高一英语导学案 定语从句简单讲解（一） 高一 班 姓名： 设计人：耿明利 审核人： 时间 2012.10.21 【概念理解】定语从句指在主从复合句中用作定语的从句。定语从句的作用相当于形容词，用来 修饰主句中的某一名词或者代词或整个主句，所以也称之为形容词性从句。被定语从句修饰的名 词或者代词叫先行词，定语从句一般要放在先行词之后。用来引导定语从句的词叫做关系词。关 系词分为关系
代词和关系副词两种。根据从句与主句关系的紧密程度，定语从句又分为限制性定 语从句好而非限制性定语从句。 在学习定语从句时，要学会正确选用合适的关系代词或者关系副词，灵活的翻译非限定性定语从 句，以及“介词+关系代词”结构中的介词的选择。 关系代词有：who 、 whom、whose、that、 which 等。 关系副词有：when、 where、why 等。 【表格分析】 指代 先行词 关系副词及相应的介词结构 时间 day,year,date,time When,during which 地点 The place, the city, Beijing Where, in which, from which 原因 The reason Why,that,for which 指人 指物 主语 宾语 that √ √ √ √ which × √ √ √ who √ × √ √ whom √ × × √ 关系副词引导的定语从句所修饰的先行词通常是表示时间、地点或者理由的名词，常见的关系副 词有 when、 where、why 等。在定语从句中，关系副词用作状语。 [分步讲解] 1 关系代词引导的定语从句 关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词，并在句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成分。 关系代词在定语从句中作主语时，从句谓语动词的人称和数要和________保持一致。 1）who, whom, that 这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词，在从句中作主语和宾语。例如： Is he the man who/that wants to see you? 他就是你想见的人吗？ （who/that 在从句中作________） He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday. 他就是我昨天见的那个人。 （whom/that 在从句中作 ___） 2） whose 用来指人或物， （只用作定语, 若指物，它还可以同_________互换） 。例如： They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down. 那人车坏了，大家都跑过去帮忙。 Please pass me the book whose （of which） cover is green. 请递给我那本绿皮的书。 3）which, that 所代替的先行词是_______的名词或代词，在从句中可作主语、宾语等。例如： A prosperity which / that had never been seen before appears in the countryside. 农村出现了前所未有的繁荣。 （which / that 在句中作__________） The package （which / that）you are carrying is about to come unwrapped.
你拿的包快散了。 （which / that 在句中作_________） 2 关系副词引导的定语从句 关系副词可代替的先行词是时间、地点或理由的名词，在从句中作状语。 1）关系副词 when, where, why 的含义相当于\"介词+ which\"结构，因此常常和\"介词+ which\"结构 交替使用。例如： There are occasions when （on which） one must yield. 任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。 Beijing is the place where（in which） I was born. 北京是我的出生地。 Is this the reason why （for which） he refused our offer? 这就是他拒绝我们帮助他的理由吗？ 3、限制性和非限制性定语从句 1） 定语从句有限制性和非限制性两种。限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少的部分，去掉它主句 意思往往不明确；非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明，去掉了也不会影响主句的意思，它与 主句之间通常用逗号分开。例如： This is the house which we bought last month. 这是我们上个月买的那幢房子。 The house, which we bought last month, is very nice. 这幢房子很漂亮，是我们上个月买的。 说明：关系代词 that 和关系副词 why 不能引导非限制性定语从句。 4、 介词+关系词 1）介词后面的关系词不能省略。 2）that 前不能有介词。 3） 某些在从句中充当时间， 地点或原因状语的\"介词+关系词\"结构可以同关系副词 when 和 where 互换。 例如： This is the house in which I lived two years ago. 这是我两年前住过的房子。 This is the house where I lived two years ago. Do you remember the day on which you joined our club? 还记得你加入我们俱乐部的那一天吗？ Do you remember the day when you joined our club? 5、关系代词 that 的用法 1）不用 that 的情况 a） 引导非限定性定语从句时。例如： （错）The tree, that is four hundred years old, is very famous here. b） 介词后不能用。例如： We depend on the land from which we get our food. 我们依赖土地获得食物。 We depend on the land that/which we get our food from. 2） 只能用 that 作为定语从句的关系代词的情况 a） 在 there be 句型中，只用 that，不用 which。 b） 在不定代词，如：anything, nothing, the one, all, much, few, any, little 等作先行词时，只 用 that，不用 which。 c） 先行词有 the only, the very 修饰时，只用 that。 d） 先行词为序数词、数词、形容词最高级时，只用 that。. e） 先行词既有人，又有物时。例如： All that is needed is a supply of oil. 所需的只是供油问题。 Finally, the thief handed everything that he had stolen to the police. 那贼最终把偷的全部东西 交给了警察。
定语从句专项练习一 Ⅰ.把下列简单句合并成一个含有定语从句的复合句 1．He has two sons. They work in the same company. ________________________________________________________________________ 2．That's the girl. I am teaching her. ________________________________________________________________________ 3．I still remember the day.On that day I first came to Beijing. ________________________________________________________________________ 4．Can you tell me the office? He works there. ________________________________________________________________________ 5．Tom has made rapid progress. It makes me very happy. ________________________________________________________________________ Ⅱ.高考在线 1． The old town has narrow streets and small houses____ are built close to each other. A．they C．what B．where D．that
5． Between the two parts of the concert is an interval, __ the audience can buy icecream. A．when C．that B．where D．which
Ⅲ.高考模拟 1． The new computer, ______he loves a lot, breaks down frequently. A．which C．that B．what D．one
2． As a student of Senior Three, he has very little free time __ he can spend developing his own interest. A．when C．at which B．in which D．that
3．The clever boy made a hole in the wall, ____he could see ____was going on inside house. A．which; what C．through that; what B．through which; what D．what; that
2．The days are gone________ physical strength was all you needed to make a living. A．when C．where B．that D．which
4． The reason _____ he was late was _____ he had to send his grandma to a hospital. A．that; why C．why; that B．why; because D．that; because
3． Whatever is left over may be put into the refrigerator, __ it will keep for two or three weeks. A．when C．where B．which D．while
5． I'm very grateful to my high school teachers, without _____help I wouldn't be so excellent. A．whom C．whose B．their D．which
4． She has a gift for creating an atmosphere for her students __allows them to communicate freely with each other.
6． Not far from the club, there was a garden, ____ owner seated in it playing bridge with his
children every afternoon. A．whose C．which B．its D．that
9． The boss ________ department Mr Li worked ten years ago looks down upon women. A. in which C. in whose B. in that D. whose
7． Mount Wuyi is such an attractive place of interest ____ everyone likes to visit. A．that B．as
10．Recently my father bought an ancient Chinese vase, ________ was very reasonable. A．which price C．its price B．the price of which D．the price of whose
8． Jack took part in the speech contest and, _____ is more surprising, won the first place.
定语从句专项练习一（答案及其解析) 制作人：耿明利 时间 2010.10.23
Ⅰ .把下列简单句合并成一个含有定语从句的复合句 1． ．He has two sons. They work in the same company. 答案：He has two sons, who work in the same company. 2．That's the girl. I am teaching her. 答案：That's the girl (whom/who/that) I am teaching. 3 I still remember the day.On that day I first came to Beijing. 答案：I still remember the day when/on which I first came to Beijing. 4．Can you tell me the office? He works there. 答案：Can you tell me the office where he works? 5．Tom has made rapid progress. It makes me very happy. 答案：Tom has made rapid progress，which makes me very happy. Ⅱ高考真题. 1． The old town has narrow streets and small houses_____ are built close to each other. A．they B．where Cwhat D．that 答案：D 解析：考查定语从句。关系代词 that 代替先行词 small houses，在从句中作主语。 句意：这座古老的城镇街道狭窄，小房子挨得很近。 2． The days are gone________ physical strength was all you needed to make a living. A．when B．that C．where D．which 答案：A 解析：考查定语从句。句意：体力是谋生所需的一切的日子已消逝了。根据句意可 知此处是 when 引导的定语从句， 修饰先词 the days， when 在从句中作时间状语， 且 故选 A 项。 3． Whatever is left over may be put into the refrigerator, ____ it will keep for two or three weeks. A．when B．which C．where D．while 答案：C 考查复合句。无论剩下什么东西，都可以放入冰箱中，在那儿可以保存两三个星期。 “where it will keep for two or three weeks” 是定语从句，关系副词 where 在从句中作地点状语。 4． She has a gift for creating an atmosphere for her students ___allows them to communicate freely with each other. A．which B．where C．what D．who 答案： 考查定语从句。 A 分析句子成分可知， atmosphere 与修饰它的定语从句被 for her an students 隔开，该从句缺少主语，所以用 which 引导。 5．Between the two parts of the concert is an interval, _____the audience can buy
ice?cream. A．when B．where C．that D．which 答案：A 解析：考查定语从句。本题中 interval 是先行词，意思是“休息时间”，表示时间， 在定语从句中充当时间状语，因此选择关系副词 when。 Ⅲ.高考模拟 1． The new computer, ______ he loves a lot, breaks down frequently. A．which B．what C．that D．one 答案：A 解析：考查定语从句。句意：他非常喜爱的新电脑频繁出故障。which 用来指代 the new computer 并在从句中作主语。 2．As a student of Senior Three, he has very little free time ________ he can spend developing his own interest. A．when B．in which C．at which D．that 答案：D 解析：考查定语从句。句意：作为一名高三学生，他几乎没空花在培养兴趣上面。 that 指代 free time 并在定语从句中作 spend 的宾语。 3． The clever boy made a hole in the wall, ________ he could see ________ was going on inside house. A．which; what B．through which; what C．through that; what D．what; that 答案：B 解析：考查定语从句。句意：那个聪明的孩子在墙上凿了一个洞，通过这个洞看看 屋里发生了什么事。根据先行词和句意可知应用介词 through，“介词＋关系代词”引导的定语从 句用 which 而不用 that。 4．)The reason ________ he was late was ________ he had to send his grandma to a hospital. A．that; why B．why; because C．why; that D．that; because 答案： 考查定语从句。 C 句意： 他迟到的原因是不得不送奶奶去医院。 reason 为先行词， the 定语从句中缺少状语，故用 why。the reason ...is/was that ...为固定句式，意为“理由是……”。 5． I'm very grateful to my high school teachers, without __ help I wouldn't be so excellent. A．whom B．their C．whose D．which 答案：C 解析：句意：我很感激我的中学老师，没有他们的帮助我就不会这么优秀。whose 引导定语从句，带入定语从句后为：without my teachers' help I ...。without 前若有 and 则选 B， 即 and without their help I ...。 6． Not far from the club, there was a garden, ________ owner seated in it playing bridge with his children every afternoon. A．whose B．its C．which D．that 答案：A 解析：考查定语从句。句意：俱乐部不远处，有一个花园，每天下午花园的主人坐 在那儿和孩子们玩桥牌。whose 引导的非限制性定语从句，补充说明花园的情况，whose 在定 语从句中作定语修饰名词 owner。 7． Mount Wuyi is such an attractive place of interest ________ everyone likes to visit.
A．that B．as C．which D．what 答案：B 考查定语从句。句意：武夷山是一个大家都喜欢参观的吸引人的名胜。 such ...as“像……那样”，引导定语从句；such ...that ...“如此……以至于”，引导结果状语从句。 8． Jack took part in the speech contest and, ____ is more surprising, won the first place. A．that B．what C．which D．it 答案：C 解析：考查定语从句。句意：杰克参加了演讲比赛，令人更为吃惊的是，获得了第 一名。四个选项中只有 which 可以引导非限制性定语从句。 9． The boss ________ department Mr Li worked ten years ago looks down upon women. A. in which B. in that C. in whose D. whose
答案：C 解析：考查定语从句。句意：十年前李先生工作的部门老板看不起女性。whose 在 定语从句中作定语，修饰 department，其先行词为 the boss。in ...department“在……部门”。 10． Recently my father bought an ancient Chinese vase, ________ was very reasonable. A．which price B．the price of whichC．its price D．the price of whose 答案：B 考查定语从句。最近我父亲买了一个古代的花瓶，这个花瓶的价格很合理。which 在定语从句中作介词 of 的宾语，其先行词为 vase。the price of which 也可以用 whose price 代 替。