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原因状语从句的用法


原因状语从句的用法 原因状语从句表原因, 以下逐一介绍高考中常见的原因状语从句的引导词: 1. because 引导的原因状语从句一般放于主句之后, because 表示直接原因, 语气最 强, 最适合回答 why 引导的疑问句。例如: I do it because I like it. 我做这件事是 因为我喜欢。 注意: “not ... because”结构中的 not 否

定的是 because 引导的整个从句,有时也 否定主句 例如: The country is not strong because it is large. 国强不在大。I 2. since 引导的原因状语从句一般放于主句之前表示已知的、 显然的理由(通常被翻 译成“既然”), 较为正式, 语气比 because 弱。例如: Since you are free today, you had better help me with my mathematics. 既然今天你休息, 你最好帮我补习数学。 注意: seeing (that), now (that), considering (that), in that 这几个词汇 与 since 引导的原因状语从句意思相近,都表示“既然”。 例如:Seeing (that) he refused to help us, there’s no reason that we should now help him. 他既然曾经拒绝帮助我 们, 我们现在没有理由要来帮助他。// Now (that) you are grown up, you should not rely on your parents. 既然你长大了, 就不应该依靠你的父母了。// Considering (that) everybody is here, let’s begin our discussion. 既然大家都到了, 我们就开始讨论 吧。// In that he is ill, he feels unable to do it. 因为有病, 他觉得做不了那件 事。注意: 1. considering 和 given 还可用介词。如: Considering his age, the little boy reads very well. 就他的年龄来说,这小孩读得 挺好的。 Given her interest in children, I am sure teaching is the right career for her. 考 虑到她喜欢孩子, 我可以肯定教书是最适合她的职业。 2. 表示“因为”的连词不能与表示“所以”的 so 连用。如: 译:因为他病了,所以没有出席会议。 误:Because he was ill, so he didn’t attend the meeting. 正:He didn’t attend the meeting because he was ill. 正:He was ill so he didn’t attend the meeting 3. as 引导原因状语从句时表示附带说明的“双方已知的原因”,语气比 since 弱,较 为正式, 位置较为灵活(常放于主句之前)。例如: As it is raining, you’d better take a taxi. 既然在下雨, 你最好乘出租汽车。// As you are tired, you had better rest.

既然累了, 你最好休息一下。// I went to bed early, as I was exhausted. 我睡得早, 因为我筋疲力尽了。 4. for 引导的原因状语从句并不说明主句行为发生的直接原因, 只提供一些辅助性的 补充说明, for 引导的原因状语从句只能放于主句之后并且必须用逗号将其与主句隔开。 例如: He could not have seen me, for I was not there. 他不可能见过我, 因为我不 在那里。 [考题 1] ____ you’ve got a chance, you might as well make full use of it. A. Now that B. After C. Although D. As soon as [答案] A

[解析] 主句与从句之间存在因果关系, 且“you’ve got a chance”表示一个显而 易见的原因, 因此应选用表原因的 now that。 [考题 2] He found it increasingly difficult to read, ____ his eyesight was beginning to fail. (2006 北京) A. and B. for C. but D. or [答案] B

[解析] “his eyesight was beginning to fail”是“he found it increasingly difficult to read”的原因, 因此本题应选用可以表示原因的连词 for 引导原因状 语从句。时间状语从句的用法

时间状语从句的引导词所表示的意思不尽相同, 要注意把握不同的时间状语从句 的引导词所表示的不同时间关系, 以及它在具体句子中对应的对应时态、 语态等问题。 1. when、 as、 while 引导的时间状语从句分析: (1) when 引导时间状语从句时表示“当??的时候”, when 既可以指时间段也可指时 间点, 从句中既可用延续性动词又可用非延续性动词, 且动作既可和主句的动作同时发生 又可在主句的动作之前或之后发生,注意体会如下例句: I’ll call you when I get there. 我一到那里就给你打电话。// When the wind blows, all the doors rattle. 只要风一吹, 这门就吱嘎作响。// He stopped trying, when he might have succeeded next time. 他 不再试了, 其实他可能下一次就成功。// When I came home my wife was cooking dinner. 我回家时, 妻子在做晚饭。 如果 when 引导的时间状语从句的主语与主句主语相同, 而从句的谓语又是 be 动词时, 那么从句中的主语和 be 可以省略; 当 when 引导的时间状语从句的主语与主句主语相同时, 往往还可以用“when+分词”的形式替代该状语从句。例如: When (you are) in trouble, ask her for help. 当你遭遇麻烦的时候去向她求助。// When I came into the room(=When coming into the room), I found him lying there asleep. 当我进入房间的时候, 我发 现他躺在那儿睡着了。

(2) while 引导时间状语从句时表示“当??的时候”, 它强调主句的动作与从句的 动作同时持续地进行, 用于这一用法时 while 引导的时间状语从句和主句中的谓语动词必 须是延续性动词, 或者主句的动作发生在从句动作的进行过程中, 主句中的谓语动词通常 是非延续性动词, 例如: Study while you study; play while you play. 该学习的时候 就学习, 该玩的时候就玩。// I met her while I was at school. 当我在学校的时候我 遇见了她。 (3) as 引导时间状语从句时表示“当??时, 一边??一边??”, 侧重表示两个 动作同时发生(包括一个主语同时进行两个动作), 或者一种动作随着另一种动作的变化而 变化。例如: He jumps as he goes along. 他边走边跳。// I slipped on the ice as I ran home. 我跑回家时在冰上滑了一跤。// I saw him as he was getting off the bus. 正 当他下公共汽车时, 我看见了他。// As the wind rose the noise increased. 刮风的时 候噪声增大。 [考题 1] I had just steeped out of the bathroom and was busily drying myself with a towel ____ I heard the steps. (2006 湖南) A. while B. when C. since D. after [答案] B

[考题 2] He was about halfway through his meal ____ a familiar voice came to his ears. (2006 辽宁) A. why B. where C. when D. while [答案] C

[考题 3] We were swimming in the lake ____ suddenly the storm started. (2004 北京春) A. when B. while C. until [答案] A [考题 4] — I’m going to the post office. — ____ you’re there, can you get me some stamps? (1999) A. As B. While C. Because D. If [答案] B [解析] 主句中“get me some stamps”的动作发生在时间状语从句“you’re there” 的过程之中, 因此应选 while 表示这一时间关系(属于 while 引导时间状语从句的两大基本 用法之一)。注意: as 有时也可用于表示主句的动作发生在从句动作的过程中, 但这一用 法不是 as 引导时间状语从句的主要用法, 表示主句的动作发生在从句动作的进行过程中时 用 while 更为常见, 因此 B 选项是最佳选项。 D. before

[考题 5] ____ the days went on, the weather got worse. (1990) A. With B. Since C. While D. As [答案] D

[解析] 表示“the days went on”、 “the weather got worse”两个相互伴随地 进行变化的动作, 应选 as 表示这一时间关系(while 不适合用于这样的语境)。 [考题 6] Tom ____ into the house when no one ____. (1992) A. slipped; was looking B. had slipped; looked C. slipped; had looked D. was slipping; looked [答案] A [解析] 题干当中的 when 表示“当??的时候”, slip 表示“偷偷地、 悄悄地移 动”,在本题中表示非延续性的动作——“溜进了教室”的结果,不适合用进行时态表示。 第一个下划线处应填入 slipped, 以一般过去时客观描述在过去某一时间上发生的动作; look 表示延续性的动作, 可以持续进行, 所以第二个下划线处应填入 was looking, 以 过去进行时描述汤姆溜进教室的大背景。 注意: 如果主句的动作发生于表示“当??时”的时间状语从句中的动作的进行过程 中, 从句常用进行时。例如: The landlady suspected that someone must have broken into the house when/while/as she was watching TV show. 女房东怀疑在她看电视时曾 有人闯入屋里。// When/While/As Tom was reading, Jim was arrested. 在汤姆看书的时 候, 吉姆被逮捕了。 [考题 7] I ____ along the street looking for a place to park when the accident ____. (2006 安徽) A. went; was occurring B. went; occurred C. was going; occurred D. was going; had occurred [答案] C

[解析] 根据题干句子含义, 事故发生于当我沿街行驶、 寻找停车之处的时候; 从 句的动作发生在主句动作的过程中。 主句的谓语动词 go 表示非延续性的动作, 可以持续进 行, 应选用过去进行时的形式, 从句的谓语动词为非延续性动词, 应以一般过去时的形 式表结果。 2. before 和 after 引导的时间状语从句分析: before 引导时间状语从句时表示主句的动作发生在从句动作之前, after 引导时间状 语从句时表示主句的动作发生在从句动作之后。例如: See me before you leave. 在你离 开之前来见我。// Before they drive any of the buses, they will have to pass a special test. 在驾驶公共汽车之前, 他们必须通过专门测验。// I saw them after I arrived. 在

我抵达之后, 我见到了他们。// I found his pen after he has left. 在他走后, 我找 到了他的笔。 [考题 8] He was told that it would be at least three more months ____ he could recover and return to work. (2007 江西) A. when B. before C. since D. that [答案] B [考题 9] It

[解析] 表示“他康复并返回工作岗位之前至少还需要三个月”, was some time ____ we realized the truth. (2005 山东) A. when B. until C. since D. before [答案] D

[解析] 题干意为: 过了一段时间我们才意识到真相。下划线处应填入表示“在?? 之前”的连词。 [考题 10] — How long do you think it will be ____ China sends a manned spaceship to the moon? — Perhaps two or three years. (2006 福建) A. when B. until C. that D. before [答案] D

[解析] 下划线处所在的宾语从句采用一般将来时, 题干中第一句话问将来某一活动 之前的时间, before 最为适合。 [考题 11] — Why didn’t you tell him about the meeting? — He rushed out of the room ____ I could say a word. (2006 四川) A. before B. until C. when D. after [答案] A

[解析] 根据题干中第一句话的提示, 第二句话中的“he rushed out of the room” 发生于“I could say a word”之前。 3. till 和 until 引导的时间状语从句分析: till 和 until 这两个词作连词和介词时的意义和用法相同, 一般可以换用(放在句首 时通常用 until 的形式, till 在口语中更为常见)。till 和 until 引导时间状语从句时跟 主句里肯定形式或否定形式的、 表示延续性动作的谓语动词连用表示“到??为止”, 跟 主句里否定形式的、表示非延续性动作的谓语动词连用表示“直到??才(开始)”,例如: Walk till you come to a white house. 一直走到一座白房子为止。// We didn’t discuss the problem until he came back. 我们一直等到他回来后才讨论问题。

[考题 12] It is difficult for us to learn a lesson in life ____ we’ve actually had that lesson. (2007 天津) A. until B. after C. since D. when [答案] A

[解析] 题干的句子可以直译为: “在我们一生中, 学到某个教训是困难的, 直到 我们真正经历了这个教训为止。” [考题 13] A good storyteller must be able to hold his listeners’ curiosity ____ he reaches the end of the story. (2003 上海) A. when B. unless C. after D. until [答案] D

[解析] 讲故事的人应该始终抓住听众的好奇心, 本题应选用表示“到??为止”(跟 主句里肯定形式的表延续性动作的谓语动词连用)的 until 表示这一时间关系。 [考题 14] I don’t really work here; I ____ until the new secretary arrives. (1994) A. just help out B. have just helped out C. am just helping out D. will just help out [答案] C

[解析] “I don’t really work here”表明说话人只是临时前来帮忙, “until the new secretary arrives”表明说话人, 工作到新秘书就任为止, 本题应选用表示“到?? 为止”(跟主句里肯定形式的表延续性动作的谓语动词连用)的 until 表示这一时间关系。 [考题 15] They ____ the train until it disappeared in the distance. (1998) A. saw B. watched C. noticed D. observed [答案] B

[解析] 题干中的主句为肯定句, until 需要跟主句里肯定形式的表延续性动作的谓 语动词连用, 因此本题应选表示延续性动作的 watched(其他选项中的 saw, noticed, observed 所表示的动作都不能延续, 意味着结果)。 [考题 16] —Was his father very strict with him when he was at school? —Yes. He had never praised him ____ he became one of the top students in his grade. (2003 北京春) A.after B.unless C.until D.when [答案] C

[解析] until 跟主句里否定形式的、 表非延续性动作的谓语动词连用时, 表示“直 到??才(开始)”, 本题应选 until 与主句中的“never praised”对应, 表示“他的父 亲直到他成为年级里的尖子生之一时才开始称赞他”。

[考题 17] “You can’t have this football back ____ you promise not to kick it at my cat again,” the old man said firmly. (2006 广东) A. because B. since C. when D. until [答案] D

[解析] 题干中的直接引语较为复杂, 根据“promise”的提示, 该直接引语应表示 一种假设, 意为: 你将不能拿回这足球, 直到你承诺不再把它踢向我的猫。 4. since 引导的时间状语从句分析: since 引导的时间状语从句表示“自从??以来”, 其用法主要有两种: (1) 现在完成时的主句+since 引导的一般过去时态的时间状语从句。例如: He hasn’t been home since he graduated. 他毕业后没回过家。// They have been friends ever since they were in grade school. 他们从小学起就一直是好朋友。// What have you been doing since I last saw you? 自我上次和你见面以后, 你在做什么? (2) It be(主句中谓语用一般式和用完成式区别不大, 后者更具强调意味)+表示一段 时间的词汇+since 引导的时间状语从句。例如: It is two years since I became a postgraduate student. 我成为研究生已经有 2 年了。 was three years since we had been It there. 我们在那儿已呆了三年。 注意: since 做介词时也表示“自从??以来”, 其具体用法有两种情况: (1) since+表示过去某个时间点的词汇(如具体的年、 月、 日期、 钟点)。 例如: They have been friends since childhood. 他们从幼时起一直是好朋友。 She’s been skiing since childhood. 她从幼时起就开始滑雪。I have been there many times since the war. 自那次战争以来, 我曾去该地多次。 (2) since+表示一段时间的词汇+ago。 例如: I have been here since five months ago. 五个月以来我一直在这里。 [考题 18] — What was the party like? — Wonderful. It’s years ____ I enjoyed myself so much. (1993) A. after B. before C. when D. since [答案] D

[解析] since 表示“自从??以来”。 [考题 19] They ____ friends since they met in Shanghai. (1989) A. have made B. have become C. have been D. have turned

[答案] C [解析] 题干中的 since 表示“自从??以来”, 主句中的谓语动词应该表示从他们 在上海相遇至今的持续性的动作, 因此下划线处应填入可以表示持续性状态的 have been(其他选项中的 made、 become、 turned 所表示的动作都不能延续, 意味着结果)。

单项选择 ( )1. The scientists had got everything ready the satellite was sent up into space. A. after B. before C. since D. as soon as ( )2. I knew nothing about it you told me. A. because B. until C. if D. since ( )3. He sang _______ he walked. A. because B. since C. until D. as ( )4. I want to be a teacher ________ I love teaching. A. until B. after C. because D. as soon as ( )5. The twin sisters have learned a lot _____ they came to China. A. when B. as soon as C. since D. after ( )6. I was reading a newspaper _____ he came in. A. as soon as B. since C. while D. when ( )7. _____ Millie was watching TV, Andy gave her a call. A. Before B. As soon as C. Since D. While ( )8. _____ he was out of the room, he turned back and knocked at the teacher’s door again. A. Before B. Since C. As soon as D. Until ( )9. _____ there are too many people here, _____ we have to find another hotel. A. Because of; / B. /; but C. Since; / D. /; if ( )10. The street was wet, _____ it rained last night. A. so B. before C. for D. after 【亲身体验】 单项选择 ( )1. The scientists had got everything ready the satellite was sent up into space. A. after B. before C. since D. as soon as ( )2. I knew nothing about it you told me. A. because B. until C. if D. since ( )3. He sang _______ he walked. A. because B. since C. until D. as ( )4. I want to be a teacher ________ I love teaching. A. until B. after C. because D. as soon as

(

)5. The twin sisters have learned a lot _____ they came to China. A. when B. as soon as C. since D. after ( )6. I was reading a newspaper _____ he came in. A. as soon as B. since C. while D. when ( )7. _____ Millie was watching TV, Andy gave her a call. A. Before B. As soon as C. Since D. While ( )8. _____ he was out of the room, he turned back and knocked at the teacher’s door again. A. Before B. Since C. As soon as D. Until ( )9. _____ there are too many people here, _____ we have to find another hotel. A. Because of; / B. /; but C. Since; / D. /; if ( )10. The street was wet, _____ it rained last night. A. so B. before C. for D. after Key: 1-5 BBDCC 6-10 DDCCC


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