的。? (e.g. It has long been considered only right and proper/perfectly justified for the old to assume full responsibility for the growth of the young.) 例:上一代为下一代的成长承担完全的责任,长期以来被视为是理所应该的(完全合理的) 13) As things usually go against sb.'s will, his original intention was to... 13 往往事与愿违,他本来的目的是要…? (e.g. As things usually go against man's will, his original intention was to change the way people lived by inventing the internal combustion engine. Indeed, its birth

has greatly enhanced their enjoyment of life, especially in traveling and transporting. But its dark side is presenting a growing worry to our society.) 例:往往事与愿违,他本来的目的是要通过发明内燃发动机来改变人们的生活方式。这种内 燃机的诞生确实大大地方便了人们的生活,尤其是旅行和运输。但其不利的一面却给我们社 会带来了越来越多的忧虑。? 14) The current situation of..., if approached from the opposite angle, reveals that... 14 如果从对立的角度来看, …的当前形势显示…? (e.g. The current situation of our reforms is political structure, if approached from the opposite angle, reveals that much of the achievement is far from satisfactory. For example,...But...) 例:如果从对立的角度来看,政治体制改革的当前形势显示,其成就远不如人意。例如…, 但是…? 15) Everything about...seems (not) to be getting on smoothly/just as one wishes in... 15 关于…似乎一切进展顺利(正如某人的意愿发展) 。? (e.g. Everything about the economic reform seems to be getting on just as our government wishes in China.) 例:中国经济改革的形势似乎正朝着政府所期望的方向发展。? 16) To sb.'s mind/In sb.'s eye(s), sth. seems/means... 16? 在某人看来,某事似乎(意味着)…? (e.g. In the eyes of the public, official corruption means taking bribes,. ..But such corruption comes in many different forms.) 例:在公众的眼里,官员腐败意味着收受贿赂,…但腐败却以许多不同的形式出现。? 17) No one would deny that... 17? 没有人会否认…? 或:Everyone would agree that... 或:…,这一点毫无异议。? 18) When it comes to...(sth.), most people (the public) maintain(s)/contend(s) that... 18? 说到…,大多数人(公众)坚持认为(争辩说)…? (e.g. When it comes to fake commodities, every consumer has much anger to pour upon them.) 例:说到假货,每一个消费者对他们都有一通怒气要发泄。? 19) Now it is widely believed that... 19? 现在人们普遍认为…? (e.g. Now it is widely believed that examinations are the best possible measure for the selection of the qualified.) 例:现在人们普遍认为,各种考试是选拔合格人才的最佳手段。? 20) A public debate has arisen as to/over/concerning... 20? 关于…公众就此展开了一场辩论。? (e.g. A public debate has arisen as to whether one should step forward bravely in the event of crime.) 例:当有人犯罪时,一个人是否应当勇敢地站出来制止,公众就此展开了一场讨论。? 21) All that sth. has done for our society seems like a big step forward in the right/wrong direction, but it has also brought along with it a great worry /benefit to...(the average people.) (sth.: cloning, the reform in managerial structures, etc.) 21 某事物(如克隆、经营管理机构改革等)对于我们的社会似乎在正确(错误)的方向 ? 走出了一大步,但同时也给普通大众带来了极大的忧虑(好处)。? 22) The birth/invention of...has made an enormous/essential difference to ...But it does not mean that... 22? …的诞生(发明)对…产生了巨大的(重要的)影响,但这并不意味着…? (e.g. The birth of the computer has made a radical difference to the human progress. But it does not mean that this wonder does no threat to our society.) 例:计算机的诞生对人类进步产生了极其重大的影响,但这并不意味着这一创举不会威胁到 我们的社会。? 23) Sth. has changed the way our society develops....But its bright side should not keep us from following closely its dark side. (sth.: the genetic engineering, etc.) 23?事物(如生物工程等)改变了我们社会发展的道路…但其好的一面不应使我们同时受 其坏的一面的影响。? 24) Things about...are going on to our advantage, but a long cool look at ...reveals that...

24? …正朝着对我们有利的方向发展? (e.g. Things about the reform in state enterprises are not going on to the most workers' advantage....But a long cool look at this move reveals that it will produce some substantial benefits to our nation in a long run.) 例:国企改革有悖于大多数工人的利益…但如果认真冷静地来看待这一举措,从长远来看, 它将给国家带来一些巨大的好处。 ? 25) No/Little doubt that...But... 25? 毫无疑问…但是…? (e.g. [There is] Little doubt that the traditional schooling has contributed much to our social development....But some grave defects in it begin to stand out against the modern times.) 例:毫无疑问,传统教育为我们的社会发展作出了很大的贡献…但传统教育的一些严重缺陷 与我们的时代相抵触。? 26) What does sth. mean? 26? 这(某事物)意味着什么呢?? 27) How/Why does sth. affect our life? 27? 某事物是如何影响我们的生活的呢(为什么会影响我们的生活呢)?? 28) What is it like to do...? 28? ……是怎样(一种情况)呢?? (e.g. What is it like to have lost all confidence in oneself?) 例:一个人完全失去自信是怎样一种情况呢?? 29) What would our society be like if there were no...? 29? 如果没有……,那我们的社会会怎样呢?? (e.g. What would our society be like if there were no public morals?) 例:如果没有公共道德,那我们的社会会怎样呢?? 30) Should we put sth. above sth. else? 30? 我们是否可以将 A 置于 B 之上呢? 或:Should we attach as much weight to A as to B? 或:我们是否可以对 A 和 B 同等重视呢?? (e.g. Should we put intellectual development above moral education?) 例:我们是否可以将增长知识置于道德教育之上呢?? 31) Sth. is often referred to as/defined as... 31? 某事物常常被视为/定义为……;人们常常将某事物视为/定义为……。? (e.g. Corrupt officials are often referred to as the most dangerous borers in our government bodies, who are nibbling away the healthy organism of our party by dishonest means.) 例:腐败官僚常常被视为我们政府机构中最危险的蛀虫,他们行为不轨,蚕噬着我们党的健 康肌体。? 32) (Doing) Sth. is just the same as.../is compared to.../is likened to.. ./is like... 32? (做)某事物就如同……/可以比作……/类似于……/就像……。? (e.g. Life in the middle of marriage is often compared to wire walking, for in the early years spouses attract each other and in late years they need each other.) 例:婚姻生活常被比作走钢丝绳,最初几年里夫妻相互吸引,而往后的岁月里他们则相互需 要对方。? 33) Sth. is to...what sth. else is to... 33? 某事物之于……就像另一事物之于……? (e.g. An individual human existence is to the human society what a river is to the ocean, small and busy rushing past rocks at first, but gradually growing wider and quieter until it becomes merged in the ocean in the end.) 例:个体自然人的存在之于人类社会就如同河流之于海洋,起初细流跳涌,穿砂过石,然后 渐渐变得宽阔而深沉,直到最后汇入大海。? 34) To/For/With most people/sb., sth. is/means... 34? 对大部分人/某人来说,某事物就是/意味着……? (e.g. To dishonest people, a friend means a target or an object that is of some use to them at present or in the future.) 例:对心怀叵测的人来说,朋友就是一个靶子或者一个目标,在当前或未来有利可图。? 35) Sth. is the symbol/mark/equivalent of.../is symbolic of.../is equivalent to... 35? 某事物是……的象征/标志/对等物//相当(等同)于……/象征着……? (e.g. If selling one's sex is the mark of degeneration, selling one's power is equivalent to committing crime.)

例:如果说出卖肉体是堕落的标志的话,出卖手中的权力就等同于犯罪。? 36) Suppose/Imagine that.../Let's suppose/assume/imagine (that)... 36? 假设/试想……;我们假设/假定/试想……? (e.g. Suppose, by any chance, you heartily disagree with anything that is going on about you, you are less likely to stay on the good side of people around you.) 例:假设,不管怎样,你自己内心都不认同自己,你就更不可能取得周围人的好感。? 37) We often find ourselves caught/involved in a dilemma whether... 37? 我们常常不知不觉地陷入了一种窘境:是……还是……呢。? (e.g. We often find ourselves caught in a dilemma whether we should reach for the bear's paw or for the shark's fin/whether to reach for...) 例:我们常常不知不觉就陷入了这样一种窘境:我们谋熊掌还是鲨鳍。? 38) If/In case/In the event that..., it is better to.../a better course is to.../sb. has no choice/option/alternative but to.../all we want to know is ho w... 38? 如果/万一/在……的情况下,最好……/……更为妥当/某人将只能……,除此以外别 无选择/别无他途。/我们只想知道怎样……? ( e.g. In the event that you fall in a love river, all we want to know is how you will swim in it, as you are no longer a fisherman.) 例:万一你坠入爱河,我们只想知道你会怎样在里面游走,因为你已经不再是渔夫了。? 39) Unfortunately, sth. may affect sb.'s life to the point where... 39? 不幸的是,某事物对人们生活的影响可能达到……的地步。? (e.g. Unfortunately, the desire to be well thought of affects one's life to the point where he is reluctant to say no to anyone else regarding anything.) 例:不幸的是,赢得人们好感的愿望对人的生活的影响可能达到他对任何人任何事都不情愿 拒绝的地步。? 40) In our life, there often appears such an occasion when.../on which... (或 it often happens that...) 40? 在我们生活中常常出现这样一种情况/这样一幕,就是当……/那就是……(或:…… 的现象屡见不鲜)? (e.g. In our daily life, there appears such an occasion when we drink success to our work in one field but, at the same time, begin to do great damage to other fields.) 例:在我们日常生活中,往往会出现这样一种情况,就是当我们陶醉于我们工作中某一领域 的成功时,同时也开始给其他领域的工作带来损害。? 41) “...” That is how one of the great minds/scientists/writers remarked on... 41? “……”这就是伟大的思想家/科学家/作家之一对此的评论。? (e.g. “Happiness, like an old friend, is inclined to drop in unexpectedly— when you're working hard on something else.” That is how a famous writer once remarked on happiness.) 例:“幸福,就像一位老朋友,总是突如其来,出乎意料——而你当时正忙碌于另一事情。 ”这就是一位著名的作家曾经关于幸福的一番评论。? 42) One of the great sociologists/psychologists has said:“...” 42? 一位伟大的社会学家/心理学家曾经说过:“……”? (e.g. The great classical ballerina Anna Pavlova has said: “No one can arrive from being talented alone. God gives talent; work transforms talent into genius.” In other words ...) 例:伟大的女芭蕾舞演员安娜· 巴甫洛娃曾经说过:“天生禀赋并非某一个人的专利。上帝 赐予人们天赋,汗水化天赋为天才。”换句话说,……? 43) “...” Such is the accurate exposition/exposure of...frequently over heard in public. 43? “……”这就是对公众中众说纷纭的……的深刻揭露。? (e.g. “Public morals are declining day by day.” Such is the correct exposure of the dark side of our society.) 例:“公共道德日渐堕落。”这就是对我们社会阴暗面的准确揭露。? 44) How often nowadays we hear such remarks/complaints/words as this “...” or “...”! 44? 当今,这样的言论/抱怨/话不绝于耳:“……”或者“……”!? (e.g. How often nowadays we hear such complaints from officials as this “I have too many social engagements to carry out” or “I have too many social engagements to carry out” or “I have to bear too many titles for our society”! Don't be misled by the complaints of this kind!) 例:当今,从官僚层传来这样的怨言不绝于耳:“我要实施的社会事业太多了”或者“社会 各种名号太多,而我们不得不背负起来”!千万不要被诸如此类的怨言所误导!?

45) One of the great men once said that... 45? 一位伟人曾经说过,……? (e.g. A gifted American psychologist once said that it is an illusion to believe in the Sunday-school truth—more comfort, more happiness.) 例:美国一位天才的心理学家曾经说过,相信教会假日学校之真理——多一点慰藉,多一点 快乐——乃是一种幻觉。? 46) Once in a newspaper/magazine, I hit upon the report that... 46? 我曾在一份报纸/一本杂志上偶尔看到这样一篇报道:? (e.g. Once in a newspaper, I hit upon the news that a quick witted policeman spotted a suspect's spittle in the street blotted it up and ran a DNA test on it which led to the man's arrest for a murder. This case best counts as a practical application of the DNA technique.) 例:我曾在一份报纸上偶尔看到这样一则新闻:一个智谋过人的警察在大街上看见一个嫌疑 犯的一团唾沫后将唾沫收集起来,并对它进行 DNA 测试,最后推断出凶手并将之逮捕。这一案例可以作为阐 述 DNA 技术实际应用的最好的实例。? 47) One day, I happened to witness the incident as follows:... 47? 一天,我碰巧亲眼看见这一事件,过程如下……? 48) According to the recent survey/poll/questionaire/statistics, there is/a re...percent of... 48? 根据最近的调查/投票/问卷调查/统计来看,有百分之……? (e.g. According to a recent survey made in a certain university, there are 43.8 percent of male students and 38.3 percent of female students either facing problems with nutrition or having to miss classes because of illness each term.) 例:最近在某大学所做的一个调查显示,有 43.8%的男生和 38.3%的女生面临营养问题或者每期都因病缺 课。? 49) The scientific studies/statistics show/indicate that... 49? 科学研究/科学的统计数字显示/表明……? (e.g. The latest scientific studies show that, if one's mind catches hold of something and does not let it go, it is useless to argue with the mind in this condition. This finding further confirms that a modern man is apt to get anxious and depressed.) 例:最近的科学研究显示,如果人的思想突然把握到某一事物并抓住不放,在这种情况下就 算是同它争辩也是徒劳。这一发现进一步证实现代人容易变得焦躁、情绪低落。? 50) Every weekend sees sb. go about... 50? 某人每个周末都/总是……? (e.g. Every weekend sees Ms Song, my roommate, wolf down her dinner and hurry out with her boy friend.) 例:每个周末,与我同住一室的宋小姐总是狼吞虎咽地吃完晚饭,然后急匆匆地同男朋友出 去了。? ?

2【常见段首句】
1) According to/In the opinion(eye) of/From the viewpoint of some (those) people, the issue in question is... 1?对有些人(那些人)来说/在有些人(那些人)的眼里(看来)/有些人(那 些人)认为,某一问题是…… (e.g. In the opinion of some old people, traditional modes of thought are the touchstone by which to tell good from bad.) 例:在一些老人看来,传统的思维模式是分辨是非的试金石。 2) Hit (Confronted/Faced/Seized/Stuck/Haunted/Cursed/Overcome/Infatuated) with..., some people tend to... 2?碰到……的情况(面对……/在……面前/由于受制于……/由于陷入……/由于……的 纠缠/在……的征服下/由于迷恋于……) ,有些人往往/容易/倾向于…… (e.g. Haunted with sad memories, some people are apt to take a gloomy view on life.) 例:由于各种痛苦回忆的纠缠,有些人往往倾向于以悲观的眼光看待生活。? 3) In (the) event (face/case/course/time/view) of..., some people usually ... 3?在……的情况下(面前/情况下/过程中/时候)/鉴于……,有些人往往…… (e.g. In the course of human struggle for survival, quite a few people always direct their eyes to its dark side.) 例:在人们为生存而奋斗的过程中,很少有人会将自己的眼光导向阴暗的一面。?

4) As is stated (shown/suggested/listed/illustrated) in.../According to a recent (the latest) report (survey/quetionaire/study/scientific research), the issue in question really...(there are quite a lot of people who...) 4?正如……所阐述(揭露/暗示/列举/阐明)的那样;/最近一个报道(一项调查/问卷 调查/研究/科学研究)表明,某一问题真的……(有许多人……/……的大有人在) (e.g. As is shown in a recent questionnaire, there are a large number of people who express greater dissatisfaction than satisfaction at the general mood of society.) 例:最近一项问卷调查显示,大多数人对社会总体风气的不满程度超过满意程度。? 5) In our daily life (activities/social contact)/In reality/Actually, man y people respond/react to the issue in question by... 5?在我们的日常生活(活动/社会联系)中/实际上/事实上,对这一问题许多人的反应 是…… (e.g. In reality, most people respond to evil-doing by avoiding it whenever possible.) 例:事实上,许多人面对邪恶行为总是尽可能避而远之。? 6) A good case in point is (can be best provided by) that of... 6?关于这一点最好的例子是……(……可以提供最好的证明。 ) (e.g. A good case in point is that of a businessman who makes money by fair means or foul. 例:关于这一点最好的例子就是生意人光明正大挣钱还是靠走旁门歪道挣钱。? 7) Just consider/think of the matter/case of... 7?试想/想象一下……(就知道了) 。 (e.g. Just consider the matter of raising flowers that are delicate and sensitive to watering.) 例:想象一下养花吧,花儿既娇嫩又需小心浇水。? 8) In the course of..., for example, there is/are... 8?比方说,在……的过程中,…… (e.g. In the course of coping with worries in life, for example, there is an art to what way you take.)[HJ*4/7] 例:比方说,在处理生活中的烦恼时,采取什么样的方法就大有学问。? 9) Take...for example(或 Take, for example,...)A 9?以……为例,……(或,举例来说,……) (e.g. Take foot racing (for example), it is a sport in which endurance and strong finish is often more important.) 例:以竞走为例,这项运动中耐力和强有力的冲刺往往尤为重要。? 10) As a(n) example (of...)/illustration (of...)/case in point, let's take/see/consider/follow/cite... 10? 作为……的例证/为阐明……/关于这方面的例子,我们(可以)引进/观察一下/考虑一下/沿用/援 引……为例,……? 11) Awareness of the matter in question is one thing/only the beginning( 或 the first step), but more important to us is the step/the question of how to (cope with/do with it)... 11? 意识到问题是一回事/还只是开始(第一步) ,对我们来说更重要的是怎样(解决/处理问题)这一步/ 的问题…… (e.g. Awareness of the harmfulness of superstition is only the first step, but more important to our nation is the step of how to clear it out of our society.) 例:意识到迷信的害处还只是第一步,对我们国家来说更重要的一步是怎样将它从我们的社会根除出去。? 12) There is no easy (perfect/universal/two-bird-one-stone/happiest) method (short-cut/solution/remedy/way) at hand, but...can put us on the right way (in the correct direction) to our final goal/destination (...are/is worth trying out in our work.) 12? 要实现我们的最终目标/要达到我们的最终目的,没有现成的简易(完美/万能/一石 二鸟/最顺心)的办法(捷径/出路/药方/方法) ,我们只有……才能踏上通往目标的正途(只 有……才是我们开展工作的可行办法。 ) (e.g. There is no easy short-cut to removal of superstition, but the following measures/suggestions can put our determination in the right direction.) 例:消除迷信没有捷径可用,但以下措施/建议可以使我们有的放矢。? 13) There is no better/sounder time to take steps/measures/action than right now, for no chance will be greater than the one we are offered. 13? 要采取行动,没有比现在更好/更适宜的时机,因为我们现在拥有的机会是我们能得 到的最好机会。?

14) It is obvious (evident/clear/no surprising/high time/hoped/suggested), therefore, that all-out (constant/great/cooperative/further/genuine/substantial/considerable/persis tent) efforts should be made (exerted/used/bent/put forth) to ...(或 should be directed to.../focused on...) 14? 因此,很显然(显而易见/很清楚/不足为奇/正是时机/人们希望/有人建议) ,为……我们应该全力以 赴(坚持不懈/加大力度/积极合作/进一步努力/真正努力/切实努力/大力/ 作出不懈努力) 。 (e.g. It is evident, therefore, that constant efforts should be directed to the ecological balance.) 例:因此,很显然,我们应该为保持生态平衡作出坚持不懈的努力。? 15) Therefore/Obviously/No doubt/Clearly, to...is not a(n) goal/aim to achieve in one step/move/go(或 is no easy job/task), and to achieve in one stp/move/ go(或 is no easy job/task), and it requires/involves/entails special/proper/all possible means/efforts/measures/remedies. 15? 因此/显然/毫无疑问/很显然,……不可能一蹴而就/一步登天(绝不是一项简单的工 作/任务) ,这要求/需要特殊的/适当的/所有可能方式/努力/措施/补救办法。 (e.g. Therefore, to eradicate this inherent weakness from our society is not a goal to reach in one move, and it requires special efforts.) 例:因此,从我们社会根除这一天生缺陷不可能一蹴而就,需要付出特别的努力。? 16) When/If asked to...I would like to.../would rather (not).../will do as follows. 16? 当/如果有人问(要求)……,我想……/宁愿(不)……/将这样…… (e.g. If asked to find the way out of the danger these depraved practices have created, I would rather live a simple life than go along with any others in their evil deeds.) 例:如果有人要我设法摆脱这些邪恶行为带来的危险,我宁愿过简朴生活也不愿与其他人同流合污。? 17) To...I might as well cite my own experience. 17? 为了……我不妨引述一下自己的经历。 (e.g. To draw out of others more valuable opinions upon the problem, I might as well cite my own experience.) 例:为了抛砖引玉,我不妨先说说自己的经历。? 18) If I were thrown/put/involved in (to) the context/background/situation/the state of making my choice, I would... 18? 如果我被置于/处在/置身于可以由我自己来选择的情况/背景/情形/状况下,我会…… (e.g. If I were thrown into the freedom to make my choice among the styles of surviving, I would live like this:...) 例:如果我自己可以自由选择生存方式的话,我会这样……? 19) Faced with/Hit with...I resolve/propose to... 19? 在……面前/遇到……时,我决定(决心)/建议…… (e.g. Faced with the challenge from the future life, I resolve firmly to perfect myself in the aspects as follows.) 例:面对未来生活的挑战,我决心从以下几个方面完善自己。? 20) As far as I am concerned, I will/have/would... 20? 关于我,我将/已经/会……? 21) If sth. is allowed to take its course, it will be sure/bound to bring about/leave/entail desired (unexpected/grave/immediate/reverse/disastrous/far-re aching) effects/consequences/influences. 21? 如果我们任其自然,某事物将肯定/必然会引起/导致/带来理想的(出乎意料的/严重 的/接踵而来的/适得其反的/灾难性的/深远的)效应/后果/影响。? 22) There are sure/believed/supposed to be some good/bad/beneficial/harmful effects/consequences/influences. 22? 毫无疑问/人们相信/可以料想会有一些好的/坏的/有益的/有害的效应/后果/影响。? 23) Come what may, it has given rise to several adverse/wholesome effects. 23? 不管怎样/不管发生什么事, (这已经导致)一些恶性/良性效果(已经应运而生) 。? 24) What merits our special/increasing attention/concern, therefore, is a number of effects/influences sth. has produced/exerted. 24? 因此,值得我们特别/日益关注/注意的是,某事物所引发的一些效应/所造成的一些影响。 (e.g. What merits our primary concern, therefore, is a variety of effects the bad practices in our Party have produced.) 例:因此,值得我们关注的首先是我们党内一些不良行为所造成的各种影响。?

25) The influence/effect/consequence of...has not been confined/limited to...(It also...) 25? ……所造成的影响/效应/后果并不只/仅限于……(它同时还……) (e.g. The influence of our outlook on life has not been confined to any particular aspect of social life. Instead, it has left its mark on every facet of our society.) 例:我们对生活的憧憬其影响并不仅限于社会生活的某一特定领域。相反,它在我们社会的每一个方面都留有 烙印。? 26) From the analyses of causes for...it is not hard for one to arrive at/come to/reach/draw/assert/deduce/confirm the conclusion that...(或...to distinguish/see the direction in which...) 26? 从对……的引发原因所作的分析出发人们不难得出/推出/断定/演绎出/推断出这样一个结论, 即,……(或:分辨出/看到这样一种趋势,即……) (e.g. From the analyses of causes for divorces, it is not hard for us to draw the conclusion that the divorce rates will go up steadily under the current circumstances.) 例:从对离婚引发原因所作的分析出发,我们不难得出这样一个结论,即在当前这种情况下离婚率将持续上升。 ? 27) If one continues to cast an indifferent eye on/to turn a deaf ear to/ to be blind to/to overlook the problem, things are sure to go from bad to worse. 27? 如果某人继续对这一问题漠然置之/置之不理/视而不见/忽视这一问题,情况/形势将 肯定与日俱下。 或:If one is in real earnest in giving all his attention/concern to the problem/matter, things are bound to go from good to better/from bad to good. 或:如果某人真正全心全意关注/关心这一问题/这件事情,情况将必然会越来越好/有所好转。 (e.g. If the governments at all levels are in earnest in giving their special concern to the problem of unemployment, things are more than likely to go from bad to good.) 例:如果各级政府对就业问题真正给予特别关心,情况很有可能会有所好转。? 28) Thus it can be seen from the above that (doing) sth. means much/a great deal/lots more than itself. 28? 因而从以上/上述……可以看出, (做)某事物的意义远远/大大超出其本身。 (e.g. Thus it can be seen that nourishing honesty in government bodies means much more than itself.) 例:因而可以看出,在政府机构中的养廉行动其意义远远超出其本身之外。? 29) The significance of (doing) sth. is embodied/reflected in the following respects. 29? (做)某事物的意义存在于/反映在以下几方面。? 30) Obviously/Evidently/Clearly/No doubt, sth. will contribute much to... (will add life/color/variety/new meanings/vigor to...) 30? 很显然/很明显/毫无疑问,某事物将非常有助于……(将为……带来生机/增添光彩/ 更加丰富/赋予新的意义/增添活力。 ) (e.g. Clearly, the afforestation drive will contribute much to our living environment.) 例:很显然,植树造林运动将非常有助于(改善/保护)我们的生活环境。? 31) Of the two things in question, I prefer/favor/give more weight to/endorse the first (second)/the former (latter). 31? 二者之间/两者相权,我更喜欢/更倾向于/更重视/(决定)取第一(第二)/前者(后者) 。? 32) If it is up to me to make a choice (between both), I would rather choose...over... 32? 如果由我来(在两者之间)作选择,我宁愿选择……而不是/选择…… (e.g. If it were up to me to make a choice between both in the event of betrayal of one's country, I would rather choose death over life.) 例:如果要我在出卖国家的情况下在二者之间做出选择,我宁愿选择死而不选择生。? 33) Since neither of the two things can be perfect in.../work effectively / come up to...(the required standard), the best/only/ideal course open to sb. is to... 33?既然在……下二者都不可能达到完美/都不可能行之有效/都不可能达到……(所要求的标准) ,某人所 有的最好的/唯一的/理想的办法是…… (e.g. Since neither of the two measures can be perfect in the solution to the problem of cheating in exams, the best course open to us is to combine the two measures with other possible solutions.) 例:既然两种措施都不能完全解决考试作弊的问题,我们所能采取的最好的办法就是将二者与其它可能的解决 方法结合起来。? 34) In view of the fact that there are obvious/serious drawbacks/weakness e s in

either of the things in question, I advocate/endorse...(或 insist/maintain/h old that...) 34?鉴于这两个问题中存在明显的/严重的弊端/缺陷,我建议/决定采取……(或:坚持/坚持认为/主 张……) (e.g. In view of the fact that there are serious drawbacks in either of the suggestions, I insist that full play should be given to each other's advantages for our purpose.) 例:鉴于这两个建议都存在严重的缺陷,我坚持主张全面发挥彼此的优势,以达到我们的目的。? 35) As seen from the above comparison, the first (second) thing is prefer able/more favorable (desirable) (或 the first/second thing has more to recommend it), but it should suck advantage out of the other for the sake of perfection. 35?从以上比较中可以看出,第一(二)事物更可取/更理想(或:第一/二事物更有可荐之处) ,但为了追求 完美,另一事物的优点/优势应得以充分利用。? 36) From the above comparison and contrast, anyone can safely/reasonably conclude that... 36? 从以上对比和比较可以看出,任何人都可以准确推断出/不无道理地得出结论,即…… (e.g. ...that travelling by car can offer him a greater privilege (chance) of getting to know natural conditions and social customs of places on his way.) 例:……即驾车旅行可以让他有更多的机会了解沿途所经过的地方的自然条件和社会习惯。 37) When the advantages and disadvantages (the pros and cons of both are weighed in terms of...(on the basis of.../in the light of...), don't you think/agree that...(agree to/favor...)? 37? 如果/当从……方面(在……的基础上/按照……)来衡量其优劣(正反两方面)时,难道你不认为/ 同意……(赞同/倾向于……)? (e.g. When...in terms of actual results, don't you agree that the latter is a better way of learning?) 例:如果从实际的结果来……,难道你不认为后者所代表的学习方法更好吗?? 38) Therefore/In conclusion/To sum up, it is because of the unique/substantial/manifold advantages/superiority offered/held by...that... 38? 由此可见/总之/总而言之,由于……具有独一无二的/实质性的/多方面的优点/优势,所以…… (e.g. In brief, it is because of the substantial advantages held by the perfection of supervision that the public places high hopes on it.) 例:简言之,由于完善监督具有实质性的优点,人们才寄予厚望。? 39) As things stand, in fact/substance, nothing can be compared with B in ...although... (it is not without defects.) 39? 就当前情况来说,事实上/实际上,在……没什么可以与 B 相提并论,尽管……(它本身不无缺点。 ) (e.g. As things stand, in fact, nothing can be compared with the crackdown o f corrupt officials in arousing the enthusiasm of the masses, although it is not without defects.) 例:就当前情况来看,事实上,在调动群众的积极性上没什么可以与打击官僚腐败相提并论,尽管它本身不无 缺点。? 40) True/Admittedly/Indeed, there are still imperfections in B, but its strong/bright side is what one needs badly. 40? 诚然/毋庸置疑/的确,B 本身还有一些不足之处,但它相对较强的一面/积极的一面正 是某人所急需的……。? 41) The most pressing question/task/problem/issue/matter for us to tackle , in my opinion/in fact, is... 41? 依我看/实际上,我们所要处理的最紧迫的问题/任务/问题/事项/事情是,…… (e.g. The most pressing task for us to tackle, in my opinion, is to find new ways of making best of water resources now available.) 例:依我看,亟待我们完成的最紧迫的任务是,找到可以充分利用我们现有的水资源的新方法。? 42) Our efforts/concern/attention/interest should be directed to... 42? 我们应着力于/应将我们关注的目光/兴趣向(导向)……引导。 (e.g. Our efforts should be directed to what should be done to reverse the t rend.) 例:我们应着力于解决如何才能扭转这种趋势。? 43) What we really/badly need now is... 43? 我们真正需要/急需的是…… (e.g. What we really need now is to accept any suggestion conducive to the solution of the problem.) 例:我们现在真正需要的是接受任何有利于解决此问题的一切建议。? 44) It is high time (that)... 44? 现在正是/该是……的时候了。

(e.g. It is high time that we made our minds open to new, different ideas about it and that we started to take some practical measures so as not to leave it to continue its course until it runs wide.) 例:该是我们开放思想,接受与此相关的新的、不同的观点和着手采取实际措施以阻止其继续扩展、蔓延的时 候了。? 45) Then/On the basis of the above refutation, how/what...(next)? 45? 那么/基于以上辩驳,怎样/什么……? (e.g. ...how to lift ourselves out of the passive situation?...how to repair the damage man has done to the environment?...what can be done about the present trend of blind faith in things foreign.) 例: ……怎样才能使我们摆脱被动的局面?……怎样才能弥补人类对环境所作的损害?……怎样对付当前盲目 崇外的趋势?? 46) So, I feel strongly that... 46? 所以,我强烈感觉到…… (e.g. So, I feel strongly that the recent trend of superstition reflects a credibility crisis hanging over the country.) 例:所以,我强烈感觉到最近的迷信潮反映了整个国家弥漫着一种信任危机。? 47) In my opinion/To my mind, nothing is more...than... 47? 我的意见是/依我看来,没有什么比……更…… (e.g. To my mind, nothing is more important than the need to know right from wrong.) 例:依我看来,没有什么比分清是非更重要的了。? 48) If our first reaction to this wrong thinking/practice is just a retort on it, our true/ultimate goal is... 48? 如果我们对这一错误想法/行为的第一反应只是一种曲解,那么我们的真正/最终目的是…… (e.g. ...is to make/put right such illusion/practice.) 例:……是纠正这种幻觉/行为。? 49) Nowhere in history has the problem/issue/illusion/trend been so...that... 49? 历史上这种问题/事情/幻觉从未如此……过,以致于…… (e.g. ...so critical/hindersome that there is a growing awareness of the urge/necessity to abandon the belief that man can always conquer nature.) 例:……如此尖锐/麻烦以致于人们越来越意识到需尽快/有必要抛弃“人定胜天”的信条。 50) Now (that)/Since...the focus of our concern/argument should be switched over to... 50? 既然(现在)……那么我们关心/争论的重心/焦点应转向…… (e.g. Now that the issue is too obvious to need further refutation, the focus of our argument should be switched over to intensifying the concept of water shortage among the people.) 例:既然问题非常明显,无需进一步辩驳,那么我们争论的焦点应向加强人们的节水意识转移。? 51) I am of the opinion/point/view that... 51? 我的意见/观点/看法是…… (e.g. I am of the view that China's future is bright but the road to success is not smooth.) 例:我的看法是中国前途光明但成功的道路不会平坦。? 52) To my mind/From my point of view/In my opinion, whether...or...depend s on how... 52? 依我看来/从我的观点看/我认为,是……还是……取决于怎么…… (e.g. To my mind, whether money may bring us happiness or evils depends on how we get it and how we use it.) 例:依我看来,金钱带给我们的是幸福还是邪恶取决于我们取得和使用金钱的方式。? 53) Anyway/Anyhow/In any case, whether...or...is a difficult question to answer (remains to be turned over), one thing is certain that... 53? 不管怎样/不管如何/无论如何,是……还是……这个问题很难回答(有待进一步思量) ,不过有一点可 以肯定,即…… (e.g. In any case, whether cloning is a blessing or a curse remains to be turned over; but one thing is certain that it will make a great difference to our outlook on life.) 例:无论如何,克隆是祸是福有待进一步考究;不过有一点可以肯定,那就是它会大大改观我们的生活。? 54) In my eye(s), the wide divergence of opinions as to...does not mean that...(we are at a loss to know how to conduct ourselves). The truth of the matte r (The basic question) is... 54? 在我眼里,在……上巨大的意见分歧并不意味着……(我们在认识如何把握自己行为上莫衷一是) 。问

题的实质在于(根本的问题是)…… (e.g. In my eyes, the wide divergence of opinions as to failure does not mean that...The truth of the matter is what place we leave it to hold (occupy) in our heart.) 例: 在我眼里, 关于失败的广泛的观点分歧并不意味着……。 问题的实质在于我们把它放在心里的哪一个位置。 55) I can't give my consent to either of the extreme opinions, for/because/as I believe/hold that... 55? 对这两种极端的观点我不能苟同/不敢恭维,因为我相信/认为…… (e.g. ...for I hold that a safer way is to make best of each other's rat ional arguments.) 例:……因为我认为更可靠的办法是充分利用双方争论中合理的成分。? 56) I am of the view/opinion/point that we should give first place (priority) to...while making...subsidiary. 56? 我的看法/意见/观点是我们应该将……放在第一位/置于优先地位,而将……放在次要地位。 (e.g. I am of the view that we should give first place to the quality-oriented education while making the examination-oriented education subsidiary.) 例:我的看法是我们应该将素质教育置于优先地位,而将应试教育放在次要地位。? 57) In my opinion, the former (latter) standpoint is more. .to/for... 57? 在我看来,前者(后者)的立足点对……(来说)更…… (e.g. In my opinion, the former standpoint is more suitable for our national conditions.) 例:在我看来,前者的(前一个)立足点更适合我们的国情。? 58) Although the first (second) viewpoint holds water to some degree (extent), I am still favorably inclined towards the second (first) one. 58? 尽管/虽然第一(二)个观点有一定的道理,我还是(更)倾向于第二(一)种观点。 59) To be frank/To tell the truth, I should second the former (latter) attitude/position in preference to the latter (former). 59? 坦白说/实事求是地说(说真的) ,相对后(前)一种态度/立场而言,我赞成前(后)一种态度/立场。 ? 60) Despite the extreme to which the former (latter) viewpoint goes, the fact of the matter, in my opinion, is that... 60? 尽管前(后)一种观点有走极端之嫌,在我看来,事实的真相是…… (e.g. ...the fact of the matter, in my opinion, is that more and more people are doing their bit in brightening China's future.) 例:……在我看来,事实的真相是越来越多的人正为创造中国的光明前途做出自己的贡献。 61) For the foregoing reasons, I (have/will) never... 61? 由于上述理由/原因,我从未/将永远也不会…… (e.g. For the foregoing reasons, I have never wavered in my pursuit of this purpose.) 例:由于上述原因,我在追求自己的目标上至今从未动摇过。? 62) Although...nothing has...can...(或 I have/will all along...) 62? 尽管/虽然……没有什么……可以/能够……(或:我一直/将永远……) (e.g. Although these years have witnessed drastic changes in the way people think and live, I have all along held firmly to the belief that anything in line with the true interests of the people is worth carrying forward.) 例: 尽管这些年人们思考和生活的方式有剧烈的变化, 我一直坚信任何符合人们的真正利益的事物都值得推行。 ? 63) Things may change with tidal currents, but what remains the same as before is... 63? 情况可能随时代潮流有些变化,但……仍一如既往。 (e.g. ...is my attachment to sb./sth.) 例:……但我对……的爱慕仍一如既往。? 64) In my mind, there is not anything/anybody that/who...than... 64? 在我心里,没有什么(谁)比……更…… (e.g. In my mind, there is not anything that arouses more excitement than this sport/event/place.) 例:在我心里,没有什么比这项运动/这件事/这个地方更让我激动了。? 65) Indeed, time and space has proved (that)... 65? 的确,时间和空间都已证明…… (e.g. Indeed, time and space has proved that, the more effort I make in that direction, the more hungry I feel for it.) 例:的确,时间和空间都已证明,我在那个方向越努力,对它就越如饥似渴。?

66) My list could go on, but more important/substantial/pressing to me is (that)... 66?我还可以列举出很多,但对我来说更重要的/更具实质意义的/更紧迫的是…… (e.g. ...is what steps I should take towards the realization of my aim.) 例:……是为了实现我的目标我应该采取什么步骤。? 67) To..., however, is/requires/demands... 67? 然而, (要想)……要求/就必须 (e.g. To be a successful learner, however, demands a great deal of work.) 例:然而,要想学习成功就必须付出很多努力。? 68) But in reality, the expression of one' reasons in one thing while the accomplishment of his purpose is another thing, which usually needs/is/requires...(So,...) 68? 但是实际上,讲道理是一回事,实现目标又是一回事,而且往往需要/是/要求……(所以……) (e.g. ..., which usually needs a greater effort of will.) 例:……而且往往需要更强的意志力。? 69) To me, however, the greatest challenge is not the matter/question of...but (the matter/question) of... 69? 然而,对我来说,最大的挑战不是……事情/问题,而是……事情/问题。 (e.g. To me, however, the greatest concern/challenge is not the matter of the grounds for my aspiration, but of capacities to be increased for making it a reality.) 例:然而,对我来说,最值得关注的/最大的挑战不是我的愿望现实与否的问题,而是我如何提高自己的能力 将它变为现实。? 70) Since/Now (that)..., what remains to be done/desired is... 70? 既然/既然现在……,接下来要做的/余下需要改进的……是…… (e.g. Since the factors for my choice are in black and white, what remains to be desired is how to strive towards it.) 例:既然我的选择各方面考虑因素已黑白分明,接下来的事情就是怎样朝它努力了。? 71) Another (good/ideal) case in point is that of... 71? 关于这一点/这方面还有一个(好的/理想的)实例,就是…… (e.g. Another ideal case in point is that of rowing against current.) 例:关于这一点还有一个理想的实例,就是逆水行舟。? 72) To the already well-known/familiar examples/cases of..., another may/can be added:... 72? 关于……的实例,除了这个众所周知的/大家都很熟悉的例子/事例以外,不妨再举一个:…… (e.g. ...of things turning out contrary to one's wishes, another can be added: A great invention in medicine leads to a sharp increase in the average span of human life. But on the other hand, it turns out to overburden the food supply of the world.) 例:关于事与愿违的实例除了……以外,不妨再举一个:一项伟大的医药发明大大延长了人们的寿命。但另一 方面,它给世界带来了沉重的粮食负担。? 73) As another illustration/example, let's take/see (the case of)... 73? 作为另外一种阐述方法/实例,我们来看看…… (e.g. As another illustration, let's see the case of swimming in an ocean.) 例:作为另外一种阐述,我们来看看海中游泳这个例子。? 74) A very similar case/example/story can be cited/told from... 74? 我们还可以从……找到/举出非常类似的事例/例子/事件。 (e.g. ...from the modern military history of China.) 例:我们还可以从中国军事当代历史中找到……? 75) Perhaps it will suffice to mention another example/case/story of..., which unfolds as follows:... 75? 也许再举一个……例子/实例/事例问题就能水落石出,就是:…… (e.g. ...of an unbridgeable gap between ideal and reality, which unfolds as follows: A woman was speaking to her friend about her two beaus. “If I could combine their qualities, I'd be the happiest person in the world. Ronald is rich, handsome and witty but unwilling to propose marriage to me. Tony, compared with the first, is outshone but he is eager to marry me.”) 例:也许再举一个关于理想与现实之间不可逾越的鸿沟的例子……,就是:一个女人跟她的朋友谈论她的两位 情人。“如果能把他们俩的优点合而为一,那我将是世界上最幸福的人了。罗纳尔德富裕、英俊,聪明过人,但 不愿向我求婚。托尼与之相比逊色多了,但迫不及待地要跟我结婚。”? 76) It is only by/through...that...

76? 只有用/通过……才能…… (e.g. It is only by adapting oneself to a new environment that he is more likely than others to survive in it.) 例:只有他自己适应新的环境,他才会比别人更有可能生存下来。? 77) From the exemplifications above, it turns out that... 77? 以上例证的结论就是…… (e.g. From the exemplifications above, it turns out that the power of determined will enables one to find some way out of any difficulty.) 例:以上例证的结论就是坚定的意志力能使人设法摆脱困境。? 78) As the foregoing turns out, it matters not...but... 78? 以上(论述/阐述)说明,……并不重要,重要的是…… (e.g. As the foregoing turns out, it matters not what color your cat is but once it catches mice, it must never be one of the bad.) 例:以上论述说明,猫的颜色并不重要,只要它能抓到老鼠就不是只坏老鼠。? 79) Indeed, the evidence upon all sides justifies/confirms/supports/points to/is in favor of the truth/view/maxim that... 79? 的确,各方面证据证明/证实/支持/表明/赞同这一真理/观点/格言,即…… (e.g. ...that failure teaches success.) 例:……即失败是成功之母。? 80) Judging from all evidence offered/From what has been mentioned above, we may reasonably/safely arrive at/come to/reach/draw/deduce/assert the conclusion that... 80? 从所有证据可以推断/从上面提到的内容我们可以自然而然/不难得出/得出/推出/推断出/断定这样 一个结论:…… (e.g. ...that a just cause enjoys abundant support while an unjust cause finds little.) 例:……:得道多助,失道寡助。? 81) If there is anything more/well worthy of mention/consideration/attention/careful study, nothing comes close to... 81? 如果有什么更/很值得一提/考虑/关心/认真研究的话,那就非……莫属了。? 82) To make the better (clearer/easier) best (clearest/easiest), a further/deeper/wiser step/way/study/method/measure/plan is/should be... 82? 为了精益求精(更加清楚地……/使……更加容易)(我们)应该……进一步/更深/更明智的步骤/ , 方法/研究/方式/措施/计划。 (e.g. To make the clearer clearest, a further study should be taken up of how the phenomenon “La Ni a” came into being.) 例:为了使其原因更加明朗化,人们应该对“拉尼娜”现象的形成过程作进一步研究。? 83) If you are.../want to..., it is vital/ideal/important/essential that... 83? 如果你(是)……/想……,关键在于/理想的……是……/(……非常重要/至关重要。 ) (e.g. If you are more at home in associating one thing with others, it is vital that you take full advantage of the divergent thinking.) 例:如果你在从一事物联想到另一事物方面很拿手,那么至关重要就是充分利用你的发散思维。? 84) The most important/essential/substantial/critical thing/matter worth pointing out, however, is... 84?然而,值得指出的最重要/本质/实质/关键的事情/问题是…… (e.g. ...is what structure of knowledge a would-be achiever has in the future competition.) 例:……是在未来竞争中一位成功者应具备什么样的知识结构。? 85) Following/Abiding by the above instructions/advice/directions/rules can...but you will achieve/gain/do better/more if you... 85? 采纳/遵照上述指导/建议/指示/规则(固然)能……但如果你……你将会更有所收获/做得更好。 (e.g. Following the above instruction can give you a feeling of achievement, but you will achieve more if you have a good command of its specific property.) 例:按上述指导进行固然能使你有一种成就感,但如果你很好地把握住它的具体特点你将会更有收获。? 86) The comparison/contrast that calls for deepest thought lies/consists in... 86? 这种引人深思的(鲜明)对照/对比在于…… (e.g. ...in social values that convey different senses to the two peoples.) 例:……在于对两个民族传递了不同信息的社会价值。? 87) The most striking/sharpest/shocking/instructive contrast between A and B can be found in... 87? A 和 B 最引人注目的/尖锐的/令人震惊的/具启发意义的对比(不同点)在于……

(e.g. ...in the way both see the world.) 例:……在于二者观察世界的方法。? 88) If standing in contrast to..., the thing/matter/person (of one's concern) differs essentially/greatly/radically/profoundly from the reference in... 88? (如果)与……相比, (某人所关注的)这件事/个问题/个人与……存在本质/很大/根本/深刻的区别 (不同) 。 (e.g. ...in the mode of reproduction/living.) 例:……在繁衍/生活的方式上……。? 89) The effect of comparison/contrast between both is heightened most by the difference in... 89? 二者相比/将二者相对照,最大(显著)的区别在于…… (e.g. ...in size/intelligence/principles/values/outlook on life/abilities to adapt to new environments.) 例:……在于规模/智慧/原则/价值/人生观/适应新环境的能力。? 90) Still under/in similar/the same circumstances/conditions/situations, however, the two things can turn out quite/most differently(或 A turns out to be radically/utterly/totally different from B). 90? 然而, (尽管仍然)在相似/同样的环境/条件/情况下,二者的结果截然不同(或:A 与 B 的结果根本 不同/截然不同/完全不同) 。? 91) But in the other culture/atmosphere/society/scope/field, by contrast, the thing(s)/person(s)/subject(s) grow(s)/develop(s)/turn(s) out/act(s) in the opposite/contrary directions. 91? 但是相比之下, 在另一种文化背景/氛围/社会/范围/领域中, 某事物/某人/某件物体生长/发展/的结 果/表现恰恰相反。 (或 a(n) completely/entirely/qualitatively/vastly/strikingly different result comes of/from the same thing/action/practice/event.) (或:同样的事物/行动/行为/事情最后的结果完全/截然/在质量上/大大/显著不同。 ) (e.g. But in the western societies, by contrast, an entirely different result/effect comes of the same thing.) 例:但比较而言,在西方社会同样的事情得到的是完全不同的结果/效果。? 92) Of all the differences between A and B, the greatest one is... 92? 在 A 与 B 之间所有的差异当中,最大的差异是…? (e.g. Of all the differences between science and pseudoscience, the greatest one is their truthfulness. Science originates in nature or from practice while pseudoscience is created/invented out of nothing or without foundation.) 例:在科学与伪科学之间所有的差异当中,最大的差异是他们的真实性。科学来源于自然或者实践,而伪科学 凭空捏造或者毫无根据(纯属子虚乌有) 。? 93) A study of.../A cold look at/into...may be the best/sound way to learn more about the difference/contrast between A and B. 93? 对…的研究/调查也许是得知更多 A 与 B 不同之处的最佳/合理途径。? (e.g. A study of attitudes towards money may be the sound way to learn more about the contrast between a noble-minded person and a person with vulgar interests.) 例: 进行一项金钱观的研究也许是得知更多的关于一个高尚情操的人与一个低级趣味的人之间不同的合理途径。 ? 94) Against the same/different background(s), however, what stands out most between the two things/from he same thing is... 94? 然而,在相同/不同的背景下,两者/同一事物表现最明显的差异是…? (e.g. Against the same background, however, what stands out between the two peoples is the angles/perspectives from which they see things.) 例:然而,在相同的背景下,两个民族表现最明显的差异在于他们看待事物的角度。? 95) Between the two things/subjects/people under comparison, nothing can bring out/present as great/sharp/poignant contrast as... 95? 通过两事物/对象/人的比较,两者之间最大的反差是… (e.g. ...as poignant contrast as the occasion when both run into danger.) 例:发生在两者都处在危险中的情况下。? 96) As far as...is/are concerned, sth. in question means/signifies/symbolizes... 96? 就…而言,问题意味着/象征…? (e.g. As far as a person of bad taste is concerned, life means seeking for physical incentives, of which money is usually counted as No. One.) 例:就品味差的人而言,生活意味着寻找感观刺激,通常把钱摆在第一位。?

97) If adopted/used to define/measure/weigh/judge..., sth. in question is often seen/valued/looked upon/thought of/referred to/cherished as.../is embodied (reflected) in.../lies (consists) in... 97? 用于定义/衡量/判断…,该事物通常被视为/体现了/在于…? (e.g. If adopted to weigh the college student, beauty is embodied in his or her comprehensive qualities.) 例:如果用于衡量大学生,美寓于其综合素质里面。? 98) With/For/To..., sth. in question is just the same as.../is as...as... /is like.../is... 98? 对于…而言,某事物就如同…一样。? (e.g. With some of the upstarts, luxurious living is just as essential as parading their success.) 例:一些暴发户而言,奢侈的生活本质上就是炫耀他们的成功。? 99) In the case of..., sth. stands for/refers to/means... 99? 就…而言,某事物代表了/指的是/意味着…? (e.g. In the case of the Me-generation, friendship stands for an obedient tool on hand.) 例:就我这一代而言,友谊代表着随手可用的听话的工具。? 100) What is the meaning/interpretation/connotation of...if it is limited /restricted to the field/scope/circle/group of...? 100? 如果限制在…的领域/范围/圈子/群体中,…的意义/解释/内涵是什么?? (e.g. What is the meaning of loyalty if it is restricted to the circle of pure scientists?) 例:如果限制在纯粹是科学家的范围内,忠诚的含义是什么??

3【常见段首句和过渡句】
1) Some (people) argue/claim/believe/hold that... But others set (put) forth a different argument about/oppositive views on the matter in question. 1? 有些人争论说/声称/认为/…但其他一些人对这一问题却提出了不同的论点/相反的观点。? (e.g. Some claim that setting off firecrackers is a good practice of celebrating the Spring Festival. ...But others put forth opposite views on the problem. ) 例:有些人认为庆祝春节时放鞭炮这种做法好,但其他一些人对这一问题却提出了相反的观点。? 2) Some (people) advocate/endorse/favor/are for (或 oppose/object to/are against)... Yet others stick to/hold on to/cling to the opposite views/argument/points. 2? 有些人拥护/支持/赞成(反对)…然而其他人则坚持相反的观点/论点。? (e.g. Some advocate changes intended to modernize the building code. ...Yet others hold on to the opposite views.) 例:有些人拥护旨在使建筑行规现代化所做的变革…而其他人则持相反的观点。? 3) To some people's mind/From some people's point of view/In the eye(s) o f some people, the matter in question is/seems/should be/means...But to others' mind/from others' point of view/in others' eyes, it is just/quite the other way around/contrary/opposite(或 the opposite/reverse is the case/true.) 3? 有些人认为,这一问题是/似乎是/意味着…但在其他人看来,事情恰恰相反。? (e.g. To some people's mind, reading should be done in a selective way. ...But to others', it is just the other way around.) 例:在有些人看来,阅读应该有选择地进行…但对于其他人来说,看法恰恰相反。? 4) Some (people) respond/react to...by...But others behave/act in the other direction/in the opposite way. 4? 有些人以…来回应…,…但其他人则表现相反。? (e.g. Some people respond to failure by remaining inactive or avoiding it...But others behave in the opposite way.) 例:有些人对失败采用消极和回避的态度,…但其他人表现相反。? 5) Some take the view that...And/But on the other hand, others argue for the opposite view that... 5? 有些人认为…但另一方面,其他一些人则持相反的观点,认为…? (e.g. Some are of the view that institutions mould characters. ...And on the other hand, others argue for the opposite view that characters transform institutions.) 例:有些人认为习俗塑造性格,但另一方面,其他一些人则持相反的观点,认为性格能改变习俗。?

4【常见让步法段首句和过渡句】
1) It is true/There is no need to deny that...But it does not mean... 1? 确实/不可否认…,但这并不意味着…? (e.g. There is no need to deny that recreational services have added variety to our social life. ...But it does not mean leaving them to take their own courses.) 例:不可否认,娱乐业为社会生活增加了多样性,但这并不意味着让其放任自流。? 2) Although it is widely believed that..., it can not stand close/cold scrutiny/analysis/examination. 2? 尽管很多人认为…,但它却经不住仔细彻底的检查/分析/检验。? 3) Admittedly/True/Obviously/Indeed, the issue in question. ... But one basic/vital fact is being left out of our analysis/consideration, namely/that is,... 3? 无可否认/诚然/很明显/确实,问题…但在我们的分析考虑中忽略了一个基本的/至关重要的事实,那就 是/即…? (e.g. Admittedly, the official figures and statistics show that much improvement has been made in people's living standards. ... But one vital fact is being left out of our analysis, namely a growing gap between the rich and the poor. ) 例:无可否认,官方的统计数据表明人民的生活水平大有改善,…但在我们的分析中忽略了一个至关重要的事 实,那就是贫富差距不断拉大。? 4) Those in favor of the issue in question argue/contend/hold/maintain/claim that...But what they fail to consider/analyze/see/find out is that... 4? 对问题持赞成态度的人争辩/认为/宣称…,但他们没考虑到/分析/看到/发现…? (e.g. Those in favor of euthanasia contend that its practice can benefit both the patient and his family. ...But what they fail to consider is that euthanasia may be taken advantage of for some evil or hidden purposes.) 例:赞成安乐死的人争辩说,这一做法对于病人及其家庭都有利,…但他们没考虑到的是,有人会利用安乐死 达到其罪恶或不可告人的目的。? 5) Superficially/On the surface/At first glance(thought)/In appearance, the issue in question seems...But in fact(on second thoughts/on close examination/in substance),... 5? 表面上/乍一看/乍一想/从外表来看,问题似乎…,但实际上/仔细一想/仔细一查,…? (e.g. At first glance, the western-type democracy seems superior to any other types. ...But on second thoughts, it does not entitle every citizen of the same nation to the equal freedom to act.) 例:初看起来,西方式的民主比其他任何形式的民主都要优越,…但仔细一考虑,它并不赋予同一国家的每一 个公民一平等的自由。

5【常见过渡句】
1) To prevent this phenomenon/trend from worsening/running wide/To guide the matter/situation to the best advantage, it is necessary/important to... (可用于分析建议类、原因分析类等议论文) 2) In the face of...some people take the position that.../some people come to believe that..., to which I can't attach/add my consent. (可用于批驳分析类议论文) 或:In the face of...people retain/take/show/assume different attitudes/position s/standpoints. (可用于各抒己见类议论文) 或:In the face of...many people have come up with... (可用于对比分析类议论文和知识性说明文等) 3) But many people feel puzzled about/perplexed at/over whelmed with...(the changes/situation), so this essay is intended to... (可用于批驳分析类议论文和知识性说明文) 4) Although lots of people follow the fashion/trend, I still set my heart on... (可用于理由陈述类议论文) 5) To get a sense of how...we must turn first to causes for it/to what benefit (harm/problems/difference) it has brought to our society. (可用于分析建议和原因分析类议论文) 6) This is a (n) favorable/unfavorable/unhealthy/essential/marked/grateful change/tendency/situation, but factors/causes/reasons for it are not hard to find(或 but its appearance/existence derives from a variety of factors). (用于原因分析类议论文)

7) The progress/improvement/change(s) in...is(are) really tremendous/remarkable/prodigious/marvelous, so it is necessary to understand (see) what it (they) illustrate (s)/prove(s)/account(s) for. (用于原因分析类议论文和知识性说明文) 8) A comparison between these changes may be a good way to learn more about... (可用于对比说明文) 9) More insight/inspiration/truth/thought can be deduced from these changes. (可用于知识性说明文) 10) This situation/phenomenon/trend/tendency is rather distressing/disturbing/depressing/heart-rending, for the opposite of it is just in line with our wishes/just what is to be expected. (可用于分析建议、批驳分析和原因分析等议论文) 12) This is what we are unwilling to see, so some way must be found out to...(可用于分 析建议、对比分析、批驳分析类议论文和知识性说明文) 13) Fortunately, however, more and more people come/begin to realize that ...(可用于 分析建议、对比分析和各抒己见类议论文) 14) Unfortunately, things have worsened/come/developed to the point where ...(用于 分析建议、原因分析、批驳分析、各抒己见类议论文和知识性说明文) 15) But have you ever stopped to think what/how/why...?(可用于除理由陈述之外的各种议 论文和知识性说明文) 16) If we take a further/colder/closer look at this problem/matter, however, more secrets/grounds/chances/ways will be found out for... (e.g. ...putting it right/taking action against it/improving it) (可用于分析 建议、对比分 析、原因分析等议论文和知识性说明文) 17) But this (dis)agreement ceases to exist as soon as...(用于各抒己见、批驳分析、对比分析 等议论文和对比说明文) 18) A further/deeper analysis/study/exposure of.../A further comparison between...can reveal more about.../can show us more ways to...(how to...)可用于分 析建议、原因分析、对比分析、批驳分析等议论文和对比说明文及知识性说明文) 19) If you push the analysis/study/argument/comparison/exposure further, you will see that...(用于分析建议、对比分析、批驳分析、各抒己见类议论文和对比说明文及知识性说明文) 20) The same is true of many cases in life.(用于举例说明文) 21) Now, let's see what would happen to...in this case/light(或 in different conditions/circumstances).(用于分析建议类议论文和对比说明文) 22) Perhaps, it is ideal/high/ripe time for us to tackle/handle/answer/take up the question in no half-hearted manner.(用于分析建议、原因分析类议论文和知识性说明文) 23) To be frank, I have turned the question over and over in my mind, but found no reason to sidestep it; so here are my ways to.../my reasons for...(用于理由陈述类议论 文和知识性说明文) 24) I was once cursed/perplexed/seized with this question, but I have forged/made my own way out of it.(用于知识性说明文) 25) People from different backgrounds, however, put different interpretations on the same thing.(用于各抒己见类议论文和展开式界说性说明文) 26) But different people hold completely different views as to its nature.(用于各抒己见类 议论文和界说性说明文) 27) If/When adopted to account for/define/expose..., it can come in different meanings.(用于具体定义说明文) 28) If it is intended for..., however, the divergence of outlook on it ceases to continue while a new meaning to it begins to stand out.(用于归纳性定义说明文) 29) Our life abounds with examples in point.(或 The truth in the definition goes for/is applicable to many cases in our life.)(用于举例说明文) 30) In that case, however, I prefer to...rather than...(用于理由陈述、比较分析、批驳分析类议 论文和知识性说明文) 31) (Un)Fortunately, there are still some people who act in the other way around.(用 于分析建议和原因分析类议论文) 32) Once/If hit/cursed/overwhelmed with such troubles/straits/matters, you'd better/I would (not) do something about them to find your/my way out.(用于知识 性说明文) 33) I was once caught/stuck in the same situation/context, but I managed to lift myself out of it.(用于知识性说明文) 34) When exposed to/subject to the same conditions/challenge/choice, however,

different people tend to behave in different ways.(用于各抒己见类议论文) 35) If this is true/the case, what accounts for such an issue:...(如: perversion of justice for bribes 贪赃枉法)?(用于分析建议和原因分析等议论文) 36) If that remark still holds water now, the situation (trend/phenomenon) in question should make us ponder about what harm/benefit/influence it will bring to us/about how it will affect our society.(用于分析建议篇) 37) (In other words,...) But echoes of his view/voice(对他观点的附和声) die away as to w-questions.(用于各抒己见类议论文) 38) His view is voiced by more and more people, but finds no echo in my heart.(用于批 驳分析类议论文) 39) His voice arouses echoes among people of insight, who have come up with some practical measures.(用于对比分析类议论文和知识性说明文) 40) His/Her case is not unique, and now more and more...(But...)(用于各种议论文和知识 性、对比性说明文) 41) His/Her story is not unusual/rare, it is typical of thousands of people who are following his/her lead, so some people have abundant reason to ask how this came into being/how this will affect our future life/what measures should be taken to cope with it.(用于分析建议、原因分析、对比分析、批驳分析类议论文和知 识性说明文) 42) The results of this survey/questionaire have aroused/drawn nationwide / public attention/concern, which is why some great efforts are being made by our government/society.(用于分析各抒己见类议论文和举例、知识性说明文) 43) Such a dilemma/problem/condition we often run into in our life, but the basic question is how to cope with it/but all we need to do is how to approach it.(用于分 析建议、原因分析、对比分析等类议论文和知识性说明文) 44) What this survey reveals is cold and hard, so the top priority task f or us to set about is to...(用于分析建议、原因分析、对比分析等议论文和知识性说明 文) 45) This case has aroused echoes throughout the country, with more and mo r e people following its lead, but ideas about it vary widely/is there anything serious it has reflected?(用于分析类议论文和各抒己见类议论文) 46) Most people have realized the seriousness/potential of what this survey exposes, but...(用于分析类议论文) 47) With/For different people/things, however, sth. is open to different interpretations/tastes/connotations. A (e.g. With the people from different family backgrounds, however, devotion is open to many interpretations.) 48) When adopted to define different things/people, sth. comes in a variety of flavors/tastes/meanings/values/senses. A (e.g. When/If adopted to describe the people with different intentions, life often comes in various senses.) 49) Sth. may be/bear/convey many meanings/values/hints to many/different people/things, but, in all senses/the broadest sense/a real sense, it is/means...A (e.g. Happiness may convey many hints to many families, but, in every sense, it means making more contribution than demand in a family.) 50) On the whole/As a whole/All in all/In substance (essence), however, the diverse/different/various meanings/interpretations/concepts/definitions of sth. originate (stem/come) from/can be boiled (narrowed/condensed) down to/can be traced back to one core (the same core)/one source (the same source) one connotation (the same connotation):... (e.g. On the whole, however, the diverse meanings of success to the people above can be boiled down to one connotation: Success is a realization of one's ideal.) 51) Whether the definition/interpretation of sth. is constant or mutable, however, depends on what backgrounds it is in. A (e.g. Whether the definition of beauty is constant or mutable, however, depends much on what backgrounds it is put against.)

6【常见中心意思句】
1) From sth./what one has done, he can derive profits (will well deserve punishments) as follows. (e.g. From his great inventions in many fields, man has well deserved punishments as follows.) 2) Sth., if made the best/the worst of, will bring some distinct

advantages/disadvantages to our social development/one's growth. (e.g. Stock markets, if made the best of, will bring some advantages to our social construction.) 3) Sth. is expected to do a lot of benefit/threat/harm to sb./sth. else. (e.g. Cloning, as a new-born thing, is expected to do a lot of benefit to the human progress.) 4) (Doing) sth. will enrich/endanger/influence one's life in more than one aspect. (e.g. Having one's head in the clouds sometimes can enrich a good teacher's teaching in more than one aspect.) 5) Some good/bad/unexpected effects come of what we have done/sth. done in...(e.g. Some good effects will certainly come of the efforts we have mad e in birth control.) 6) There are several reasons/causes/factors for the changes/increase/decline/growth in...(First,...Second...) (e.g. There are probably a variety of reasons for the drastic changes in people's moral concepts.) 7) The reasons/causes/factors for sth. are complex/varied/profound. (Some attribute it...Others put it down to...Still others owe it to...) (e.g. The causes for the prevalence of living together are varied and complex.) 8) The success/failure/change/increase/decline(in sth.) mainly/largely stems/derives/results from the factors as follows.(One lies in...Another is found in...Still another consists in...) (e.g. The rise in China's economy mainly derives from a number of factors/the factors as follows.) 9) Why has/did/is...? (For one thing/...For another...Perhaps the most fundamental/adequate/competent reason is...) (e.g. Why is there a growing drift toward power-seeking in society?) 10) It is no easy/simple task/job to furnish/identify/find every reason / cause for sth., but/while, on the whole, three/some factors shout louder/weigh heavier than others/stand out from others. (e.g. It is no easy job to find every reason for the increase in the number of teenagers who run away from their homes, but, on the whole, two factors shout louder than others.) 11) In view of this situation/drift/boom/social disorder/drastic change, people put forward/advance/suggest/propose two countermoves/countermeasures:... (e.g. In view of this population boom in large cities, people have come up with two countermeasures: dispersal of city population and development of an underground city.) 12) From the suggested solutions (to...)/measures (against...)/plans (for . ..)/moves (toward...)/ideas (on...), two have begun to stand/stick out, namely.. .(e.g. 略) 13) There are believed/expected/supposed to be two effective measures/practical schemes/workable ideas/sound solutions, one of which is... (e.g. There are believed to two workable ideas on prevention of teenage pregnancy, one of which is the sex education of teenagers.) 14) To promote/suppress/cultivate/popularize/curb/enhance/root up the thing in question, the public attention/more stress/emphasis is placed/put/focused upon two proposals/moves/measures/solutions:... (e.g. To root up the prostitution in our society, the public attention is focused on two solutions: a permanent ban against unhealthy recreations and a long -term moral education.) 15) When it comes to the comparison between A and B, each has its own advantages and disadvantages. (e.g. When it comes to the comparison between travelling by car and travelling by train, each has advantages and disadvantages of its own.) 16) Ideas/Views on the issue in question vary from person to person/vary widely. A (e.g. Ideas on the way of reading vary from person to person. 17) As to whether it is a blessing or a curse, however, people take different views/positions/attitudes/stands(或 people's attitudes are quite opposite to each other.).A (e.g. As to whether birth of various associations on campus is a blessing or a curse, however, people take different stands.) 18) People's views, however, are divergent on the matter in question. A 或:People are divided in opinion/outlook/view on the matter in question. A (e.g. People's views, however, are divergent on the newborn thing.) 19) People respond/react to...in the manners/ways opposite to each other.

A(e.g. People respond to the stress in the manners opposite to each other.) 20) Although people arrive at/reach/achieve the common understanding of sth., their views/ideas about its influence/future/impact (on our life) are at opposite poles. A (e.g. Although people have arrived at the common understanding of China's achievement, their views about her future are at opposite poles.) 21) There are several/a number of reasons/factors for my choice/pursuit (of...)/fondness (for...)/adaptability (to...)/concentration (on...)/advocacy (of. ..)/belief (in...) (或 my seeking/choosing to do sth.) (e.g. There are several reasons for my fondness for the sports.) 22) Among the factors that contribute to my achievement/choice/struggle/. .., three/a few shout louder/weigh more heavily/stand out. (e.g. Among the factors that contribute to my success in studies, three shout louder.) 23) The reasons/factors/causes for my love (of...)/interest (in...)/determination (to do sth.)/objection (to sth.)/...are varied and individual. (e.g. The reasons for my pursuit of the career are varied but individual.) 24) A variety of/Quite a few factors have led me to do sth. (e.g. Quite a few factors have led me to form the habit of collecting stamps .) 25) My outlook (on...)/choice (of...)/participation (in...)/devotion (to...) stems from/derives from/results from some/several chief factors. (e.g. My pleasant memory of my Chinese teacher stems from several chief fact ors. 26) Our life/history/society abounds with/is rich in/is full of typical examples/illustrations.(e.g. 略) 27) Cases illustrative of this definition/truth/theory/principle/mechanism /saying/proverb are not rare/are too numerous to mention one by one/can be found everywhere in our life/society. (e.g. Cases illustrative of the saying—facts speak louder than words—are too numerous to mention one by one.) 28) To illstrate the theory in question, we can cite many examples.( e.g. 略) 29) According to my observation/knowledge, many examples from our real life can serve/be used (employed/cited) as good evidence for the definition in question.(e.g. 略) 30) This truth/principle/motto/popular saying/way of coping with sth. is/ h olds true for/goes for/can be applied to many/various matters/cases in our actual life. (e.g. The above theory can be applied to a variety of cases in our daily life.) 31) There are some/several/a few steps (measures/ways/methods/tricks/less o ns) you/a would-be beginner can follow (take/try/use/learn) to achieve your (his /her) goal/to realize your/his dreams/to the best advantage. (e.g. There are some clever tricks a would-be relaxer can learn to keep himself free of worry or stress.) 32) When/If sth. in question/you...it is better/advisable/necessary/essential (for you) to follow the instructions/courses/steps/schemes/ways as given/described below. (e.g. If your trouble builds up to the point where you can not put up with it, it is advisable for you to follow the instructions as given below.) 33) To do sth., one/you'd better (not) go by/act upon/comply with some concrete/practical/sound/effective rules/regulations/orders/procedures/courses. (e.g. To break with the bad habits like smoking, you'd better go by some effective instructions.) 34) For anyone/those who..., here are the best ways to... (e.g. For those who are anxious to make friends with the opposite sex, here are the best ways to remove all their anxiety.) 35) What/How/Why...then? (e.g. How does this small association develop into a nationwide organization ?) 36) If/When placed together to undergo a close/careful/sound/rational/all -sided comparison, they/the two subjects (parties) can reveal/show/manifest/display their resemblance/difference in...(some aspects)(e.g. 略) 37) Just as one can distinguish only by comparing(或 Just as there can be n o differentiation without contrast), it is necessary/better/worthwhile to see/find out what will come of the contrast/comparison between A and B. (e.g. ...it is worthwhile to find out what comes of the contrast between the

Western culture and the Eastern culture.) 38) In/Under/On different/similar situations/conditions/circumstances, how ever, the meanings/connotations/inspirations/lessons/doctrines/experiences/value s/implications/hints derived from (gained in) the same (different) thing(s) are similar/contrary/opposite to one another(或 different from one other). (e.g. In different situations/Against different backgrounds, however, the values derived from the same incident are found contrary to one another.) 39) The best/only/nearest/sound way for us to understand/seize the essence /substance of..., however, is to put both/it against each other/different backgrounds/another thing (或...is to make a comparison/contrast between A and B). (e.g. The only way for us to get the sense/core of dishonesty, however, is t o put it against honesty.) 40) To..., however, no way works better than by comparing/contrasting A with B. (e.g. To see through this superstition, however, no way works better than by contrasting it with science.)

7【常见转折句】
1) In view of the above-mentioned negative factors/disadvantage(s)/defects in A, people's second thought is to... (e.g. In view of the above-mentioned negative factors in raising the output, our second thought is to improve the quality of products.) 2) To counter/offset/counteract/cancel undesirable/side/ill effects/influence/results of A, B is put forward/proposed/advanced as another better course/ solution to... (e.g. To counter the undesirable effects of rigid administration, emotional investment is advanced as another better course to success in business.) 3) In their efforts to battle against dark side/incongruous elements A h as brought along with it, however, people come up with another approach/solution /course to...namely... (e.g. In their efforts to battle against the dark side the examination-oriented education has brought along with it, educators come up with another approach to the problem, namely the quality-oriented education.) 4) In contrast with the drawbacks/demerits/flaws of A, B can serve as a better step/move/advance in the right direction/to ward the solution for the problem of... (e.g. In contrast with the drawbacks caused by nuclear power, the solar power can serve as a better move toward the solution for the problem of energy crisis.) 5) So when it comes to an effective remedy for/a good counter-balance to the problems/limits/faults/weaknesses in A, people naturally think of B. (e.g. So when it comes to an effective remedy for the weaknesses in competition, people naturally think of cooperation.) 6) But it has also brought along with it the negative effect/disadvantage /weakness that... 7) However, it is not without limits/problems/faults/defects, for example, ... 8) Like anything else, it also has its own dark side, as evidenced in... 9) For/Despite/In spite of the advantages/benefits/positive effects A has, it has suffered from/posed some disadvantages/harm/negative effects. 10) To attain this goal, however, we still have much work to do/many obstacles to remove.

8【常见让步句】
1) Indeed, A is superior to/enjoys a distinct advantage over B in...,but it pales/proves inferior beside B/as compared with B in many aspects. (In the first place...In the second...In the third...) A (e.g. Indeed, television is superior to newspapers in vividness and quickness, but it pales beside B in many other aspects.) 2) In spite of the fact that A has made a great difference/contribution t o.../has given life/color/variety/rein/birth/rise/a push to..., it means/proves/ sounds nothing/trivial when compared with B in some respects. (For one thing,... For another,...For still another,...)A (e.g. In spite of the fact that the revolution in industry has given variety to the way

people live, it proves trivial when compared with the revolution in information.) 3) Although nothing/few things can come close to A/can outweigh A in..., its demerits/disadvantages/drawbacks/defects stand out against B.(First...Second ...Third...And above all...)A (e.g. Although few things can outweigh the intellectual education in tapping mental resources, its disadvantages stand out against the moral education.) 4) Popular/Highly-praised/Welcome/Fashionable/Prevalent as A is in+地点名词 /among some people(或 Helpful/Useful/Beneficial/Advantageous as A is to sb.), it suffers from/reveals/displays practical problems/faults/limits/weaknesses before/by comparison to/compared with B.(To begin with...Next...Last...)A (e.g. Beneficial as the CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) is to students, it suffers from some undoubted faults by comparison to the face-to-face language learning.) 5) It is obvious/true that B can't compete/be compared with A in..., but B still enjoys/secures/has/possesses distinct/considerable/decided/substantial advantages over A.(One of these is...Another...Still another...)A (e.g. It is obvious that radio can't compete with television in visuality, but it still possesses substantial advantages over television.)

9【常见界说性句式】
1) Sth. is like/as...as/similar to/the same as/compared to/as if (though) ...(明喻) (e.g. In the eyes of book worms, books are compared to/like a magic blanket that carries them anywhere as they like.) 2) Sth. is/refers to/is nothing but...(暗喻) (e.g. For/To a seeker after the treasure of knowledge, learning is rowing across an unbounded ocean, in which hardship is seen as his boat.) 3) Sth. is thought of/defined/valued/cherished/seen/esteemed as... (e.g. A true friend is valued not only as your shadow that comforts your body but also as your mirror that helps you find any dirt on your face.) 4) A does sth. just as B does sth. else. (e.g. Educative experiences of life can tell us how to get rid of failure, just as weather beaten sailors know how to steer clear of rocks.) 5) Sth. means/signifies/stands for/is a symbol(matter/sign/token)of... (e.g. Love is not a matter of seeking self-satisfaction; it is first a matter of giving and then discovering, as an unexpected gift, the deepest satisfaction one can know.)

10【常见结尾句式】
1) Only in this way/Only when.../Only through...will/can we... 或:It is only if/when...that we will... (e.g. It is only if all sides of society take their roles fully that we will achieve the society we want.) 2) As/So long as...we will be able to.../the problem is bound to... (e.g. As long as we persist in spreading scientific knowledge among the masses, all the superstitions are bound to go out of our life.) 3) For any place that.../For anyone who...there is every/no reason/chance to... (e.g. For any government that devotes itself to nourishing honesty among its officials, there is every reason to bid an eternal farewell to corruption.) 4) In short/brief/one word/sum, once we are on the way to..., the chance of achieving/making it will increase/grow greater/come to our advantage. A (e.g. In short, once our country is on the way to clearing corrupt dealings out of the Party, the chance of making it will come to the people's advantage.) 5) The quotations/remarks from sb.(或 The popular saying/maxim/proverb) “...” may be a better/sure cure/remedy for ...(或...sound/practical/sensible/well-weighted advice on how to...) (e.g. The old saying “Laziness in youth spells regret in old age” may be sensible advice on how to cherish the years of youth.) 6) And worst of all/best of all, it has/will/would effect(ed) the most unfavorable/favorable change in... (e.g. And worst of all, the official corruption has effected the most unfavorable change in the people's attitude towards the government. 7) As another severe shock (genuine comfort) to the people/society/As the most destructive/pushing effect on...(our life), it has permeated among the

people/through our social soil/throughout the whole country(或 has melted/penetrated into/been rooted in (the) Chinese soil (in the people's minds).A (e.g. As the destructive effect on our nation, his heretical ideas have been rooted in many people's minds.) 8) As a(n) sensational/unexpected result of..., more and more people have come/got/begun to..A (e.g. As an unexpected result/consequence of the patriotic education, more and more people have come to regain/restore their sense of justice.) 9) To one's greatest astonishment/delight, sth. has affected...to the point of... (e.g. To our greatest astonishment, the corruption has affected the society to the point of threatening its political stability.) 10) The most obvious/direct result/consequence it produces/brings about is... (e.g. The most obvious result the economic reforms have produced is the way the people live and think.) 11) With a constant/steady improvement in ...(或 With the gradual worsening of...) sth. will... (e.g. develop to one's advantage)A (e.g. With a steady improvement in its administration, the new-born thing will flourish on Chinese soil.) 12) In (the) course of time/In a long run (the long term), sth. is more likely/believed/bound/sure to... (e.g. In a long run, the practice of birth control is believed to do a great benefit to the future of China.) 13) In spite of the fact that...(或 Although...), sth. will (not)...in our /one's assiduous/conscious/consistent efforts. A (e.g. In spite of the fact that their is no hope of attaining the final goal at one go, this reform will be spreading far and wide in our consistent efforts .) 14) In a word, there is every/little chance/probability/possibility that. ..in time to come. A (e.g. In one word, there is every chance that this wise move in economic construction will acquire a broader significance in time to come.) 15) Anything (anyone) that (who)...will have to... (e.g. Those who have a strong bias against the Chinese nation (will) have to treat her with increased respect.)

11【常见列举用转折词语】
1) for one thing, for another, above all things; 2) to begin/start with, next/besides/moreover, last/finally; 3) in the first place, in the second, in the third, (and) best of/worst of all; 4) one of these, another,(there is) still another(reason/factor); 5) first of all, second, third, in short/in sum.

12【常见对比转折词语】
1) but, but on the contrary, but on the other hand, but then; 2) by contrast, in contrast, in contrast with/to, as a contrast to, as opposed to; 3)by contraries, on the contrary, to the contrary, contrary to (A), opposite to, in opposition to; 4) whereas, while, while on the other hand, while on the whole, yet, however; 5) (as) compared with/to, by comparison, in comparison with, by comparison to. 6) First..., Next..., Last...; 7) In the first/early/initial/infant period/stage/phase(或 In its infancy) ..., In the second/middle/adult/ripe period/stage/phase..., In the third/last/closing/later/concluding period...; 8) One step (way/course/approach/secret/trick)..., Another step..., Still another step...; 9) The first measure/step/move..., Next to it comes..., And the last/final/the most important measure...; 10) The direct experience/lesson/factor/way(或 One lesson)...The indirect experience/lesson/factor/way(或 The other lesson)...

13【常见对比转折词语】
1) But the obvious(fatal/serious) flaw (defect/drawback) in their argument (attitude/idea/view/action/behavior) is that.../But the basic (main/great/key/ big) problem with their argument (...) is that... (e.g. ...that they are ignorant of (blind to) a bare fact: Social changes have attached new meanings and values to the division between good and bad.) 2) But if...it is (not) easy (difficult/hard) to see (find/discover) that ... (e.g. But if they adjust their frame of mind a little in the other direction , it is not hard for them to find that life is just as promising as before.) 3) Too much emphasis (attention/stress/concern/significance) placed on (given to/focused on/attached to/paid to) the negative (sunny/gloomy/bright) side of the issue, however, may...(如 mislead/confuse/cloud/bias/disturb our judgment of it.)A (e.g. ..., however, may mislead us to form a pessimistic estimate of current situations.或..., however, may stop us from rendering (passing/forming/having) a fair(correct/clear/infallible/wise)judgment on it.) 4) But in most cases/from the point of view of justice (objectivity)/as a matter of fact/in a very true sense, their (public/general) satisfaction (dissatisfaction/disillusionment/concern) with...(或 their criticism of.../their argument for/against.../their objection to.../their approval for...) can not.../is..., for... (e.g. But in an impartial sense, the public dissatisfaction can not hold every water, for our society is still abundant in goodness and beauty.) 5) As a result of..., however, things would/are bound to... (e.g. As a result of such an utter indifference to vicious behavior, however , things would be past saving/mending/all the hope.)

14【常见情景/参照物设定的词语或结构】
1) when, if, the other day in a certain place, suppose/imagine/assume (that...), in (the) course/time of...for instance, in the event of 等; 2) in the case of, as for/to, as far as...is/are concerned, The same is t rue of..., when compared with, in comparison with, by comparison 等; 3) If there is anything that comes close to/is comparable to/with...,...t here is hardly, a thing that compares favorable with/can rival...



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