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高一英语定语从句复习课件


The Attributive Clause
定语从句

定语可以由形容词、代词、数词、名词、分词、 不定式、介词短语等来担任,修饰名词。(以分词、介词 短语为例) 例: The girl behind the tree is Kate. The man driving too fast was a drunk. ?定语从句 在英语中,修饰名词或代

词的句子叫定语从句。

例: The girl who is behind the tree is Kate.
The man who was driving too fast was a drunk.

?先行词和关系词
?先行词:被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词。 ?关系词:引导定语从句的词叫关系词。 ?先行词、关系词/引导词 {对等

}
代替
bike

That is the bike which my father bought for me.
先行词=关系词

?关系词的作用:既引导定语从句,又在定 语从句中充当某种成分。

定语从句的特点:用来修饰或限定一个名 词,并放在名词之后. 引导定语从句的关系代词和关系副词的作 用: 1 引导定语从句,起引导词作用. 2 代替被修饰词. 3 在从句中充当句子成分: 关系代词 that,which,who 在从 句中作主语\宾语; whom作宾语; whose作定语. 关系副词 where,when,why 在句 中作地点状语,时间状语,原因状语.

定语从句的种类:限定性定语从句和非限 制性定语从句。 限定性定语从句:对先行词起修饰和限定 作用,是不可缺少的成分,没有了附加信 息,我们就不知道谈论的是谁或是什么 事,在这样的从句中不使用逗号. 非限制性定语从句:非限制性定语从句中 的附加信息可以省去,没有了附加信息, 我们仍能清楚谈论的是谁,什么事,这样 的从句使用逗号.

关 系 词 在 从 句 中 充 当 成 分
先 行 词 主语 宾语
(可省)

定语 地点

状 时间

语 原因 方式

指 人

who,

whom , whose ,

that

that ,
who

of whom



which , which , whose , where / when / that , that , as ( prep. prep. prep.

why / prep.

that / prep.

物 as

+) which + which + which + which + which

the handsome the tall the strong the clever the naughty

boy

The boy is Tom. The boy who is handsome is Tom. The boy who is tall The boy who is strong The boy who is clever The boy who is naughty is Tom. is Tom is Tom is Tom.

The boy is Tom. The boy is smiling. The boy who is smiling is Tom.
(主语)

The boy is Tom. The boy has a round face. The boy who has a round face is Tom.

The boy is Tom. He sits in front of me. The man who sits in front of me is Tom.

? The man is kind. Everyone likes him.

The man (who) everyone likes is kind.
(宾语) ? The woman got the job.

We saw her on the street. The woman (whom) we saw on the street got the job.
? The teacher will give us a talk.

We met the teacher yesterday. The teacher (whom) we met yesterday will give us a talk.

关系代词:
1. who指人,作主语或宾语 (作宾语可省略)

The man who I talked with is our teacher. A person who steals things is called a thief.
2. whom指人,作宾语 (作宾语可省略, 如介词提前则不能省) The man (whom/who) I nodded to is Mr. Li. The man to whom I nodded is Professor Li.

3. 作定语用whose 如: (a) He is the man whose car was stolen last week. (b) It was a meeting whose importance I did not realize at that time.
注:“whose +名词中心词 ”这一结构在定 语从句中既能作主语(如上a句),又能作 宾语(如上b句)。whose 的先行词常用来 指人,但有时也可以用来指具体事物或抽象 概念, 这时可以与of which 结构互换。

词序是:“the+名词+of which”,如: They came to a house whose back wall had broken down. (= the back wall of which) He’s written a book the name of which I’ve completely forgotten. (= whose name)
4.作表语只用that, 它既可以指人,也可 以指物, 但时常省略。例如: He is no longer the man that he used to be. This is no longer the dirty place (that) it used to be.

难点:whose
Join the following pair of sentences. The teacher praised the student. His English is the best in our class. The teacher praised the student whose English is the best in our class. whose =the student’s

关系词whose实际上是先行词的所有格

The house is mine. The window of the house is broken. The house whose window is broken is mine. whose=the house’s window
the window of which is broken

The house
of which the window is broken

is mine.

?关系代词与介词
介词放在关系代词的前面时,介词宾语只能用which代物, 和whom代人。(介词在末尾时,关系词可以省略)

1)This is the hero( whom) we are proud of.
This is the hero of whom we are proud . This is the hero (that) we are proud of . 2)She is the girl whom I went with there. She is the girl with whom I went there. She is the girl that I went with there. She is the girl 省略 I went with there. 注意:
固定动介词组不可分割,介词不能提前.例如:look after,look at …

the red the green the small the big

apple
is mine.

The apple which is red

The apple which is green is yours.

The apple which is red

is small

The apple which is green is big.

? Mrs. Clark is angry with the goat. The goat is eating her flowers. Mrs. Clark is angry with the goat which is eating her flowers.

? Can you lend me the book? You talked about it last night. Can you lend me the book (which) you talked about last night. Can you lend me the book about which you talked last night?

Do you find the pen? I wrote with it just now. Do you find the pen (which) I wrote with just now? Do you find the pen with which I wrote just now?

3. which 指物,作主语或宾语 (作宾语可省略, 如介词提前则不能省)

These are the trees which were planted last year.
This recorder (which) he is using is made in Japan. Is this the library (which) you borrow books from? Is this the library from which you borrow books?

? that 指人/物,作主语或宾语 (作宾语可省略)

A plane is a machine. It can fly. A plane is a machine that can fly.

He is the man. I told you about him. He is the man (that) I told you about.

4. that 指人/物,作主语或宾语 (作宾语可省略)
A plane is a machine that can fly. He is the man (that) I told you about.
? 注意:介词提前时只能用which 而不能用that 。 Is this the library from which you borrow books? from that

(1) The scientist is very famous in the world. We met her yesterday.
The scientist ? we met yesterday is very famous who in the world. whom that (2) The dress is new. She is wearing it. The dress that she is wearing is new. which ?

? that和which在指物的情况下一般都可以互换, 但在下列情况下, 一般用that而不用which。
(1) 先行词为all, everything, nothing, something, anything, little, much ,none,the one等不定代词时。 I am sure she has something (that) you can borrow. (2)先行词被all, every, no, some, any, little, much等 修饰时。 I’ve read all the books that are not mine. (3)先行词被序数词或最高级修饰时。 This is the first book (that) he has read. (4)先行词被the only, few, just, right, the very, the same, the last修饰时。 This is the very book that belongs to him.

(5)当先行词为人和物的名词词组时。 They talked of persons and things (that) they remembered in the school. (6)当先行词指物,在句中作表语。 This is the book that you borrowed . (7)主语前有 who,whom时 (8)在 there be或 there live 结构中,先行词指 物时 There is a book on the desk that I am interested in. (9)在 way 方法后,常用 that 代替 in which结构 That was the way (that) he did it. (10) time 表示次数,前有序数词修饰时。

(11)先行词前有 the same 修饰时或当先行词和关 系代词指同一个人或物时。 This is the same man that/ who I told you. (12)当疑问词 who,which,what 开头的疑问句为避 免重复用 that. 只用which不用that的情况 (1)引导非限制性定语从句时。 (2)当关系词前有介词时 The room in which my family live . (3)当先行词本身为 that 时. That which you told him about is what we want to know.

表示人的关系代词 who在口语中可代替 whom,但关系代词前有介词时, 只能用 whom,但如果把介词放在句尾,两者都可以 用。 Eg:Here is the girl who/whom we have been looking for. Here is the girl for whom we have been looking . 关系代词 as引导的定语从句 A, as引导的定语从句可指人也可指物,常与 the same,such, so等连用,在句中作 主语,宾语,表语等。 Eg: Such peole as you described just now are rare today. (as代替人,作宾语)

He is not the same man as he was. (as代替人,作表语) Let’s discuss such problems as concern everyone of us. (as代替事物,做主语) B.关系代词 as可引导非限制性定语从句,代替 整个主句的意思,其位置比较灵活,可位于句首, 句中,句末.而 which引导的非限制性定语从 句只能置于主句之后。 As we all know, English is easy to learn. English, as we all know, is easy to learn. as有时也可作关系副词 引导定语从句,与关 系代词一样,主句中也应该有the same, such, so等与之相呼应,as在从句中作状语。

Eg: I shall use the instrument in such a way as he used it yesterday. (as指代 in such a way)
the very place 后用 where引导定语从句

关系代词和关系副词的选择
1.代替先行词的关系词在从句中担任什么成分。 2.先行词表示的是人,物,时间,地点还是原 因。 3.引导的是限制性还是非限制性定语从句。

as 和which在引导非限制性定语从句时,这两个关系代 词都指主句所表达的整个意思,且在定语从句中都可以 作主语和宾语。但不同之处主要有两点: (1) as 引导非限制性定语从句,可放在主句之前,或 者主句之后,甚至可以切割一个主句;which引导的非 限制性定语从句只能放在主句之后。另外,as有“正 如……,正像……”的意思 (2)as 代表前面的整个主句并在从句中作主语时, 从句中的谓语必须是系动词;若为行为动词,则从句中 的关系代词只能用which。

The Attributive clauses caused by “as"
1. The sun heats the earth, ______ is very important to us.
2. He failed in the exam, _____ was expected. A. that D. it B. as C. which

E. B & C

当先行词为主句时,关系词用which或as,它们的区
别在于,as含有“正如”的意思。

? 注意 ? 3.I want to buy the same pen _____ you are using. ? 4.This is the same bicycle ____ I have lost. ? A. that B. as C. which ? D. it E. A & B ? “the same…as…” 引导的定语从句表示从句所 指的物品与先行词所指的物品为同一类事物,即 同一个款式的,或同一个牌子等。 ? “the same…that…”引导的定语从句表示从句 所指的物品与先行词所指的物品为同一事物。

? 5. This is _____ stone _____ no one can lift it. ? 6. This is _____ stone _____ no one can lift. ? A. so heavy a, that B. so a heavy, as ? C. such a heavy, as D. such heavy a, that ? “so\such…that….”引导的是结果状语从 句,从句的成分是完整的,也就是说that只起连 接作用。 ? “so\such… as…”引导的是定语从句,从 句的成分是不完整的,也就是说as代替先行词在 从句中充当成分。

附加部分
————关系副词 关系副词是用来引导定语从句的,它和关系代词一样,具有 数种作用。 o 在从句中代替先行词。

o在句中作状语。
o连接作用,把两个句子连接成为一个带有定语从句的复合句。 关系副词有三种: where:在从句中作地点状语,指代地点. ( on/in/at…which)=that

when: 在从句中作时间状语,指代时间。(on/ in…which)=that
why: 在从句中作原因状语,指代原因。 =that

?关系副词的用法:
1.where 的用法:(先行词应是地点名词)
The hotel wasn’t clean. + We stayed at the hotel. We stayed there.

=The hotel where we stayed wasn’t clean.
先行词 = 关系词 从句

=The hotel at which we stayed wasn’t clean.
从句

=The hotel which we stayed at wasn’t clean =The hotel 关系词略we stayed at wasn’t clean .

共有五个 不同的句 子来表达。

2.when的用法: (先行词应是表示时间的名词) I’ll never forget the day.

+

I joined the League on that day. 从 句

I’ll never forget the day that I joined the League.(口语) I’ll never forget the day on which I joined the League . I’ll never forget the day when I joined the League. 3.why的用法: ( 表示原因的名词) The reason why I’m calling you is to invite you to a party.

The reason that I’m calling you is to invite you to a party
The reason 略 I’m calling you is to invite you to a party

在口语中,关系副词where、when、why 常被that 代替,也可省略。

关系副词的用法

关系副词 when
where why

指代 时间
地点 原因

是否可 所做成分 省略 状语
状语 状语


否 否

介词+关系代词的情况 1
The man
The city which she lives in is far away.

whom you spoke to was a scientist.

介词+关系代词的情况 2
Are these two sentences right? The man who/whom you spoke to was a scientist. The city that/which she lives in is far away.

介词+关系代词的情况 3
Are these two sentences right? The man to who/whom you spoke was × a scientist.
The city in that/which she lives is far away. × 可见, who, that 不能用于介词之后。

介词+关系代词的情况 4
下面两句中的介词能提前吗?
Is this the watch that you are looking for? The old man whom I am looking after is better. 在固定短语中介词不能提前。

介词 + which / whom 介词的确定方法:
1. 根据先行词来确定 This is the pot in which I boiled the milk. This is the pot (which / that) I boiled the milk in. 1979 was the year in which my son was born. (= when) This is the place in which I grew up. (= where)

2. 根据从句中的谓语动词或形容词来确定 The person to whom I complained is the manager. The person (who/whom/that) I complained to is the manager. 3. 当介词和从句中的动词构成固定词组 时, 介词不能前置 The babies whom the nurses are looking after are very healthy.

判断关系代词与关系副词
方法一:

用关系代词,还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。 及物动词后面无宾语,就必须要求用关系代词;而不及物 动词则要求用关系副词。例如: This is the mountain village where I stayed last year. I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you.

方法二:
准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、 定、状),也能正确选择出关系代词/关系副词。
1.Is this museum ___ you visited a few days age? A. where B. that

C. on which

D. the one

2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held. A. where B. that C. on which D. the one

例1变为肯定句: This museum is ___ you visited a few days ago. 例2变为肯定句:

This is the museum ___ the exhibition was held. 在句1中,所缺部分为宾语,而where, that, on which 都不能起到宾语的作用,只有the one既做了主句的表语, 又可做从句的宾语,可以省略关系代词,所以应选D。 而句2中, 主、谓、宾俱全,从句部分为句子的状语表地 点,既可用副词where,又因 in the museum词组,可 用介词in + which 引导地点状语。而此题中,介词on 用的不对,所以选A。

关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分,先行 词在从句中做主、定、宾语时,选择关系代词 (who, whom, that, which, whose); 先行词在从句中做状语时,应选择关系副词 ( where 地点状语,when 时间状语,why 原因状语) 。

II.关系副词( when, where, why) D 1.We visited a factory ____ makes toys for children.
定从,关系词做主语

in which A = toys are made 2.We visited a factory _____ for children.
定从,关系词做地点状语

A 3. You can go ______ you want. 地点状语从句 A. where C. \ B. to which D. that

D 4.Summer is the season ______ my favorite season is.
定从,关系词做表语,一般用

B 5.Summer is the season _____ I like to travel.
定从,关系词做时间状语

“that”

6. I will visit you ______ it’s B you.
时间状语从句

convenient for

A. which
C. on which

B. when
D. that

定语从句的辨认与使用
思考步骤: (1)找出先行词 a.确定关系代词的人称、数和性 b.确定从句位置(一般在先行词之后) (2)确定关系代词在从句中所担任的成 (3)确定从句时态

典型题例解析
? 1. If a shop has chairs ______ women ? can park their men, women will spend ? more time in the shop. ? A. that B. which ?解析:答案D 先行词chairs在定语从 C. when D. where 句中作状语,用where。

? 2. — Why does she always ask you for ? help? ? — There is no one else _____, is there? ? A. who to turn to ? B. she can turn to ? C. for whom to turn ? D. for her to turn 解析:答案B one是先行词,省略了 关系代词that。

? 3. Many people who had seen the film ? were afraid to go to the forest when ? they remembered the scenes _______ ? people were eaten by the tiger. ? A. in which B. by which ?解析:答案A 该题考查定语从句介词 C. which D. that +关系代词。

? 4. Do you still remember the chicken ? ? ? farm _______ we visited three months ago? A. in which B. by which

? 解析:答案C 先行词farm在从句中作 C. which D. that
visit的宾语。

? 5. Is this the only reason _______ at the ? meeting for his carelessness in his ? work? ? A. that he explained ? B. what he explained ? C. why he explained ? D. which he explained 解析:答案A 先行词前有the only, the very, the right等修饰时,要用 that。

基础练习
1. Is that the house ____ you bought last year? A. where B. which 2. Is that the picture ___ you are laughing at? A. which B.where 3. It is the most interesting book ___I’ll ever read. A. which B. that

B 4.The street ______is to the park is very narrow. A. where B. which 5.The person ___finds my watch will get A a reward. A. who B. when 6.This is the room __ we listened to the B lecture. A. which B. where

7.The boy ___mother is ill can not B come to the party. A. who B. whose 8.Tell me the reason ___ you are late. B A. which B. why

Choose the best answers:
1.This is all____I know about the matter. A.that B.what C.who D.whether 2.Is there anything else_____you want? A.which B.that C.who D.what 3.The last place _____we visited was the Great Wall. A.which B.that C.where D. it

4. Please take the second chair_______is over there. A. where B. which C. who D. that

5.Is oxygen the only gas __ helps fire burn? A. that B./ C.which D.it 6.Finally, the thief handed everything _____ he had stolen to the police (NMET98’) A. which B. what C. whatever D. that

7. All of the flowers now raised here have
developed from those ____ in the forest.

A. once the grew B. they grew once
C. that once grew D. once grew. 8. I don’t like ____ you speak to her. A. the way B. the way in that C. the way which D. the way of which

9. The weather turned out to be very good,

____ was more than we expected.
A. what B. which C. that D. it

10. He paid the boy $10 for washing ten
windows; most of ____ hadn’t been cleaned for ten years. A. these B. those C. that D. which

1.1Mother bought me a dictionary on my birthday, ________made me very happy. A. what B. that C. who D. which 12. Look at the watch. Don’t you see it is _______ watch ________ Helen lost the other day? A. as the same; as B. the same; as
C. the same; which D. as the same ; that 13. ________ is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month. A. It B. As C. That D. What

14. The weather turned out to be very good, _____ was more than we could expect. A. what B. which C. that D. it 15. After living in Paris for fifty years he returned to the small town, _______ he grew up as a child. A.which B. where C. that D. when 16. He made another wonderful discovery, ________ of great importance to science. A. which I think is B. which I think it is C. which I think it D. I think which is

?

? ? ?

? ? ?

? ?

17. The doctor advised Vera strongly that she should take a holiday, but __________ didn’t help. A. which B. it C. she D. he 18. ________ is reported in the newspaper, talks between the two countries are making progress. A. It B. As C. That D. What 19.Is this the only reason ______ at the meeting for his carelessness in his work? A. that he explained B. what he explained C. why he explained D. which he explained


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