不定式 动词 非谓语动 词 动名词
时态 一般现在时 一般过去时 一般将来时 过去将来时 过去完成时 现在完成时 将来完成时 现在进行时 过去进行时
r />主动 v. /v.s ved . will + v would + v. had + Vp.p have /has + Vp.p will have + Vp.p am /is / are + Ving was /were + Ving
8 一般将来 7
1 现在完成 3 现在进行 6 过去完成 2 过去将来 5 一般过去
1. for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till/until, up to now, in the past years, recently 2. 多用在间接引语中表示发生在谓 语动作以后的动作 3. now… 4. every …, sometimes, at …, on Sundays 5. yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982, just now 6. …before, by, until, when, after 7. this morning, the whole morning, all day, yesterday, from nine to ten last evening… when, while 8. next…, tomorrow, in…
一般现在 现在进行 现在完成 一般过去 过去进行 过去完成 一般将来 every …, sometimes, at …, on Sunday now, for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till/until, up to now, in the past years, always, recently yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982, just now this morning, the whole morning, all day, yesterday, from nine to ten last evening… when, while …before, by, until, when, after, once, as soon as next…, tomorrow, in…
翻译下列句子，指出一般现在时的时态含义 1. My father never takes a bus but walks to 2. Water boils at 100℃. 3. The plane takes off at six past five. 4. (1) I'll let you know as soon as I hear fro (2) We shall not have a discussion unless 5. There goes the bell. 6. The train leaves at six tomorrow mornin 7. I hope they have a nice time next week.
现在进行时怎样使用？ 1. Hold on! I am writing a letter. 2. Cheers! I know you are translating a famous novel. 3. Mary is coming back from her visit to Shanghai. 4. We are having the midterm examination next month. 5. (1)He is always helping others. (2)She is always complaining. 6. It's getting colder and colder.
现在完成时怎样使用？ 1. My daughter has just handed in her duty report. 2. (1) They have been away for two years. (2) They have gone away. (3) We have talked for more than 2 hours and let's call it a day. (4) I have worked in China since 1997 and I won't go back to Canada until 2117.
现在完成进行时怎样使用？ 1. Here comes the bus.I've been waiting for it since eight o'clock in the morning. 2. I have been writing a novel and I won't be free until next year.
一般过去时怎样使用？ 1. The train arrived ten minutes ago. 2. I was a newspaper boy in the 1930s. 3. I used to go to school early. 4. Mother said Father didn't like smoked food. 5. If I were you, I would choose to work at home. 6. It's high time that we discussed the problem now.
过去进行时怎样使用 1. This time yesterday, we were having an English lesson. 2. When I was in Greece, he was studying French. 3. She was setting the table when it began to shake terribly. 4. It was getting dark and the wind was rising. 5. In Qing Dynasty, China was always saying Yes to western powers.
过去完成时怎样使用？ 1. She had visited China twice before she came last year. 2. By the middle of last month, I had lived in Beijing for five years. 3. If I had attended the meeting last night, I would have seen Mr. Li, chairman of the 4. He had no sooner stolen the purse than he was caught redhanded. 5. I had hoped that nothing would get worse.
一般将来时怎样使用？ 1. (1)I will go to Hawaii to attend a fashion show next month. (2)Man will die without air or water. (3)You shall have the book as soon as I get it. 2. (1)My brother is going to learn English next year. (2)There are many black clouds in the sky.It is going to rain. 3. (1)You are not to smoke in this room. (2)Tomorrow is still to come. 4. My book is about to be published.
1..I have had (have) this book for 2 weeks. 2.Every year, many trees are planted (plant) along the river. 3.Keep quiet, please! They are having (have) a lesson. 4.---Hi,Lin Tao. I didn’t see you at the party. ---Oh, I was getting (get) ready for the exam. 5.Tom goes (go) to bed early， but his brother
doesn’t. 6. Listen! Jim’s radio is making (make) a loud noise. Would you please tell him to turn it down?
一看时间状语 二观上下文联系 三找隐含条件
1） 经常性或习惯性的动作 1. I ______ ping-pong quite well, but I haven’t had time to play since the new year. A .will play B. have played C. played D. play
2） 客观真理，客观存在，科学事实或表示格言或 警句。 ①Knowledge begins with practice. ② She said that the sea water is salty. ③In some parts of the world, such as in England , tea ____ with milk and sugar. A. is serving B. serves C. is served D. served
此时句中有时有将来的时间状语，但不用将来时。 此时主主语是物：车，船，飞机等 The train leaves at three this afternoon. 4）在时间、条件、方式、让步状语从句中，用 一般现在时代替一般将来时。
①If it is fine tomorrow ,we will go to the countryside.
1）表示过去发生的，和现在没有联系的动作或状态。 1.----Look! Someone has spilt （溢出）coffee on the carpet.（地毯） ----Well , it _____ me. A. isn’t B. wasn’t C. hasn’t been D. hadn’t been 2.----I’ve bought a box of chocolates for our daughter. ---Oh, how good a dad! But she doesn’t like sweet things. _____ that? A. Don’t you know B. Haven’t you known C. Didn’t you know D. Hadn’t you known 3.----Was Mary in the office when you arrived there? ------Yes , but she _____soon afterwards. A. had left B. left C. would leave D. will leave
2）注意：一般过去时与过去进行时的区别： 一般过去时表示一个完成的动作，而过去进行 时则表示一个没有完成且正在进行的动作。 ① I wrote a letter this morning. 今天上午我写 了一封信。（信已写完） ② I was writing a letter this morning. 今天上 午我在写一封信。（正在写，不一定写完）
1.----Has Tommy finished his job yet? ----I have no idea of it ; he ____ it this morning. A. was doing B. had been doing C. has done D. did
2.As she ____ the newspaper, Granny ______asleep. A . read, was falling B. was reading ,fell C. was reading, was falling D. read ,fell
1 .一般将来时表示计划、打算、企图做某事或来注 定要发生的事情。
2 .表示将来时的四种形式 ①will /shall +动词原形 ②be going to do ③be about to do(正要干什么) ④be to do
① be going to 有很强的计划性，打算干什么，而will 表示谈话时临时决定的意图，具有临时性和偶然 性。 ----The telephone is ringing. ----I _____ answer it. A. will B. am going to C. am to D. am about to ---Alice, why didn’t you come yesterday? ---I _____, but I had an unexpected visitor. A. had B. would C. was going to D. did ②be going to 可用来表达某种迹象要发生的事。而 will 不能表示 Look at the clouds! It’s going to rain.
3. be to和be going to ①表示约定、计划或职责、义务要求即将发 生的动作。 ②be to do 安排将要干什么，有很强的计划性， 有时=be going to be to 表示客观安排或受人指示而做某事. be going to 表示主观的打算或计划。 I am to play football tomorrow afternoon. I'm going to play football tomorrow afternoon.
4．be about to do 表示“正要干什么…”， 表示即将发生的动作，不与表示将来的时间状语连用。 常与when 连用，when 此时意思： 就在这时，是并列连 词 构成句型： …be about to do …when…. I was about to leave when it rained.
（1）一般现在时表示将来，特别用于车、船、飞机 等时刻表中安排好的。 The plane leaves tomorrow.(尽管有tomorrow, 但没有 will ,be going to ) （2）某些瞬间动词“go, come, arrive ,leave ,start, begin, fly, take ”等用现在进行时表示将要发生的动 作。 I’ve won a holiday for two to Floria. I ______my mum. A. am taking B. have taken C. take D. will have been
1．表示说话时正在进行而尚未完成的动作或状态。 2．表示现阶段一直在进行的动作 ，但说话时不一定正 在进行。
①I don’t really work here. I’m helping until the new secretary comes. ②Selecting a mobile phone for personal use is no easy task because technology___ so rapidly. A. will have changed B. has changed C. is changing D. will change ③ ----Ann works very hard. ----In fact. I think she ______ just now. A. studied B. is studying C. studies D. will stud
1．表示 过去某一时间正进行的动作 。通常有时间 状语（从句），或由上下文表示。 1.---Hey ,look where you are going? -----Oh, I’m terribly sorry ._______. A. I’m not noticing B. I don’t noticing C. I haven’t noticing D. I was n’t noticing 2.-----Hey ,what did I say? -----I _________. A. I’m not listening B. I was not listening C. I don’t listened D. I didn’t listen
3． 在简单句中有at that time, then , this time yesterday / last week, at 10 o’clock last night 等具体的时间状语用过去进 行时态。 I first met Lisa three years ago . She ____ at a radio shop at the time. A. has worked B. was working C. had been working D. had worked 特别注意： 与always连用，表示感情色彩。 My brother was always losing his key.
1．表示过去发生的某一动作对现在造成的影 响或结果， 有时没有时间状语，有时有时 间状语。 They have cleaned the classroom.(They cleaned the classroom and the classroom is clean now.) 2． 表示过去已经开始，持续到现在而且可能 继续下去的动作状态。 He hasn’t given me any more trouble since then.
②----When did he go to America? -----Oh, he ______ there since half a year ago. A. went B. has been C. has gone D. was ③Shelly _____ California for Texas and ____ there ever since. You can go and pay her a visit on your way to Mexico. A. left, worked B. has left, had worked C. left, has worked D. has left , worked ④Collecting stamps as a hobby ____ increasingly popular during the past fifty years.] A. becomes B. became C. has become D. had become
1表示在过去某一时刻或动作乊前已经完成了 的动作，即“过去的过去”。 请记住： by the end of +过去时间 be the time +从句（用一般过去时）引导的句 子或主句用过去完成时）
1. The old man _____ two days after he had been sent to hospital. A. died B. would die C. had died D. has died 2. Old McDonald gave up smoking for a while, but soon ______ to his old ways. A. returned B. returns C. was returning D. had returned 4. I _____ to take a good holiday this year, but I wasn’t able to get away. A. hope B. have hoped C. had hoped D. hoped 5. Helen _____ her key in the office so she had to wait until her husband _____ home. A. has left; comes B. left; had come C. had left; came D. had left; would come
构成：have /has been doing 表示过去某一动作状态一直持续到现在，也 可能将持续下去。 ----Isn’t it hard to drive downtown to work? ---Yes, that’ why I _____ to work by train. A. have been going B. have gone C. was going D. will have gone
9.将来完成时： will / shall +have done 表示将来某一时间乊前完成的动作，常与表示将 来时间的状语连用，如： by the end of+将来时间的短语, by the time +从句（从句用一般现在时表示一般将来 时），这时句子或主句应用将来完成时 We will have finished the work by the time he comes back.. 10.一般将来进行时； will be dong / shall be doing 表示将来某一时间正在进行的动作 What will you be doing this time tomorrow?
1.By the end of this month, we surely ____ a satisfactory solution to the problem. A. have found B. will be found C. will have found D. are finding 2.The conference ____ a full week by the time it ends. A. must have lasted B. will have lasted C. would last D. has lasted
1.He stepped into the office, _____ down and began to fill in the
A. sitting B. to sit C. sat D. having it 2.She said she would telephone but we _____from her so far.
A.haven’t heard B.didn’t hear
A.has begun A.will finish A.will rain B.had begun B.finish B.rains
C.hadn’t heard D.won’t hear
C.had been on C.am finishing C.is raining C.growing D.was D.finished D.rained D.grew
3.When I got to the cinema, the film____for ten minutes. 4.I’ll go with you as soon as I____my homework. 5.If it_____tomorrow,I won’t go to the cinema. 6.She is going to be a nurse when she_____up. A.is going to grow B.grows
7.“这本书我已经买了三个月了。”，下列哪一句不对？ A.I have had this book for three months. B.I have bought this book for three months. C.I bought this book three months ago. D.It is three months since I bought this book. 8.— Come in, Peter, I want to show you something. — Oh, how nice of you! I _____ you _____ to bring me a gift. A.never think; are going B.never thought; were going C.didn’t think; were going D.had’t thought; were going 9.When I was at college I _____ three foreign languages,but I _____ all except for a few words of each. A.spoke;had forgotten B.spoke;have forgotten C.had spoken;had forgotten D.had spoken;have forgotten 10.The police found that the house _____ and a lot of things ____. A.has broken into; has been stolen B.had broken into; had been stolen C.has been broken into; stolen D.had been broken into; stolen
11.The volleyball match will be put off if it____. A. will rain B. rains C. rained D. is raining 12.Mary _____ a dress when she cut her finger. A. made B. is making C. was making D. makes 13.The students _____ busily when Miss Brown went to get a book she _____ in the office. A. had written; left B. were writing; has left C. had written; had left D. were writing; had left 14. — Have you moved into the new house? — No yet, the rooms _____, A. are being painted B. are painting C. are painted D. are being painting 15. — We haven’t heard from Jane for a long time. — What do you suppose ____ to her? A. was happening B. to happen C. has happened D. having happened
16. — Do you know our town at all? — No, this is the first time I _____ here. A. was B. have been C. came D. am coming 17. — We could have walked to the station.It was so near. — Yes, A taxi _____ at all necessary. A. wasn’t B. hadn’t been C. wouldn’t be D. won’t be 18.If city noises _____ from increasing, people _____ shout to be heard even at the dinner table 20 years from now. A. are not kept; will have to B. are not kept; have to C. do not keep; will have to D. do not keep; have to 19.Tom _____ into the house when no one _____. A. slipped; was looking B. had slipped; looked C. slipped; had looked D. was slippping; looked 20.The last time I _____ Jane she ____ cotton in the fields. A. had seen; was picking B. saw; picking C. had seen; picked D. saw; was picking
Do you remember these sentences？
1. A man is hurt badly.
2. Her lost books were usually returned to the library.
3. It must be called a pen.
Who wrote this book? Mark Twain wrote this book. =This book __________by Mark Twain. was written
被动语态: 表示主语是动作的 承受者
小窍门： 我们可以这样看被动语态的基本构成： be + 及物动词的过去分词 表示时态 表示被动 要变化 不变化 例如： 1. It is produced in China. 2. The tradition was revived by students
一般现在时 一般过去时 一般将来时 过去将来时 过去完成时 v. /v.s ved
am /is /are + Vp.p was / were + Vp.p will be + Vp.p would be + Vp.p had been + Vp.p
will + v. would + v. had + Vp.p
将来完成时 现在进行时 过去进行时
have /has + Vp.p
will have + Vp.p am /is / are + Ving was /were + Ving
have /has been + Vp.p
will have been + Vp.p am /is /are + being + Vp.p was /were + being + Vp.p
使用被动语态的场合 1.不知道或不必指出动作的执行者时。 如:（1）Computers are widely used in transport. 2.强调动作的承受者时。如： A library will be built in this city.
“be + 过去分词” 并非都是被动语态，系 动词 be, feel, seem, look等词后面的过去 分词已转化为形容词，作表语用，表示 某种状态。例如： 1. I’m interested in mathematics. 2. He seems unsatisfied with his work. 3. Tom was surprised at the news.
lock, open, shut, move, read, sell, wash, write等动词,用来说明主语的性质特征而 不强调被执行者的动作时,用主动形式表 达被动意义,且常与not, hardly, well, easily, badly, nicely等副词连用。如: 1. The door doesn’t open easily. 2. Bikes of that kind hardly sell.
1. need, want, require等动词以及形容词 worth后面,常跟动词-ing形式,用主动形式 表达被动意义。如: This dictionary is well worth buying. 2. easy, difficult, hard, heavy等形容词后面 跟动词不定式,用主动形式表被动意义,并 且该不定式与句子的主语须具备逻辑上的 动宾关系。如: What life will be like in the future is difficult to predict.
3.不定式作定语,其逻辑主语是句子的主 语、间接宾语或说话人时,用动词不定式 的主动形式表被动意义。如: She has an old grandfather to look after. 4.“主语＋系动词＋to do”结构也是主动 形式表被动意义, 主要用于“sth. ＋be to let / rent”或“sb. ＋be ＋to blame”结构 中。如: It’s not my fault. She is to blame.