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高考英语作文完美炮制法(帮你迅速提高写作分数)


高考英语作文完美炮制法 紧扣高考英语作文评分标准 高考作文采用总体评分方式,集中在以下四个方 面: -覆盖了题目提出的所有内容要点和要求; -应用了较多的语法结构和词汇, 内容比较丰富; -在使用复杂结构或高级词汇时允许有些许错 误; -有效地使用了语句间的连接成分,全文结构紧 凑流畅。 ●高考英语作文完美行文四步骤 STEP1:确定文章框架,包括:时态、语态、格 式、展开方式、

开头结尾等。 STEP2:确定内容要点,包括:主要人物、时间 地点、重要细节、合理发挥等。 STEP3:正式开始写作,整理思路成篇,行文连 贯。 STEP4: 及粗心犯下的错误. 高考英语写作技巧汇总 (一)掌握技巧: (1)注意篇章结构,合理布局 开始部分 (opening paragraph) ——说出文中的要点、 核心问题。 正文部分(Body paragraphs)——围绕主题开展叙 述、讨论。 结尾部分(concluding paragraphs)——对全文的总 结和概括。 要做到全文中心突出、段落之间必须是有机地联 系,内容完整、连贯。前后呼应,祛除与主题无关 的 内 容 。 详 细 可 以 参 情 况 考 ESL 资 源 网 站 http://www.ESLbay.com 里面的 writing 部分。 (2)确定主题句

主题句是对全文的概括,是文章的主旨。它能在 文章中起到“画龙点睛”的作用。通常主题句出现 在一篇文章的开头,而后,全文对主题句所提出 的内容进行解释,扩展。 写主题句应注意以下几点: ① 归纳出你要写的文章的几个要点 ② 提炼出一句具有概括性的话 ③ 主题句应具有可读性,抓住、吸引读者。 (二)巧用连接词 要想使文章有整体性、连贯性,就要学会正确使 用连接词 表示罗列增加 First, second, third,First, then / next, after that / next, finally For one thing … for another…, On (the) one hand…on the other hand, Besides / what’s more / in addition / furthermore / moreover / another / also, Especially / In particular, 表示时间顺序 now, at present, recently,after, afterwards, after that, after a while, in a few days,at first, in the beginning, to begin with, later, next, finally,immediately, soon, suddenly, all of a sudden, at that moment, as soon as, the moment, form now on, from then on,at the same time, meanwhile,till, not…until, before, after, when, while, as during, 表示解释说明 now, in addition, for example, for instance, in this case, moreover, furthermore, in fact, actually 表示转折关系 but, however, while, though, or, otherwise, on the contrary, on the other hand, in contrast, despite, in spite of, even though, except (for), instead, of course, after all, 表示并列关系

or, and, also, too, not only … but also, as well as, both… and, either …or, neither …nor 表示因果关系 because, because of, since, now that, as, thanks to…, due to…, therefore, as a result (of), otherwise, so…that, such…that 表示条件关系 as (so) long as, on condition that, if, unless 表示让步关系 though, although, as, even if, even though, whether …or…, however, whoever, whatever, whichever, wherever, whenever, no matter how (who, what, which, where, when,whom) 表示举例 for example, for instance, such as…, take… for example 表示比较 be similar to, similarly, the same as, in contrast, compared with (to)…just like, just as, 表示目的 for this reason,, for this purpose, so that, in order to, so as to, 表示强调 in deed, in fact, surely, certainly, no doubt, without any doubt, truly, obviously, above all, 表示概括归纳 in a word, in short, in brief, on the whole, generally speaking, in my opinion, as far as I know, As we all know, as has been stated, as I have shown, finally, at last, in summary, in conclusion (三)掌握常用句型: 台湾英语资源网 http://www.esl.tw 里面有很多,下 面只列举比较常用的。 1. in order to 为了实现他的梦想,他学习非常努力。

He worked very hard in order to realize his dream. 2. in order that 她拼命干活以便到六点时把一切都准备就绪。 She worked hard in order that everything would be ready by 6 o’clock.. 3. so…that 他们太累了,除了伸懒腰什么都做不了了。 They were all so tired that they could do nothing but yawn. 4. such…that 天气非常冷,以致于街上一个人都没有。 It was such a cold day that there was nobody on the street. 5. would rather do…than do 他宁愿听他人讲而不愿自己说。 He would rather listen to others than talk himself. 6. prefer doing to doing 他宁愿在精心准备后去做报告。 He prefers making speeches after careful preparation. 7. prefer to do…rather than do 比起女人,男人总是宁可在家睡觉也不愿花那么 多时间来购物。 Compared with women, men always prefer to sleep at home rather than spend so much time shopping. 8. not only…but also 在短短的三年的时间里她不但完成了所有课程, 而且还获得了博士学位。 In just three years, she had not only finished all the lessons, but also received her doctor’s degree. 9. either…or 如果考试过关,你可以买一个 MP3 或去云南玩一 趟。

You could either buy an MP3 or go to Yunnan for a visit if you pass the exam. 10. Neither…nor 他是一个无聊的人,既不爱娱乐,也不爱读书。 He is a boring man. He likes neither entertainment nor reading. 11. as well as 他善良又乐于助人。 He was kind as well as helpful. 12. …as well 这个小孩活泼又可爱。 The child is active and funny as well. 13. One…the other 你看见桌子上有两只笔吗?一支是红色的,另一 支是黑色的。 Have you seen two pens on the desk? One is red, the other is black. 14. Some…others 每个人都很忙,有些在读书,有些在写作。 Everyone is busy in classroom. Some are reading, others are writing. 15. make…+adj /n 我们所做的可以让世界更美丽。 What we do will make the world more beautiful. 16. not…until 直到他告诉我发生的事,我才了解真相。 I didn’t know the truth until she told me what happened. 17. as if 他夸夸其谈好像什么事都知道。 He talks a lot as if he knows everything. 18. It is no use (good) doing… 假装不懂规则是行不通的。 It’s no use pretending that you didn’t know the rules. 19. find it + adj to do…

我觉得作听力时有必要作笔记。 I find it necessary to take down notes while listening. 20. It is + time since… 我已经有两年没见他了。 It is two years since I last met him. 21. It is + time when… 我到电影院时已经八点钟了。 It was 8 o’clock when I got to the cinema. 22. It is + time before… 不久我们就会再见面的。 I won’t be long before we can meet again. 23. It is…that… 我最珍视的是友谊。 It is friendship that I value most. 24. It is + n / adj + that / to do… 每个人都必须懂得如何使用计算机 It is a must that everybody should know how to use computers. 写作辅导:写作核心句型 核心句型 1. 开头 1. The arguer may be right about …, but he seems to neglect (fail) to mention (take into account) that fact that… 2. As opposed to (Contrary to) widely (commonly/generally) held (accepted) belief (ideas/views), I believe (argue that… 3. Although many people believe that …, I doubt (wonder) whether the argument bears much analysis (close examination). 4. The advantages of B outweigh any benefit we gained from (carry more weight than those of / are much greater than) A. 5. Although it is commonly (widely / generally) held (felt / accepted / agreed) that …, it is unlikely to be true that… 6. There is an element of truth in this argument (statement), but

it ignores a deeper and more basic (important / essential) fact (reason) that… 7. It is true that (True, / To be sure, / Admittedly,)…, but this is not to say (it is unlikely / it doesn’t follow / it doesn’t mean / it won’t be the case) that… 8. The main (obvious / great) problem (flaw / drawback) with (in) this argument (view / remark) is that it is ignorant of (blind to) the basic (bare) fact that … 9. It would be possible (natural / reasonable) to think (believe / take the view) that…, but it would be absurd (wrong) to claim (argue) that … 10. In all the discussion and debate over…, one important (basic) fact is generally overlooked (neglected). 11. There is absolutely (in fact) no (every) reason for us to believe (accept / resist / reject) that… 12. Logical (Valid / Sound) as this argument and I wholeheartedly agree with it, it appears insignificant (absurd) when … is taken into consideration (account). 13. To assume (suggest) that … is far from being proved (to miss the point). 14. A close (careful) inspection (examination / scrutiny) of this argument would reveal how flimsy (groundless / fallacious) it is. 15. On the surface (At first thought), it (this) may seem a sound (an attractive) suggestion (solution / idea), but careful weighing on the mind (on closer analysis / on second thought), we find that… 16. Too much emphasis placed on (attention paid to / importance attached to) … may obscure (overlook / neglect) other facts… 17. The danger (problem / fact / truth / point) is that… 18. What the arguer fails to understand (consider /mention) is that… 19. We don’t have to look very far to see (find out) the truth (validity) of this argument (proposition).

20. However just (logical / sound / valid) this argument may be, it only skims the surface of the problem. 2. 正文 1. Although the popular belief is that…, a current (new / recent) study (survey / poll / investigation) indicates (shows / demonstrates) that… 2. Common sense tells us that… 3. The increase (change / failure / success) in… mainly (largely / partly) results from (arises from / is because of)… 4. The increase (change / failure /success) in … is due to (owing to / attributable to) the fact that… 5. Many people would claim that… 6. One may attribute (ascribe / owe) the increase (decrease / change) to …, but … is not by itself an adequate explanation. 7. One of the reasons given for … is that… 8. What is also worth noticing is that… 9. There are many (different / several / a number of / a variety of) causes (reasons) for this dramatic (marked / significant) growth (change /decline / increase) in .. First,… Second,… Finally,… 10. There is no evidence to suggest that… 11. Why are (is / do / did) …? For one thing, … For another, … 12. Another reason why I dispute the above statement is that… 13. It gives rise to (lead to / bring / create) a host of problems (consequences). 14. There are numerous reasons why …, and I shall here explore only a few of the most important ones. 15. It will exert (have / produce) profound (far-reaching / remarkable / considerable / beneficial / favorable / undesirable / disastrous) effect (influence) on… 16. A multitude of factors could account for (contribute to / lead to / result in / influence) the change (increase / decrease / success/ failure / development) in…

17. In 1999, it increased (rose / jumped / shot up) from 5 to 10 percent of the total (to 15 percent / by 15 percent). 18. By comparison with 1998, it decreased (dropped / fell) from 10 to 5 percent (to 15 percent / by 15 percent). 19. It account for 15 percent of the total. 20. There were 100 traffic accidents in April, and increase of 5 percent in a five-month period. 21. By 1999, only (less than / more than / almost / about / over / as many as) three quarters (40 percent of / one out of five / one in four) college population (graduates / housewives) as against (as compared with) last year (1998) preferred to (liked)… 3. 结尾 1. From what has been discussed above (Taking into account all these factors / Judging from all evidence offered), we may safely draw (reach / come to / arrive at) the conclusion that… 2. All the evidence (analysis) supports (justifies / confirms / warrants / points to) a(n) unshakable (unmistakable / sound / just) conclusion that … 3. It is high time that we place (lay / put) great ( special / considerable) emphasis on the improvement (development / increase / promotion) of… 4. It is high time that we put an end to the deep-seated (unhealthy / undesirable / deplorable) situation (tendency / phenomenon) of… 5. We must look (search / all / cry) for an immediate action (method / measure), because the present (current) situation (phenomenon / tendency / state / attitude) of …, if permitted (allowed) to continue (proceed), will surely (certainly) lead to (result in) the end (destruction / heavy cost) of… 6. There is no easy (immediate / effective) solution ( approach / answer / remedy) to the problem of …, but … might be useful (helpful / beneficial). 7. No easy method (solution / recipe / remedy) can be at hand

(found / guaranteed) to solve (resolve / tackle) the problem of …, but the common (general / public) recognition of (realization of / awareness of / commitment to) the necessity (importance / significance) of … might be the first step towards change (on the right way / in the right direction). 8. Following these methods (suggestions) may not guarantee the success in (solution to)…, but the pay-off will be worth the effort. 9. Obviously (Clearly / No doubt), if we ignore (are blind to) the problem, there is every chance that… 10. Unless there is a common realization of (general commitment to)…, it is very likely (the chances are good) that… 11. There is little doubt (no denying) that serous (special / adequate / immediate /further) attention must be called (paid / devoted) to the problem of … 12. It is necessary (essential / fundamental) that effective (quick / proper) action (steps /measures / remedies) should be taken to prevent (correct / check / end / fight) the situation (tendency / phenomenon). 13. It is hoped (suggested / recommended) that great (continuous / persistent / sustained / corporate) efforts should be make to control (check / halt / promote) the growth (increase / rise) of … 14. It is hoped that great efforts should be directed to (expended on / focused on) finding (developing / improving)… 15. It remains to be seen whether…, but the prospect (outlook) is not quite encouraging (that rosy). 16. Anyhow, wider (more) education (publicity) should be given to the possible (potential / grave / serious / pernicious) consequences (effects) of… 17. To reverse (check / control) the trend (tendency) is not a light task (an easy job), and it requires (demands / involves / entails) a different state of main towards (attitude towards / outlook on)…

18. For these reasons, I strongly recommend that… 19. For the reasons given above, I feel that… 英语写作十字真经:研习、背诵、默写、互译、模仿 英语的书面表达一直以来就是英语学习的瓶颈。 在此, 笔者向各位学习者提供突破英语写作的十字建议,即 研习、背诵、默写、互译、模仿,概括出培养写作能 力的五个方面,如能严格遵循,定能柳暗花明。 研 习 “没有规矩,不成方圆。”对于一般英语学习者而言,写 出优秀的文章有赖于后天习得,但并不意味着机械背 诵、生吞活剥,或者照搬照抄、人云亦云。所谓研习, 需要有独立思考和个人的判断,本着“他山之石,可以 攻玉”的精神,汲取文章的精华部分加以研究。研习主 要侧重两个方面,包括文章章法和语言表达。文章章 法指文章的行文思路、布局谋篇、结构安排、逻辑顺 序。许多学习者面对一个话题,可能存在两种不同的 困惑,一是下笔千言,但离题万里;二是思绪万千, 却无从落笔。导致两种困惑的根源皆在于欠缺思考问 题、组织思路的恰当方式,以至于文章不得要领、章 法紊乱。这就要求我们从全篇脉络角度多研习范文, 之后领悟如何以演绎法行文、怎样用归纳法谋篇以及 如何围绕特定话题拓展思路等等。此外,研习还要侧 重于语言表达,包括遣词造句和句子、段落之间的各 种衔接手段,以期在自己日后的写作中派上用场,因 为英文写作皆通一理。只有善于借鉴,勤加研究,才 会借他人的优势和长处,提高自己的写作水平。 背 诵 背诵是提高写作的又一有效途径。要学好写作,首先 要处理好语言输入与输出之间的关系。前者是后者的

前提条件。如果头脑空空如也,就根本谈不上写出像 模像样的文章。只有读过大量东西,并且有意识地将 其中精彩部分储存于记忆之中(commit the highlights to memory),才能保证下笔流畅、文通字顺。因此,背诵 对于写作极为重要。但背诵不是机械记忆,而是有选 择性的背诵,是有意义的记忆。因为机械背诵的结果 要么是记忆很快就荡然无存、了无痕迹,要么是无法 活学活用、付诸实践。背诵包括五个方面:重点词汇、 常用套语、精彩句子、优秀段落、经典篇章。 重点词汇 美妙的用词及搭配皆在此列, fall victim 像 (受害) stand , a fair chance(大有希望)这种地道的动宾搭配要勤加 记忆。为了积累写作词汇,应将文中同属一个话题的 用词汇总归纳,组成主题词族(topic family) 。归类记 忆可以使自己日后即写即用,得心应手。下文是一篇 阐释爱心的优秀文章,多处用词精巧,现将文中关于 爱心这一主题的词汇总结如下: emotional strength 情感的力量 the noblest of human emotions 人类最高尚的情感 no thought of gain 不计得失 the lamp of love 爱心之灯 help the victims of natural disasters 支援自然灾害受害者 donate whatever they can 倾囊相助 help their needy fellow citizens 帮助有需要的同胞 be ready to give a helping hand 随时准备伸出援手 When we use the word “love”, we do not simply mean an attraction to a person of the opposite sex, which is a very narrow definition of the word. Love is emotional strength, which can support us no matter how dark the world around us becomes. In fact, throughout history people of many different cultures have regarded love as the noblest of human emotions.

As an example of the power of love, we should remember how the Chinese people of all nationalities respond to the call to help the victims of natural disasters every year. Although their incomes are still low by international standards, people all over the country do not hesitate to donate whatever they can ― be it money or goods ― to help their needy fellow citizens. Moreover, they do this with no thought of gain for themselves. In my opinion, the best way to show love is to help people who are more unfortunate than we are. We should always be ready to give a helping hand to those who are in trouble, no matter whether they are family members or complete strangers. In this way, we can help to make the world a better place, for the darker the shadows of sorrow become, the more brightly the lamp of love shines. 当我们用“爱”这个词时, 我们不仅仅指异性对一个人的 吸引,这只是对这个词非常狭隘的解释。爱心是一种 情感的力量,不论我们周围的世界多么黑暗,爱心都 能支撑我们。事实上,纵观历史,不同文化背景的人 都把爱看成是人类最高尚的情感。 说到爱心的力量,我们马上就会想起每年中国各族人 民是如何响应号召支援自然灾害受害者的。尽管按照 国际标准他们的收入还处于低水平,全国人民毫不犹 豫地倾囊相助――不管是钱还是物――帮助那些有需 要的同胞。而且,他们这么做并不考虑自己的得失。 我认为,表达爱心的最好方式是帮助比我们更加不幸 的人。 我们应该随时准备向有困难的人伸出援助之手, 无论他们是家庭成员还是素昧平生。这样,我们就能 够助一臂之力把世界变成一个更美好的地方,因为, 悲伤的阴影越黑暗,爱心之灯的光芒就越闪亮。 常用套语 套语指流行的公式化语言,在写作中适当使用颇有必

要。如在商业信函结尾,期望对方早日回复的表达方 式就要遵循套语的基本模式,使表达规范得体。下面 试举几个例子: Kindly favor us with an early reply. 请早日赐复。 Your prompt reply will be highly appreciated. 如能及时回复, 将不胜感谢。 We look forward to hearing from you soon. 早日回复。 We are expecting your prompt reply. 急盼回复。 Please have the kindness to answer this letter quickly. 请早 日回信。 Kindly let us have your reply at your earliest convenience. 请 在您方便时尽早赐函。 We would appreciate it if you could respond right away. 如能 即刻回复,将不胜感谢。 当前流行应试写作模板, 即套语的使用贯穿文章始终, 为考生提供万能公式型的文章主架,每句表达皆由固 定套语框定,考生只要背下套用句型、过渡词语,在 考试中根据特定考题填充具体内容。这种应试策略使 写出的文章矫揉造作,生硬刻板,虽可以让考生及格 过关,但绝对得不到高分。套语的过多使用不妨可以 比作大海中的救生圈,有了它,仅仅可以让不擅游泳 者保全性命,却无法自在畅游,一展泳姿。一般而言, 套语较为空洞,如使用过多,文章容易流于空泛,言 之无物。写作宜虚实结合,形式与内容相统一。下例 是一篇比较在家学习与入校读书谁优谁劣的范文,文 中巧妙地使用了一些固定句式和过渡词语,不仅增强 了表达效果,而且实现了形式与内容的统一。 There are two major arguments that can be made for studying at home. First, as advances in the electronic media have brought the whole world of scholarship into the home via the Internet and educational courses on TV, the classroom is no

longer the only place for acquiring knowledge. Second, it is widely held that a person studies better in the familiar surroundings of his own home and when he can arrange his own study time. But we must not lose sight of the fact that there are advantages to studying in the classroom, too. Being surrounded by people of roughly the same abilities and interests can be a great stimulus to acquiring knowledge, whereas studying in solitude at home is boring for many people. More importantly, there can be no substitute for a good teacher, who must not only be able to impart facts and theories, but also to appraise and encourage his students. Given the choice between these two methods of learning, I prefer the classroom. This is because I am the sort of person who finds it difficult to concentrate on study in the midst of household chores, and disturbances from visitors and telephone calls. The classroom environment, I feel, is the only one in which most people feel comfortable applying all their energies to the all-important task of acquiring knowledge. 关于在家学习,我们可以提出两个主要论点。第一, 由于电子媒体方面取得的进步把整个世界的知识通过 互联网和电视上的教育课程带入了家庭,教室不再是 惟一获取知识的场所。第二,人们普遍认为,在自己 家里这样熟悉的环境中,并且能自己安排学习时间, 一个人能学得更好。 但是, 我们不能忽视在教室里学习也有好处这一事实。 周围都是能力相近和兴趣相投的人可能会对获取知识 形成巨大的刺激,而对很多人来说孤独一人在家学习 会有些枯燥乏味。更重要的是,没有什么可以替代一 个好老师,他不仅能够传道授业,而且能够评估并鼓 励学生。

如果在两种学习方法中选择, 我更喜欢在教室里学习, 因为我是那种很难在家务琐事、客人、电话的打扰下 集中注意力学习的人。我认为大多数人只有在教室里 才能把全部精力放在获取知识这件十分重要的工作 上。 精彩句子 精彩句子指文章中句式优美、蕴含哲理的句子。精彩 句子的背诵有助于写作时的引用和模仿。如在阅读美 国前总统约翰?肯尼迪(John F. Kennedy)的就职演说 (Inaugural Address)时,可以记住诸如“Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country. ” (不要问国家能为你做什么,而要问你能为国家做什 么。 )这样的传世佳句,当你写关于爱国(patriotism)主 题的作文时,则可以适时引用。现仍以上面谈“爱心” 的文章为例,其中值得背诵的句子为数不少。摘录如 下: ① is emotional strength, which can support us no matter Love how dark the world around us becomes. 爱心是情感的力量,不论我们周围的世界多么黑暗, 爱心都能支撑我们。 ② People all over the country do not hesitate to donate whatever they can ― be it money or goods ― to help their needy fellow citizens. 全 国 人 民 毫 不 犹 豫 地 倾 囊 相 助 ―― 不 管 是 钱 还 是 物――帮助那些有需要的同胞。 ③ best way to show love is to help people who are more The unfortunate than we are. 表达爱心的最好方式是帮助比我们更加不幸的人。 ④ darker the shadows of sorrow become, the more brightly The the lamp of love shines. 悲伤的阴影越黑暗,爱心之灯的光芒就越闪亮。

优秀段落 阅读时,我们经常会碰到一些过目难忘的段落。这些 段落或者表达流畅、文笔优美,或者逻辑缜密、结构 严谨。根据表达需要,有不同的功能段落,如现象说 明段、观点陈述段、原因列举段、利弊解释段、结论 归纳段、趋势预测段、措施建议段等。有些优秀段落 可以作为写作的功能段落加以背诵,对于我们拓展思 路、规范行文大有裨益。在背诵过程中,熟练掌握各 种功能段落的行文规则, 自己在表达时就能驾轻就熟。 下面仅举观点陈述段和措施建议段各一例。 观点陈述段(陈述“民族文化应该成为世界文化”的观 点) A culture of one nation may become international, which is beneficial for all mankind. Since China has opened its doors widely to the outside world, many people from different countries want to visit China. They will come to accept and love Chinese culture as a whole. In addition, Chinese culture should be shared generously with foreign people, who show great interest in it. Meanwhile, as more and more foreigners come to China, they bring aspects of their own culture to share with the Chinese people. In this way, people from various nations in the world will be able to acquire a better understanding of each other and live peacefully together. 一个国家的文化可能成为世界文化,这对全人类都有 益。由于中国已经向外界敞开了国门,许多来自不同 国家的人都希望来看一看中国。他们会开始接受并喜 欢整个中国文化,中国文化应该大大方方地让感兴趣 的外国人分享。与此同时,随着来中国的外国人越来 越多, 他们也把他们自己的文化带给了中国人。 这样, 世界各国的人们就能够更好地相互理解、和平相处。 措施建议段(建议“人口老龄化”的解决措施)

The rapidity of the population’s aging has made it more urgent for the adoption of countermeasures. No doubt, the key is to build a solid economic foundation. Meanwhile, importance should be attached to overall social progress by changing the backward situation in social security, welfare and service. What’s more, family care and community services should also be encouraged. 人口老龄化的加速使采取应对措施变得更为紧迫。毫 无疑问,解决问题的关键是建立稳固的经济基础。与 此同时,应该重视整体的社会进步,改变社会保障、 福利和服务的落后局面。除此之外,应该鼓励家庭照 料和社区服务。 经典篇章 古往今来,英语宝库中涌现出大批经典佳作,如林肯 的《葛底斯堡演说》(The Gettysburg Address),福克纳的 诺贝尔奖演说(Banquet Speech),海伦?凯勒的《给我三 天光明》(Three Days to See)。这些文章在文字的运用上 技法高超,在思想内涵上寓意深刻,读来字字珠玑, 文字优美, 启迪心智, 含义隽永(full of exquisite words and truth, satisfying the mind, appealing to the heart)。 这样的文章 如不能熟读成诵,则无法融会贯通。背诵一定数量的 经典名篇既有助于提高自己遣词造句的能力,也有助 于加强自己表达思想的深度。下面的一篇短文是英国 哲学家罗素(Bertrand Russell)自传的序言部分,题为 What I Have Lived For(我的人生追求) ,概述了作者一 生追求的三种理想,文章在语言和思想两个方面都堪 称经典,值得背诵。 What I Have Lived For Three passions, simple but overwhelmingly strong, have governed my life: the longing for love, the search for knowledge, and unbearable pity for the suffering of mankind. These

passions, like great winds, have blown me hither and thither, in a wayward course, over a deep ocean of anguish, reaching to the very verge of despair. I have sought love, first, because it brings ecstasy ― ecstasy so great that I would often have sacrificed all the rest of life for a few hours of this joy. I have sought it, next, because it relieves loneliness ― that terrible loneliness in which one shivering consciousness looks over the rim of the world into the cold unfathomable lifeless abyss. I have sought it, finally, because in the union of love I have seen, in a mystic miniature, the prefiguring vision of the heaven that saints and poets have imagined. This is what I sought, and though it might seem too good for human life, this is what ― at last ― I have found. With equal passion I have sought knowledge. I have wished to understand the hearts of men. I have wished to know why the stars shine. And I have tried to apprehend the Pythagorean power by which number holds sway above the flux. A little of this, but not much, I have achieved. Love and knowledge, so far as they were possible, led upward toward the heavens. But always pity brought me back to earth. Echoes of cries of pain reverberate in my heart. Children in famine, victims tortured by oppressors, helpless old people ― a hated burden to their sons, and the whole world of loneliness, poverty, and pain make a mockery of what human life should be. I long to alleviate the evil, but I can’t, and I too suffer. This has been my life. I have found it worth living, and would gladly live it again if the chance were offered me. 我的人生追求 有三种简单然而无比强烈的激情左右了我的一生:对 爱的渴望,对知识的探索和对人类苦难的难以忍受的 怜悯。这些激情像飓风,无处不在、反复无常地吹拂

着我,吹过深重的苦海,濒于绝境。 我寻找爱,首先是因为它使人心醉神迷,这种陶醉是 如此的美妙,使我愿意牺牲所有的余生去换取几个小 时这样的欣喜。我寻找爱,还因为它解除孤独,在可 怕的孤独中, 一颗颤抖的灵魂从世界的边缘看到冰冷、 无底、死寂的深渊。最后,我寻找爱,还因为在爱的 交融中,神秘而又具体而微地,我看到了圣贤和诗人 们想象出的天堂的前景。这就是我所寻找的,而且, 虽然对人生来说似乎过于美妙,这也是我终于找到了 的。 以同样的激情我探索知识。我希望能够理解人类的心 灵。我希望能够知道群星为何闪烁。我试图领悟毕达 哥拉斯所景仰的数字力量,它支配着此消彼涨。仅在 不大的一定程度上,我达到了此目的。 爱和知识,只要有可能,通向着天堂。但是怜悯总把 我带回尘世。痛苦呼喊的回声回荡在我的内心。忍饥 挨饿的孩子,惨遭压迫者摧残的受害者,被儿女们视 为可憎负担的无助的老人,连同这整个充满了孤独、 贫穷和痛苦的世界, 使人类所应有的生活成为了笑柄。 我渴望能够减少邪恶,但是我无能为力,而且我自己 也在忍受折磨。 这就是我的一生。我发现它值得一过。如果再给我一 次机会,我会很高兴地再活它一次。 (方舟子译) 默 写 默写也是提高写作的一个重要环节,即把背熟的东西 付诸纸端。 这个过程不仅是为了检验自己的记忆效果, 更为重要的是训练正确的书面表达能力。在英语学习 中,我们少有机会动笔写英文,长期以来,手笔生疏, 导致提笔即错。再者,由于受汉语思维和习惯的种种 影响,在潜意识里容易犯一些英语表达错误。普遍存 在的语言错误包括主谓一致、时态处理、冠词用法、

名词单复数形式、 单词拼写等, 尤其在单词拼写方面, 很多人混淆词性, society, economy, difficulty 写成 social, 把 economic, difficult;再如字母位置错误,将 true, tired, modern 写作 ture, tried, morden;诸如此类。这些看似微妙的错误如果不加以 有意识的克服,可能会发展为根深蒂固的习惯,成为 写作中的重大弊病。通过默写,写出曾经记诵过的段 落字句,之后自我查验、批改,发现并纠正在动笔中 的错误,可以有效克服自己潜意识中的英文错误,提 高实际写作时的熟练和准确程度。 互 译 能够在英汉两种语言之间自如转换是英语学习的一个 至高境界。尝试英汉互译,即把英语文章翻译成地道 汉语,间隔数日再将汉语翻译回英文。英文和汉语在 表情达意方面存在着诸多差异,可惜学习者往往观察 不足,领悟不深。通过互译训练,比较异同,可以强 化我们对两种语言之间差异的认知,可以加强英语表 达能力。在复原成英文的过程中,词汇表达、句式结 构、段落组织、篇章布局等各个方面、多个角度都得 到复习。同时,可以有效避免中国式英语在作文中的 出现。中式英语在书面表达中屡见不鲜,根源在于学 习者受到汉语表达和中式思维的制囿。英汉互译有助 于冲破两种语言习惯的壁垒,有助于超越两种语言思 维的障碍,有助于思维与表达取得和谐的统一,有助 于将中文的思想地道流畅地传达为英语语言。互译的 实质在于巧妙地借翻译手段促进英语的创作性表达。 模 仿 在自己写文章时,应有意识地调用以前的积累,正向 迁移,融入自己的写作,包括语言表达、文章章法、 写作技巧等,最终达到学以致用的目的。如果记忆中 有像 “Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome

more. ”(不是我爱凯撒浅,而是我爱罗马深。 )这样的 经典名句,当写作有关英语学习的文章时不妨模仿这 个句式: Not that we can’t master English, but that we have not been willing to take pains. (不是我们不能掌握英语,而 是我们不愿付出努力。 正如学好书法常要描红,学 ) 好绘画常须描摹, 写好文章则需要模仿。 Beauty imitated is beauty recreated. (模仿美就是创造美。 )赋予经典的 表达以新的内涵,这也是一种创新。模仿他人目的在 于提高自己。模仿与借鉴为写作所必须。总之,Good writing favors the prepared mind. (好的写作总是照顾那些有准备的人。 ) 英语写作能力的真正提高有赖于上述概括为十字的五 大策略,望朋友们勤之勉之,将其融入自己的学习实 践,打下坚实的语言基础,真正实现从阅读到写作的 飞跃,达到英语读写能力的完美统一。逐步积累,有 所准备,需要之时就可以手到擒来,应对自如,使英 文写作成为自身的一项技能。 英语议论文的语言特点 由于与其他文体相比,英语议论文类似英语说明文, 因此,它具有英语说明文的一些语言特点,比如:时 态较为统一,多用现在时;强调语言表达的客观性; 尽可能指明信息来源等等。但作为一种独立的文体, 英语议论文在语言上也有一些自己特有的表达形式: 1.较多使用表达委婉语气的词语和句子 与英语说明文相比,英语议论文不仅需要说明自 己的观点,而且还要让读者接受自己的观点,因此, 在词语表达上除了客观之外,还必须注意委婉。在英 语中,常用虚拟语气,让步状语从句和情态动词 can, could,may,might,would,should 等。请看下面两组有 关“面试在招生过程中的重要性”的文字:

(1)No one should be admitted into(招收进)college without a personal interview(面试).What can admissions people(招生人员)tell from a piece of paper?They can tell nothing.Only when they see a student face to face,can they decide what kind of a person he is. (2)Though admissions people can learn some things from a piece of paper,such as how well a person writes and what he is interested in, there may be many other things that an application (申请表)can not tell but can only be seen in a personal interview.The way a person talks,the way he thinks about and answers questions,the way he reacts(反应) , are all important facts of a person which can not be found on a piece of paper. 两段文字都强调“大学生入学必须面试”, 但相比之 下,例(2)用了情态动词,though 引导的让步状语从 句等表达方式, 语气较为委婉, 更容易为读者所接受。 2.使用有辩论、推理等含义的连接词和过渡词等 词语结构 英语议论文讲究辩论推理的条理性和逻辑性,因 此,往往较多地使用这类性质的过渡词和连接词,常 用的包括:since (既然) ,now that(既然) therefore , (因而) consequently 因此) accordingly 因此) hence , ( , ( , (因而) in that case , (在那种情况下) because , (因为) , so(所以) 。另外,还有些句型也常出现在英语议论文 中,比如: It follows that…(因而……) ,If…,we may conclude that…(如果……,我们可以这样下结论……) , Should it be the case(如果是这样的话……) ,Idon't want to…,but…(我并不想……,但是……) If you admit…, , then… (如果你承认……, 那么……) It is true that…, , but… (诚然……,但是……) Even if…(即使……)等。 , 下面这篇学生作文较好地使用了上述这些英语议 论文常用的连接词和过渡词等词语结构,从而使文章 的辩论和推理条理清晰,富有说服力:

Some people say that they will not give up smoking because they have the right to do what they want to do since smoking is not against the law.Yes,it's true that smoking does not violate (违反)the law and therefore they can do as they like, what is equally true is that they have to be responsible but for what they do at the same time. Now I don't want to bring fears to anyone, here are some statistics but (统计数字) I've just got from newspaper:Over seventy percent of the people who died of lung cancer were heavy smokers. More than thirty-five percent deformed(畸形的)babies have smoking mothers. Even if those chain smokers (一支接 一支抽烟者) not afraid for themselves, are shouldn't they be afraid for their family members if they have got any? 英语写作中的修辞 修辞手段一般主要用于文学性写作中。但在大学 英语的英文写作中有时也需要运用一定的具有英文特 征的修辞手段,而且运用得好,会使语句生动从而增 添语句亮点。因此,掌握一些一般常用修辞手段对于 实现语句亮点也是非常必要的。对于大学英语写作来 说,主要应该掌握以下修辞手段,又称语句辞格,包 括结构辞格与语义辞格。对比、排比、重复、倒装等 为结构辞格,转义、双关、矛盾等则为语义辞格。 1.对比正反对比就是要巧妙地运用对称的英文句 式来表达互为补充的意思,因此恰当地运用反义词语 往往是必不可少的。如果一旦所要表达的内容具有这 种情况,就应尽力选用这种对称的句式并选用适当的 反义词语来加强语句,实现语句的亮点。 1)如“很多人很快就会发现,他们在物质上是富 裕了,精神上却很贫乏”,可以这样达: Many people will soon find themselves rich in goods,but ragged in spirit.(注:句中 rich in 与 ragged in,goods 与

spirit 具有正反对比的关系和效果。 ) 2)如“利远远大于弊”,可以这样表达: The advantages far outweigh the disadvantages.(注: 句中 the advantages 与 the disadvantages 具有正反对比的 关系和效果。 ) 3)如“他们注意到了这些说法中的一些道理,但 他们却忽视了一个重要的事实”,可以这样表达: They have noticed a grain of truth in the statements,but have ignored a more important fact.(注:句中 have noticed 与 have ignored,a grain of truth in the statements 与 a more important fact 具有正反对比的关系和效果。 ) 4)如“这样做既有积极效果也有消极效果”,可以 这样表达: It will have both negative and positive effects by so doing. (注:句中 negative 与 positive 具有正反对比的关系和 效果) 5)如“我们既有与我们很为相似的朋友,又有与 我们很为不同的朋友”,可以这样表达: We have friends similar to us and friends different from us. (注:句中 similar to 与 different from 具有正反对比的关 系和效果) 2.排比英文中有时也使用排比句式,这种句式整 齐而有气势,又不会使人感到单调。例如,如“读书使 我们聪明,锻炼使我们强健”,可以这样表达: Reading makes us wise while exercises make us strong. 3.重复英文一般讲求简洁,因此为表达强调偶尔使用 重复可以使语句的强调内容得到突出。英文的重复又 根据被重复词语在语句中的位置分为句首重复、句尾 重复、首尾重复、尾首重复等。 1)如“现在是忘掉过去一切的时候了。现在是言 归正传的时候了。现在是为未来而奋斗的时候了”,可 以这样表达: Now is the time to forget everything in the past. Now is the time to get down to the business. Now is the time to work

hard for the future.(注:此句为句首重复,重复部分为 句首的 now it the time to) 2)如“我们渴望成功,而且正在为成功而努力工 作”,可以这样表达: We long for success and we are working hard for success. (注:此句为句尾重复,重复的部分为句尾的 for success.) 3)如“我相信我们能够成功,我相信我们也一定 会成功”,可以这样表达: I am convinced that we can succeed,and Iam convinced that we must succeed.(注:and 所连接的两个语句的句 首与句尾部分同时重复,重复的部分为句首的 I am convinced that 与句尾的 succeed) 4)如“我们现在生活在一个新的时代,而一个改 革充满着风险与机遇”,可以这样表达: We are now living in a new era,and a new era of reform is always full of ventures and chances.(注:and 之前的句 尾与 and 之后的句首重复,重复部分为 a new era.) 4.倒装这里说的倒装不同于前述非修辞性的语法 结构倒装。非修辞性的语法结构倒装是语句的语法结 构所限定的,没有自由选择的余地,只要运用需要倒 装结构的句型就要采用倒装结构。这里所说的倒装是 指修辞性语义结构倒装,是进行强调的一种手段,它 利用了语句句首(或句尾)的特殊位置。例如,如“充 满着风险与机遇的改革的新时代正向我们走来”, 可以 这样表达: Now on coming to us is the new era of reform full of ventures and chances. 5.转义转义是一种对词语灵活运 用的修辞手段,主要有比喻、拟人、夸张、反语、婉 转等,比喻又包括明喻、暗喻、换喻、提喻等。 1)如要表达“过去的经历就像图片一样总是在脑 海中萦绕”,英文可为: What had been experienced in the past was always looming in memory like a picture.(注:此句采用明喻,明

喻的特点是使用了 like 一词) 2)如要表达“我们的英语老师就是我们最好的英 语辞典”,英文可为: Our English teacher is our best English dictionary.(注: 此句采用暗喻,暗喻的特点是利用事物之间的相似之 处进行比喻,与明喻不同之处在于不使用 like 一词) 3)如要表达“我正在读莎土比亚的书呢”,英文可 为: I am reading Shakespeare.(注:此句采用换喻,换 喻的特点是直接借用一事物的名称宋代替另一事物的 名称,使用通过联想理解其含义,但不是所有的事物 都是可以用换喻来表达的) 4)如要表达“这里需要一个帮手”,英文可为: A hand is needed here.(注:此句采用提喻,提喻的 特点是用一个事物的部分来代表事物的整体或用一个 事物的整体来代表事物的部分。 这里用 hand 一词代表 整个人) 5)如要表达“巨大的不幸笼罩着整个城市”,英文 可为: A great misfortune crept over the whole city.(注:此句 采用拟人。拟人的特点是将事物人格化) 6)如要表达“这种想法可真是伟大的愚蠢”,英文 可为: This is really a great stupid idea.(注:此句采用反语。 反语的特点是故意将话反说,具有讽刺意味) 7)如要表达“我太渴望成功了。听到成功的消息 我欣喜若狂”,英文可为: I was mad for success and on the news of success I went mad with joy.(注:此句采用夸张。夸张的特点是为表现事 物的特征故意夸大其词) 如何进行英语记叙文写作训练

高考记叙文的写作一般要求考生根据试卷中提供 的情景,组织语言材料,编写成文。一般说来,记叙 文有时间、地点、人物、事件、原因和结果六要 素, 写作时要明白、清楚地给予表达。写人时,要注意介 绍人物的身世、经历和事迹等;叙事时,要写清事情 发生与发展的过程以及事情发生的前因后果等。进行 记 叙文写作训练时,应该注意以下三点: 首先,我们要让学生学习记叙文写作的六要素 ——人物、事件、时间、地点、原因和结果,在记叙 文写作时要把六要素交待清楚。让学生学习、掌握记 叙文的中心和材料的关系,学会从具体的材料中提炼 中心,并根据中心思想的需要选择材料,合理安排情 节。让学生学习记叙文写作的顺序要求,学会正确使 用叙事 的三种方法:顺叙、倒叙和插叙。让学生学习 记叙文写作的详略要求,在写作中能根据中心思想的 需要确定详略,分清主次。让学生学习记叙文写作的 人称知识,学 会运用第一人称和第三人称进行写作。 让学生了解记叙文记人、叙事、写景、状物要准确、 生动、真实的要求,学会运用多种表达方式。 其次, 把阅读教学与写作指导结合起来进行训练。 结合记叙文的阅读教学,通过仿写、改写等手段,使 学生的读与写融会贯通。阅读记叙文,重在对记叙文 写法的分析、阐述;学写记叙文,重在对记叙文知识 运用的指导、点拨。 第三, 教学生如何确定写作中心。 根据这个中心, 思考能够扩展的材料有哪些,要避免写那些与中心内 容无关的细节。围绕中心,列出写作提纲。提纲 一定 要包含所提供的情景要点,同时要尽量使用自己熟悉 的词语与句型将其扩展成篇。扩展时要注意写作要求 的字数,防止由于字数不够而引起的扣分。

下面从三个方面来分析记叙文的写作训练: (—)叙述的人称: (1)第一人称叙述(First—person narrator): 写作者以当 事人的口气,即第一人称来叙述,把文章中的事情以 “我”的所见所闻来告诉读者, 用主观的表现手法, 给读 者一种亲切自然的感 觉, 如同亲身经历一样, 加强了 事件的可信性,直接抒发作者的思想情感,从而引起 读者的共鸣。 (2)第三人称叙述(Third—person narrator):写作者从 旁观者的角度来叙述事件,以客观的写作方法,能够 充分反映事件中各人的感受及见解,以全知的视角来 叙述。 (二)叙述的内容: 一篇记叙文应注意交代清楚事情的始末及细节, 即何时、何地、何事、何人及何因(when,where,what, who and why/how),做到有条有理,使读者易于明白。 1.事件:为了引起读者的注意,可以从一些纠纷 或交叉事件中展开,直到高潮出现,再将问题解决。 2.人物:集中主要人物的描写,记叙人物遇到的 事情及人物有什么影响。 3.时态:一般多采用一般过去时。 (三)叙述的方法: 一般叙述的线索可分为以下几种: (1)以时间为线索,按时间的顺序来展开。

(2)以地点为线索,以地点的转移为顺序来展开。 (3)以事件发展的过程为线索,或以人物出现的先 后次序来展开。 (4)以事物的象征意义为线索来展开。 (5)以人物的思想行为及认知的过程为线索来展 开。 总之, 英文写作是一个学生综合能力的书面体现, 是一个长期复杂的训练过程。因此,培养学生的写作 能力不是一蹴而就的, 而要在平时就从学生的实 际水 平出发,有目的、有计划、有要求、有检查、有反馈 地进行,由易至难,循序渐进。只有这样,学生到高 时考才能做到厚积薄发,思如泉涌、下笔如有神。 练习: 1.请将下面对话改写成一篇记叙文。 “Do you believe in life after death?”Jack’s boss asked Jack. “Yes,sir.” “Well,then,that makes everything just fine,” the boss went on. “About an hour after you left yesterday to go to your grandpa’s funeral,he dropped into see you.” 文中应该说明:(1)Jack 向老板请假一天的理由是 什么? (2)Jack 回来后,老板向他提出什么问题?(3)老板 举出什么事实?(4)当时 Jack 的表情如何? 词数大约 100。

2. 请根据下面的提示写一篇词数为 120 左右的记 叙文:(1)昨天你第一次跟着妈妈去你家附近新开设的 市场,你妈妈经常去那里买东西。(2) 市场里人很多, 各类商品随处可见,叫卖声此起彼伏,人们在谈论着 商品和价格。(3)你曾要妈妈买点鲜鱼。虽然到处都在 卖冻鱼, 但你们没费什么劲也买到了鲜 鱼。 (4)妈妈还 买了一些别的东西。(5)市场上的一切给你留下了深刻 的印象。


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