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2011年高考大纲版英语总复习知识点精讲精析与高考试题预测:第一册Unit 12 Artand literature)


第一册 Unit 12 Art and l iterature I.单元知识点全览 工欲善其事 必先利其器

高考须掌握的词汇: 1. 1iterale 2. exhibit 3. powerful 4. magic/magical 5. treatment 6.announce 7.Characteristic 高考须掌握的短语:1.series 2.in 3.across 4.in 5.around 、 Ⅱ.考点过关 过关斩将 一马平川 考点详解 精剖细解 入巿三分 一、重点词汇 1.power 巩能力;力量;权力 eg: Man is the only animal that has the power of speech.人是惟一有说话能力的动物。 You can really feel the power of the sun sitting here.坐在此处,你真能感觉到太阳的力量。 Which political party is in power now?现 在哪个政党执政? 相关链接:power station 发电厂 powerful adj.强有力的用法拓展:be in power 执政 come into power 上台;执政 eg: Davis is a power in this firm=it would be unwise to quarrel with him+戴维斯在公司里是个有势力的人.和他争吵是不明智之举。 案例剖析 旁征博引 举一反三 考题 1-1 Many countries are increasing their use of natural gas。wind and other forms of . A.energy B.source C.power D.material 考题 1-2 (典型例题 Electricity,like other forms of ,has greatly increased in price. A.strength B.force 一.Fower D.energy

考题 1—1 点拨:答案为 A。energy 活力;能源;source 来源;power 能力;力量;权力; material 材料。天然气,风都属于能源的一种形式.所以选 A。 考题 1—2 点拨:答案为 D。 2.wonder n.奇迹,奇人,故事[c];惊奇[u]v 想知道.纳闷 eg: It is one of the seven wonders of the world.它是世界七大奇迹之一。 1 wonder whether he wiIl come.我想知道他是否来。 用法拓展:It's a wonder that…奇怪的是…… It’s no, ,Iittle wonde r-. .(或 No wonder…)难怪…… 1 wonder whether/If…我纳闷是否…… I don't WOnder,/Do you wonder that…? 我不纳闷……/你纳闷……? eg: 1 wonder whether(if)he is honest.我纳闷他是否诚实。 Do you wonder that he is honest? 他是诚实的,你觉得奇怪吗? 考题 2-1 ( 典型例题 分 ) She wondered she could have the opportunity to spend here she could learn more about the city. A. if; sometime; so that B. how; sometime; so that C. when; sometimes; that D. if; some time; so that 考题 2-2 (典型例题)--John has got a very good job in the government. he looks so happy. A. It's natural B. That's because C. No wonder D. As though 考题 2~1 点拨:答案为 D。wonder 作动词用于肯定的陈述句中,后接 if/whether 或特 殊疑问词引导的从句,在此 how/when 句意不成立;some time 一段时问;sometime 某个时候; some times 几次;sometimes 有时;so that 引导目的状语从句。 考题 2~2 点拨:答案为 C。No wonder.一一 It's no wonder,一难怪……。 3.treat vt 对待;视为;治疗;款待 eg: She treats us as/like children.她把我 们当小孩看。 Are they able to treat this disease?他们能治这种病吗? lll treat you to fish this evening.今晚我请你吃鱼。 相关链接:treat n.愉快的事;某人请客 treatment”.待遇;处理用法拓展:treat sb.as/like…把……当作/像……一样对待 treat sb.to…用某物招待某人 be one's treat 某人请客 考题 3-1 (典型例题 The ticket for the con cert is too expensive,so I will stay at home. Don't worry.It’s nay . A.D1easure B.hlck C.treat D.bHsiness 考题 3-2 Please come to my birthday party . I’ll treat you a wonderful cake. A.with B.to C.for D.as 考题 3~1 点拨:答案为 C。It's my treat.由我来请客,从上文看出对方因票价太高, 所以打算放弃去听音乐会,所以用“别担心,我请客。”作答。考题 3~2 点拨:答案为 B。 treat sb.to.一用……招待某人。 二、重点短语

4.in trouble 处于困境.有麻烦 eg:A person with good mallners wi1l never laugh at people when they are in trouble.一个有礼貌的人绝不会嘲笑身处困境的人。 用法拓展:与 trouble 有关的习语:ask for trouble 自找麻烦 have trouble(in)domg sth./with sth.做某事有困难 get into trouble 陷入困境 iliake trouble 制造麻烦 take trouble to do sth.不辞劳苦干某事 save/spare trouble 省事 put sb.to troubk 给某人添麻烦 put sb.to the trouble of doing st’h.麻烦某人做某事 考题 4-1 (典型例题)The guide was familiar with this area, so we had little trouble his home. A. find B. found C. to find D. finding 考题 4-2 (典型例题 分) Im sorry to have put you to trouble of changing it for me. A. a B. / C. the D. some 考题 4-1 点拨:答案为 D。have little trouble(in)doing sth.干某事没有多少困难。 考题 4-2 点拨:答案为 C。put sb.to the trouble of doing sth.使某人陷入做某事 的麻烦之中。特别提醒:put sb.to trouble 中 trouble 前无冠词。 5.Collie across 偶然遇见;碰上 eg: I came across an old frl‘end of mine on my way home. 在回家的路上,我偶然遇见我的一位老朋友。 相关链接:表示“偶然遇见” ,可用以下形式表达:meet with happen to meet meet…by chante run across rtlrlinto 用法拓展:come about 发生 come to 达到;恢复知觉 come out 出现;(真相)大白;出版.公布:褪色;花开 come up 发芽;发生;被提出 考题 5-1 (典型例题 分 ) How did it that he was hurt so seriously? A. come up B. come across C. come about D. come out 考题 5-2 The plan at the meeting was practical. A. come up B. came up C. coming up D. comes up 考题 5—1 点拨:答案为 C。How does it come about that…?……是怎样发生的? 考题 5-2 点拨:答案为 c。come up 在此句中表示“被提出”,本身表被动.是不及物动 词词组, coming up 修饰 the plan, 句意为: “在会议上被提出的那个计划切实可行。 ” · 6.$ound like 听起来像 eg: What he said sounded like a good idea.他所说的听 起来像个好主意。 用法拓展: look like 看起来像 smoll I like 闻起来像 taste like 尝起来像 feel like 想要;摸起来像特别提醒:sound,look,smell,feel,taste 为系动词,后面可跟形容词, 名词,介词短语作其表语。系动词不能用于被动语态。 考题 6-1…Do you like the materlal? Yes.It very soft. A.is feeling B.felt C.feels D.is felt 考题 6-2(典型例题 It a good idea to sdend our weekend to gether with Grandma. A.was sounded B.was sounded like C.sounded like D.sound like 考题 6—1 点拨:答案为 c。feel 表示“摸起来”时,用作系动词,后加 soft 作表语, 不用于进行时或被动语态。 考题 6—2 点拨: 答案为 c。 sound like 听起来像, like 是介词, 后接名词, sound 和 sound like 均不能用于被动句。D 项错在时态和人称上。

三、重点交际用语 7.本单元的日常交际用语是“作出决定”及“给出意见”(makmg decisions and giving opi nions),其常用句型有: I have made up my mind... In my opinion, you should... I think you'd better/yon should... Have you decided how to do it/what to do... ? 考题 7-1 (典型例题)--When shall we meet, at 6:00 or at 6:30? A. At any time B. You make the time C. Well, either time will do D. Any time is OK 考题 7-2 (典型例题 分 )--How would you like your coffee? A. It's well done B. Very nice. Thank you C. One cup. That's enough D. The stronger, the better 考题 7—1 点拨:答案为 C。从 at 6:00。r at 6:30 可看出是在两者之间作决定,well, either time will do.“噢,两个时间哪个都行。” 考题 7—2 点拨:答案为 D。句意为:“你喜欢怎么喝咖啡?”“越浓越好, 。” 四、重点句型 8.such…that,So.一 that.一如此……以至于…… eg:He is sueh a kind man that we a11 like him.=He is so kind a man that we all like him.他是一个如此善良的人 以至于我们都喜欢他。 such 是形容词,修饰后面的名词;so 是副词,修饰后面的形容词或副词。

考题 8-1 (典型例题)Can you be-lieve that in a rich country there should be many poor people? A. such; such B. such; so C. so; so D. so; such 考题 8-2 His speech made deep impression on. the audience that they could hardly forget it. A. such B. so C. so a D. such a 考题 8—1 点拨:答案为 B。such a rich country,运用了 such+a+adj.+单数名词搭 配;so many poor people 运用了 so+many+复 数名词搭配。 考题 8—2 点拨: 答案为 D .impression 是可数名词, make a deep impression on…给…… 留下深刻印象,deep 修饰了 impression,such 是形容词,修饰中心词 impression。 五、词语辨析 9.believe in,beIieve 相关链接:believe in 表示“信任;信仰,赞成”。 eg: You can believe in hira;hei1 never let you down. 你可以信任他,他不会让你失望的。 believe 表示“相信(某人所说的话或某事是真的)”。 eg: I don't be“leve him.There is no SUCh thing in the world. 我不相信他所说的,世界上没有这样的事。 考题 9 He is a good natured person and I him.but I didn't what he said at the meetmg yesterday. A.beleve;believe B.believe;believe in C.belleve in;believe D.believe

in;believe in 考题 9 点拨:答案为 C。句意为:“他是个品质好的人.我信任他,但我不相信昨天他在 会议上所说的话(是真的)。” 10. habit, custom 相关链接:habit 指个体的习惯、习性;custom 多指一个国家、 民族或群体的“风俗,习俗”。 eg: It’s a bad habit to smoke.吸烟是不好的习惯。 It is a custom for faml’lies to get together during Chrlstmas. 圣诞节期间家人团聚是一种习俗。 考题 10(典型例题)It's a in America to fix a time before seeing a doctor. A. sense B. habit C. act D. practice 考题 10 点拔:答案为 D。sense 感觉;habit 个体的习惯;act 行动;practice 惯例。句 意为:“在美国看病之前约定时间是一种惯例。” Ⅲ.语法归纳 精通规则 游刃有余 定语从句在前面已经详细讲过,这里着重讲一下介词+关系代词引导的定语从句。介词十 关系代词引导的定语从句 本单元讲的是介词+whom/wh;ch 弓 J 导的定语从句。当关系代词在从句中作介词的宾语 时,也就是由于意义或结构上(动词与介词及形容词与介词搭配)的需要,关系代词要带一个 介词。介词可以放在 whom,which 之前,也就是放在从句句首。介词也可以放在从句中原来 的位置,也就是从句的后面。如“这是你花大价钱买的计算机吗?”我们可用以下形式:①Is this the computer for which you paid a high price?②Is this the computer you paid a high price for?③Is this the computer which you paid a high price for?④Is this the computer that you paid a high price for? 注意:(1)如果把介词提前,关系代词 必须保留,而且只能用正式的宾格形式 whom 或 which,不能用 that。(2)如果把介词放在从 句后面,关系代词 whom,which,that 大多数情况下可以省略。(3)如果是含有介词的短语动 词,不可拆开, 不能将介词放在关系代词之前。 eg: Is this the boy whom you are looking after?这就是你正在照看的孩子吗?(4)引导定语从句的关系副词 when,where,why,how,它 们的含义也相当于一个介词+ which。 考题 The two t himgs they felt very proud were Jim's gold watch and Della's hair. A. about which B. of which C. in which D. for which 考题点拨:答案为 B。be proud of sth.以……而感到骄傲,此题以 things 作先行词, 在后面的定语从句中充当 of 的宾语,紧跟介词这之后,关系代词用 which。 Ⅳ.专题探究由点及面 由表及里 专题探究: 专题详解: 在英语学习中,“It be…+从句”的句型被广泛使用,归纳起来主要有以下八种用法: (一)It be+…who/that(强调句) 句型结构为:h is/was+被强调部分+关系子句。被强调部分可为:主语、宾语、状语(表 示时间或地点)等。 eg:I met an old friend of mine in the street yesterday.我昨 天在街上碰到了我的一个老朋友。 A.It was 1 who/that met an old friend of mine in the street yesterday .昨天 是我在街上碰到了我的一个老朋友。 (强调人称主语时,用 who 比 that 更规范,后者较口语化。)

B.It was an old friend of mine whom/that I met in the street yesterday .昨 天我在街上碰到的是我的一个老朋友。 (强调宾语时,关系代词用 whom,用 that 也可以,但较口语化。) C.It was in the street that I met an old friend of mine yesterday. (强调地点状语)昨天我是在街上碰到了我的一个老朋友。 D.It was yesterday that I met an old friend of mine in the street. (强调时间状语)我是昨天在街上碰见了我的一个老朋友。 另外,原句中有 not…until 否定结构时。强调句为:It is/was not until…that… eg: Mr Williams didn't know anything about it until I told him .威廉姆斯先生直到我告 诉他,他才知道这事。强调状语部分,可以改写为:It was not until I told him that Mr Williams knew anything about it. 注意:否定词 not 提到前面后,关系子句中要还原肯定的意思。 (二)It be…+since… 在该句型中,since 引导的从句动词可以用过去时、现在完成时和过去完成时。 be 动词可以是:is/was/has been。 eg: It has been only twenty-five years since television came to control Americansiree time.自从电视控制美国人的空闲时间以来仅有二十五年。 lt was long since I had last seen her./It’s many years since we first met.从我最后一次见到她已有很长时间。/从我们第一次见面以来已有许多年了。 (三)It be…+before… before 一词作连词时在以下句子中有不同的意义: 1.Look before you leap.在……之前跳之前看一看 2.Before I could 9rotest,he ran away.不等……就不等我抗议,他就跑了。 3.It was a long time before I got to sleep again.……(之后)才过了很长时间我 才再次睡着。 4.It wasn't long before he told us about his story.……(不多久)就没过多久他 就告诉了我们他的故事。 例 3 和例 4 中 before 的含义及句型常为测试重点,学习者要学会使用,并且牢固掌握。 (四)It be…+when… 在该结构中,作为关系副词的 when 引导限制性定语从句。 eg: It was about half past eleven when it happened.事情发生时大约是十一点半。 It was not until about 1 600BC when the chariot was invented tl'mt the maximum speed was raised to roughly twenty miles per hour.直到公元前 1600 年战车被发明时,最快速度才被提升为 每小时二十英里。(五)It is not+that…,but+(that)… It is not that we are more eager or less lazy than our antes— tors, but(that)we have, with the passage of time, invented all sorts of social devices to hasten the process.不是因为我们比我们的 祖先更渴望或更勤劳,而是因为随着时间的流逝,我们发明了各种各样的社会装置来促进这 一过程。句中 that 作连词,意思相当于 because。 eg: It was not a question now how much money I should have left over for the rest of the month,but whether I had enough to pay the bill.·现在的问题不是我应该为这个月剩余的日子留多少钱,而是我是否有足 够的钱付账单。 此句中 not…but 意为“不是……而是”。 but 前后连接的从句, 即: how much money I should have left over for the rest of the month 和 whether l had enough to pay the bill 是真正意义上的主语。(六)It be+形容词/过去分词/名词+由 that 引导的主语 从句此类句型学生比较熟悉。 eg: It is noW thought that…(一 Now people thought that. . :)

It has been found that…(一 People have found that…) 括号前的句型往往比括号中的句型更地道。(七)It be+形容词/过去分词+由 that 以外的 连接词引导的主语从句 该句型中 it 为形式主语,真正的主语为后面的从句。 eg: It is not known whether agreements have been reached at the meeting.在会议上是否达成了共识并不知道。 It was not reported how many people were inj ured in the traffic accident.没 有报道有多少人在这次交通事故中受伤。 It hasn't been discovered what kind of virus causes the disease.哪一种病毒导致了这种疾病尚未被发现。在以上例句中,为避免头重 脚轻.主语从句放在后面。(八)It be true that…,but… 该句型也可以简写为:“True that….but…”,其意义等同于:“Although it be true…”。 eg: It's true that we don't agree on many things.but we have re— mained faithful friends.(一 Although it's true that we 4on't agree on many things.we have remained faithful friends.)虽然我们在很多事情上意见不同这一点是真的,但我们仍是 忠实的朋友。 It's true that we have made great success. but we mustn't be con ceited. (一 Although it's true that we have made great success, we mustn't be conceited. )虽 然我们已取得巨大成功这一点是事实,但我们必须不能骄傲。 注意:It's true that…经常和连词 but 连用。 .以上是对“It be…+从句”句型的 归纳。如果能用心总结所学知—识,使其系统化.并进行逻辑记忆,往往会取得事半功倍的 效果。 V 考题类型一网打尽 蓦然回首 灯火阑珊 回顾 1 测试考点 2 (典型例题 He hasn't slept at all for three days. he is tired out. A. There is no point B. There is no need C. It is no wonder D. It is no way 1.c 点拨:It's no wonder…难怪……。句意为: “他三天根本没睡觉,难怪他疲惫不堪。 ” 回顾 2 测试语法 ( 典 型 例 题 He was educated at a local grammar school, he went on to Cambridge, A. from which B. after that C. after which D. from this 2. c 点拨: 此题考查介词+关系代词引导的定语从句。 句意: 他在当地一所学校上的学. 之 后去了剑桥。 回顾 3 测试语法 (典型例题 he schools themselves ad- mit that not all children will be successful in the jobs they are being trained. A. in that B. for that C. in which D. for which 3.D 点拨:定语从句中 that 一般不与介词搭配.由句意可知应选 D。 Ⅳ.2011 年高考题预测 高瞻远瞩 占尽先机 一、考情预测 预测 1:wonder+宾语从句句型 预测根据:wonder"纳闷;想知道”后接宾语从句时,要根据不同的句型选取不同的连词, 肯定句中用 whether,if 引导,否定或疑问句中用 that 引导,这是高考考查的一个重点句型。

命题角度预测:wonder 后接宾语从句句型的考查通常会在单项选择或短文改错中进行, 考生务必清楚此句型的搭配。 预测 2:It’s no wonder(…)句型 预测根据:在口语中表示“难怪(……)八……)不足为奇”时.用 It's no wonder(…) 表示,这是常用的口语,也是近几年高考考查的一个热点。 命题角度预测:此句型会设置在单项选择的交际用语部分或置于听力部分进行考查.可 直接表达为 No wonder…要引起我们的注意。 预测 3:名词 power 的用法 预测根据:名词 power 可活用作形容词.修饰后面的另一个名词,如 power station“发 电站”。power 与 energy.force,strength 等名词的辨析对考生来说也是一个难点,而高考 考题关于 power 这个单词的考查在这两点上设置题目的可能性最大。 命题角度预测:对名词 power 的考查,大都会设在单项选择上, 且在 power 与其他几个 词的辨析上设置题目。 预测 4:对定语从句的考查 预测根据:在高中阶段的学习中,定语从句的用法把握对学生来说也是一个重点和难点, 高考题中对定语从句的考查每年都有.考情预测 年高考英语对定语从句的考查将继续设题。 命题角度预测:对定语从句的考查的题目会设置在单项选择或完形填空方面。 预测 5:话题预测 本单元的中心话题是“艺术与文学”,具体涉及绘画、电影、戏剧、音乐、小说等内容, 语言知识教学和语言技能训练都是围绕这些话题展开的。考情预测 年高考可能会在阅读理解 中涉及此类话题,在书面表达中出现此类话题的可能性较大,如让考生设计一场电影或音乐 会的海报。 二、考题预测 [备考 1]测试考点 1 He is a person full of _ _ A. force B. power C. energy D. source 1.c 点拨:full of energy 精力充沛,在句子中充当了 person 的后置定语。 [备考 2]测试考点 2 He is'clever and works very. hard. first prize in the competition. A. It's a wonder B. I wonder C. No wonder 2.C 点拨:No wonder…一 It's no wonder…难怪……;(……)不足为奇。 [备考 3]测试考点 4 A. to finish having finished You can't imagine the trouble that he had B. finished C. finishing the job. D. he has got the D. As if

3.c 点拨:考查句式 have trouble doing sth. “干某事有困难”,trouble 充当 imagine 的宾 语,that 作关系代词,指代 trouble, 为: “你想像不出他完成这项工作的困难。 ” [备考 4]测试考点 6 fresh air. A. go out After "the meeting, I felt like B. to go out C. going out ,to breathe in D. went out 充当 had 的宾语。所以后面要加 doing 形式。句意

4.C 点拨:feel like doing 想要干……。 [ 备考 5] 测试考点 8 much rice. A. so; so such I can't understand why B. such; so C. so; such little ani-mals can eat D. such;

5.B 点拨:such little animals 这么小的动物,such 是形容词,修饰中心词 animals,so much。rice 这么多的米,so 是副词,修饰形容词 much,much 修饰 rice。 [备考 6]测试考点 7 --I don't have any change with me. Will you pay the fare for me? ___ A. That's fine B. Nothing serious C. Never mind D. No problem 6.D 点拨:这是一句交际用语,句意为: “我身上没带零钱,你能为我付费吗?”没问题。 ” [备考 7]测试语法 Many people who had seen the film were afraid to go to the forest when they remembered the scenes people were eaten by the tiger. A. that B. by which C. which D. in which 7. D 点拨: 空格处应填入定语从句的引导词, 句意为; “peoplewere eaten b)r the tiger in the scene'’ ,所以与 in 搭配,选 D。



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