二 00 五年五月
Period 1.Welcome to the unit
1. handout 1) 免费分发的印刷品(如广告,传单,讲义), 分发的救济品 Please read the ~ c
arefully. During the flood many thousands of people survived on ~.靠救济品存活 2) 发给大家, 散发 At the Christmas party Santa Claus handed out the presents under the trees. Will you help me to ~ the leaflet at the meeting. 2.statistics 1) 统计数字, 作复数 Statistics show that there are more boys than girls at school. Have you studied the recent divorce ~? 2) 统计学, 不可数 ~ is a rather modern branch of mathematics. 3.product n. 产品 The company sells plastic products. 这家公司出售塑料制品。 produce vt/vi 生产，制造 produce woolen goods 生产毛织品 n 农产品或自然产品的总称 the field produce is transported by water to the neighbouring cities. 农产品通过水路运往邻近的城市。 productive adj 能生产的，肥沃的 a plant which is productive 多产的植物 productive land 肥沃的土地 可能产生??的 discussions that seem to be productive only quarrels 似乎只会导致口角的讨论 Production n. 生产，制造（指生产的行为） ，产量 Production is up this month. 本月产量上升。 Productivity n. 生产力 increase productivity 增加生产力 3.service 1) 可数, 服务, 帮助, 贡献 Do you need the services of a doctor? 你需要医生的服务吗？ The hotel offers good services. 这家旅馆提供良好的服务。 He did me a service. 他帮助过我. 2) 可数, 公共服务,公共设施, 劳务 Essential ~s will be maintained. 基本的公共服务设施将会得到保障. There are good banking and insurance ~s.银行和保险服务 We get export earnings from goods and ~s.用货物和劳务创收外汇 3) 不可数, 任职, 用处, 服务 He had ten years‘ ~ in the navy.他在海军服役十年。 The old man had many years of faithful ~ to the company. 那老人为公司忠实工作了多年。 The ~ in the place is slow/bad. 这里的服务很慢/很差。 You will get good ~ from this typewriter.打字机对你有用 at one’s ~ 随时为?服务的
I‘m at your ~.我随时为你服务。 My car is at your ~.我的车供你随时使用。 I placed a computer at his ~.我提供一部电脑，供他随时使用。 4) 及物动词, 检修, 维修, 向?提供服务 I get my car ~d regularly.我定期进行汽车检修。 The power station is ~d by road transport.这座发电站的燃料是通过公路运送的。 The company hasn‘t enough cash to ~ its debts. 这家公司没有足够的资金支付债务利息。 serve 服务, 侍侯(顾客), 提供(饭菜,食品等) He ~d in the army for three years. 他曾当国三年兵。 She ~d the family well for ten years. 他为这家人好好服务了十年。 Roast pork is often ~d with apple sauce.烤肉常和苹果酱一起上。 2. aware adj. 知道的, 明白的(作表语),反义词 unaware; awareness(n) be ~ of sth; be ~ that We are fully ~ of the gravity of the situation.形势的严重 .Everyone was ~ that they were in danger. 每个人都意识到自己处于危险中。 You must be ~ that what you are doing is quite illegal. Are you ~ that you are sitting on my hat? I wasn‘t ~ that he had felt deeply sad at the death of his friend. 用于否定句,后接 wh-引导的从句, of 可以省略 You are not ~ (of) how worried I felt about your safety. 你不知道我多么担心你的安全。 We are not ~ (of) what he is longing for.我们不知道他在渴望什么。 I‘m quite ~ how you would feel. I‘m too sleepy to be ~ how cold it was. make sb. ~ that; make sb ~ of What the teacher said made me ~ of the importance of English. 老师的话让我明白了英语的重要性。 Also when you write your goals in a special way you are able to make yourself continuously aware of the situations that will bring you nearer to your goal. 3.similar 1) 相似的, 近似的,类似的 We have ~ tastes in music. I saw something ~ in yesterday‘s China Daily. 2) be ~ to 与?类似/相似 His views are ~ to mine. Mary‘s hat is ~ to Jack‘s. 3) similarity 名词, 常与 to/with /between 连用 How much ~ is there between the two? I can see the ~ between you and your mother. English cooking has few similarities to/with French cooking. 4.danger 1)可数名词,可能引起危险的人或事 Waste must be treated so that it doesn‘t become a ~ to life. Winding roads are a ~ to drivers. He looked around carefully for hidden ~s.
The man is a ~ to society. 2) 不可数名词, 一般的危险 Is there any ~ of fire? In war a soldier‘s life is full of ~. 3) in ~ 处于危险中; dangerous 危险的 The man is in ~. The man is dangerous. be in ~ of 处于危险中; out of ~ 脱离危险 The patient is in ~ of dying. The patient is out of ~. Today many kinds of animals are in ~ of dying out. She was ill, but she was out of ~ now. 5.special discount 特别减价,打特价 discount 名词, 折扣 Students get a ~ on air fare.学生飞机票有折扣 We give 10 percent ~ for cash.现金付款打折 10% at a ~ 减价, 不值钱 He sold goods to her at a special discount. 6.drug 1)常用复数指毒品 It is dangerous to take drugs. 2)作定语, 修饰名词 a drug addict/user 吸毒者 a drug dealer 毒贩 3) 可数名词,药 The doctor prescribed a new ~ for his patient.开了一个 2 The drugs act upon the nerves.这些药品作用于神经
Period 2 Reading
⑴ To improve students‘ reading ability on reading expository ⑵ Enable students‘ get the general knowledge of commercial ads and public ads ⑶ To let students know how to read expository writing
Teaching Important Points:
⑴ To improve students‘ reading ability on reading expository ⑵ To let students know how to read expository writing
Teaching Difficult Points:
⑴ How to improve students‘ reading ability on reading expository writing ⑵ How to let students read expository writing
Thorough PPT, T can guide students to look at some commercial ads and public service ads and then ask questions like these: T: Let‘ share some beautiful pictures first. What are they? (advertisements) As we know, ads are parts of our daily life. We can see them everywhere, especially when we watch TV. Do you like them? T: Look at these pictures. Can you guess what kind of product or service is being advertised ? (T then shows some pictures in part of welcoming to the unit) Advertisement is now playing an important part in our life. Do you know how many kinds are there? And do you believe that ads tell the complete truth? Let‘s look at a story on P2: Advertisement.
Step 2 Reading
1.Fast reading Guide students go through the whole article, especially pay attention to the titles and the subtitles of the article. T: what do you think might be discussed in the article from the title? After Ss finish reading, T then go on asking some questions about the passage. Q: What do advertisements encourage people to do? What does PSAs stand for? What are PSAs meant to do? 2. Intensive reading (1) Invite one student to read the first passage and invite students to get the general idea of the passage. (2) Detail reading Read the following sentences and decide whether the statements in the following is true or false. ① ② ③ ④ ⑤ Advertisements are found in many places. PSAs are only found in newspapers. All advertisements tell the complete truth. PSAs and commercial ads use some of the same methods. Commercial ads can often give us valuable information about how to live our lives.
⑥ An ad warning people against smoking is an example of a PSA. (1 T 2F 3F 4T 5F 6T) (3) Discuss the structure of this article. How many parts is this article divided into? Part 1 introduction of this article Part 2 supporting details Part 3 conclusion T then ask Ss to read reading strategy: how to read a expository writing and tell them expository writing usually follows the same basic format. So when reading expository writing, we should pay attention to the information that comes after a statement. This information usually supports the main idea.
e.g. Let‘s look at paragraph 3. What is the subject of this part? What information supports the idea? What is the conclusion? (4).Reading comprehension Ask Ss to summarize the differences and similarities between the two types of advertisements. Types ads of Similarities differences Examples
Billboards, newspapers, magazines, the Internet, radio, television
Persuasive language, exciting images
To promote a product or service
They do not tell you the complete truth.
?Bright-teeth fights bad breath!‘ ?You are proud of your cooking, so shouldn‘t you buy the very freshest food?‘ ?Yes to life, no to drugs‘ ?Knowledge changes life‘ ?Project Hope—schoo ling every child‘ ?smoking is committing suicide slowly‘
To educate people about health, safety or any other issue which affects public welfare
They are helpful and we can learn a lot by following the advice they give.
Step 3 Discussion Now ads are becoming parts of our daily life. Do you like them? Do you think it is necessary? Let‘s have a discussion. Step 4 conclusion and homework Prepare for language points and underline the difficult on
1. mean mean to do 打算做某事 I meant to go to Nanjing tomorrow. 我打算明天去南京。 mean doing sth 意味着做某事 Getting up late means being late for school. mean adj. 吝啬的 He is a mean man. 2. be used to do / (doing) sth. ---get accustomed to (get, become, grow) used to ---happened in the past It is used to clean the blackboard. I am not quite used to living here/city life. He has been used to the weather here. Before coming here, John got up late in the morning but now he is used to getting up early. I used to live in Nanjing. I used not/didn’t use to live here. There used to be a lot of trees, didn’t there? Ex. The new machine _____production. However I_____it.(A) A. is used to increase; am not used to controlling B. is used to increasing; don‘t used to control C. used to increase; don‘t used to control D. used to increasing; am not used to control 3. research: 1)n. do/conduct research on: I‘m doing ~ on ads. 我正在做关于广告的研究。 2) V. to study It is important for a businessman to ~ the market.商人研究市场很重要. 4. share with: use sth. together with I‘d like to share my book with you. She _____ my troubles as well as my joys.(B) A. shares with B. shares (in) 5. provide 1) ~ sb with sth ; ~ sth to sb; Parents ~ their children with food and clothing. He worked hard to ~ food and clothes for his family. I am already ~d with all I need. 2) ~ for: 养活,提供生活费用; ~against 准备应付 He has a large family to ~ for. He has no worries, only himself to ~ for. Have you ~d against a coal shortage next winter? 3) provided (that)/providing (that)=only if; so long as Provided/Providing (that)/Supposing there is no opposition we‘ll hold the meeting here. I‘ll go provided/providing (that) my expenses are paid. 6. persuasive 有说服力的, 令人信服的 ~ manner 晓之以理的态度 ~ argument 令人信服的论据 ~ reasons 有说服力的理由 ~ article 有说服力的文章 7. encourage: give support or confidence to sb.
Don‘t encourage bad habits in a child. The teacher ~d her to watch English films.老师鼓励她看英文电影. 8. believe in: to have firm faith in Many people believe in God. believe/believe in I don‘t believe in ghosts. I believe that stories of ghosts were made up by human beings. 9. promote 1) 促进, 提倡, 推广 We must ~ stability and unity. Milk ~s health. The talk discussed how to ~ the friendship between the two countries. The method must be ~d everywhere. 2) 晋级, 升职 He was ~d to the rank of the 1st mate.(大副) Soon he was ~ d to be an engineer. Despite the difficulties he was ~d to the 4th grade. promotion n. 推销, 宣传(活动), 提升,晋级 10. for free: free of charge/without payment You can take the ticket for free. Every child can get a book for free. 每个孩子都会得到一本免费的书. 11. intend to: design/mean to do sth., ~ +n/ -ving /to do/that; ~ + 复合宾语 We ~ed no harm. I hear they ~ marrying/to marry. I intended to do it, but I‘m afraid I forgot. Do you ~ to make a long stay here? He ~ed that his son should inherit(take over) his business I ~ you to take over. Let‘s ask him what he ~ us to do. The book is not ~ed to enlarge vocabulary. The building was ~ed to be a museum. The sweet wine is ~ed to be drunk after a meal. What he said at the meeting ____ make us to support his idea. A. intended to B. intends to C. was intended to D. is intended 注意: sth 同: intend/mean to do sth sb to do sth intend/mean for They intend/mean no harm. What do you intend/mean to do? What do you intend/mean us to do? The book is intended/meant for you 异: intend to do/doing sth=mean to do; meaning doing 意味着 mean sb sth(intend 没有); intend that 打算; mean that 意味着 mean 有意义, 有价值
12. protect…from…: keep sb/sth safe from We should protect the earth from pollution. People usually wear sunglasses to protect their eyes from being burned by the sunlight. 人们通常戴太阳镜以妨眼睛被太阳灼伤. More relative phrases: protect/prevent…(from)… stop/keep…from… 13. lie: lied(pt,pp), lying(pres p) vt.说谎 ~ to sb. about sth. She was lying!She lied to me about her age! lie: lay(pt) lain(pp) lying(pres p) vi.平躺 He has lain in bed since this morning. lay: laid(pt,pp)laying(pres p) vt. 放置 He laid his hand on my shoulder. He laid the book on the desk and told me that he had lain in bed for the whole morning. But I knew that he was lying to me. 14. cure 1) V ~ sb of sth The doctor ~d her of her heart trouble. He was ~d of lung cancer. The illness can‘t be ~d easily. The fresh air on the farm ~d me of my headache. 2) 可数名词, 治愈, 药剂, 疗法 The doctor can‘t guarantee a ~. Is there a certain ~ for cancer yet? He has tried all sorts of ~s, but without success. 15. connect: bring together/join,常与 to 和 with 搭配 The tape recorder is ~ed to a loudspeaker. Please ~ this wire to the next one. The two cities are connected by a railway. She is connected with a famous family. You should not connect the two different things to each other. I‘ll connect you with Mr. Wang immediately. 接通王先生的电话 connection: n. in connection with They are in connection with the case. 与?有关联 16. fall for sth.: to be tricked, 受?的骗, 相信?: ~ sb/sth 热衷, 开始恋爱, 倾倒 You should be clever enough not to fail for his tricks. He said that he was a student and I fell for it. 信以为真 Dick fell for baseball when he was a little boy. They met, fell for each other and got married six weeks later. Helen was such a pretty girl that Bill fell for her. fall guy: person who is tricked How could you be easily cheated by his words? You are really a fall guy. fall for sb :be attracted to sb. They met, fell for each other and got married six weeks later. More phrases about fall
fall down: fail The plan fell down because it proved to be too expensive. fall into sth: develop sth You can not fall into the bad habit—smoking a lot. fall off: decrease The production has fallen off since last month. fall to doing sth: begin to do They fell to thinking about what had happened to them. 17. play tricks on: play a joke on Children, as well as adults, usually play tricks on each other on Halloween. The teacher asked us not to play tricks on each other any more. trick: V. trick sb. into doing sth. She tricked him into giving her all his money. 18. commit vt. 做错事，犯错误，犯罪 she committed an unforgivable error. 她犯了一个不可原谅的错误。 The old man committed suicide. 那老人自杀身亡。 Vt. 把??交托给，把??提交给，把??押交，判处 I committed the matter to his care. 我把此事交给他处理。 Vt. 使承担义务，使表态，连累，后常跟反身代词 oneself 作宾语 You don‘t have to commit yourself at this stage.在这个阶段你不需要承诺什么。 You don‘t have to commit yourself now，just think about it.你不必现在表态，只需考虑干 这件事。 Exercise for consolidation: be used to do research on play tricks on share…with encourage believe in lie for free protect… from intend to be aware of connect… with fall for
1 You should share your books with your desk-mate. 2 I am used to getting up early in the morning. 3 He intended to finish the project ahead of time, but he failed. 4 I will never fall for the words of door-to-door salesman 5 I never believe in God . 6 She is aware of the danger around her. 7 You will get a book for free. 8 The teacher asked us to do research on environment protection. 9 The special clothes will protect you from being attacked by wild animals.
Write the following words on the Bb and ask students to analyse the part of speech of each word.
health/healthy/interest / interesting / decide/ decided / decision happy/ happily / happiness / unhappy Tell them the way to guess the meanings of the news words they come across when reading. Step 2 Introduction of using suffixes Noun +y/ ly/ ic/ al / ous/ ful / ish/ an / ible/ -------→adj. health→healthy wealth→wealthy week→weekly month→monthy day→daily hero→ heroic origin→original danger→dangerous mountain→mountainous care→ careful beauty→ beautiful poison→poisonous help→helpful
Attention : change the final letter of a word before adding a suffix. Fame→famous compete→competitive persuade →persuasive Step 3 Consolidation ： Finish the exercises on page 6and 7. Step 4 Language points 1. be tired of =be sick of 对------厌烦 She has become tired of doing such things.这样的事,她她已经干厌了. be tired out = be worn out 累坏了 The work tired me out .这工作使我精疲力竭. She was tired out by the journey. 这次的旅行把她累坏了. be tired with =be tired from 因为------而疲劳 feel tired / his tired voice / her tired look / her tired feet tiring jobs/ tiring work/ boring speech 2. feel like 后接名词,动名词,从句. It feels like rain/ snow I feel like he is telling a lie. I feel like going to bed. Do you feel like a cup of coffee? 3. on sale (美式英语)降价出售;(英式英语)出售 for sale 待售 4. available :可用的,可得到的,通用的,有效的 be available to sb Free medical service is available to every citizen in this country. 这个国家每个公民都可以享受免费医疗. These goods are available for export. 这些是供出口的商品. be available for sth 5. discount 作名词,(可数或不可数),意为”折扣”,”减价”. These goods sell at a discount.这些商品打折出售. They allowed us ten percent discount off/ on the prices of goods. 他们给我们按货价打九折. discount:作动词,意为”打折扣”,”认为不重要””对------不全信”
They discount twenty percent. 他们打八折. His rich experience is not to be discounted.他的丰富经验不可小看. 6.ensure 1)“确保,保证”=make sure” The book ensured his success. Please ensure that all the lights are switched off at night. 夜间务必把所有的灯关掉. I can’t ensure his being there/ that he will be there. 我不能确定他会及时到那儿. 2) “保证得到”=make sb certain to get These pills should ensure you a good night’s sleep. 这些药可以保你睡一宿她觉. 3) “保护,使安全”=make safe Parents should ensure their children against/ from danger. 父母应保护孩子免受危险. Schools must ensure students against/ from risks. 学校应保护孩子免受冒险活动. 7.quality:作不可数名词,意为”质量”. Our goods are of high/ good quality. 我们的产品质量好. We buy products of first-rate quality. 我们质量第一的产品. 作不可数名词,意为”特性””品性””才能” 他是一位有许多优点的人.
direct speech (direct narration) 直接叙述的话语，即直接引语。 （the style used in writing to report what someone said by repeating their actual words.） reported speech (indirect speech) 转告引述的话语，即间接引语。 （the style used in writing to report what someone said without repeating their actual words.） Notes: 1． 引述一般疑问句或附加疑问句时，通常用 whether 或 if 引导，而引述选择疑问句时， 一般只能用 whether 引导。 E.g.: ―Does he really mean it?‖ ---- I wondered whether/if he really meant it. ―They live in groups, don‘t they?‖ ---- He asked whether/if they lived in groups. ―Is this book yours or his?‖ ---- She asked me whether this book was mine or his. 2． 引述特殊疑问句时，用原句中的 wh-词引导。 E.g.: ―Why didn‘t you stop her?‖ ---- He asked why I hadn‘t stopped her. 3. 引述陈述句时，用连词 that 引导（that 在口语中常被省略） 。 e.g.: He said, ―I like it very much.‖ ---- He said that he liked it very much.
―I‘ve left my book in your room.‖ ---- He told me that he had left his book in my room. 3. 引述祈使句时，要将祈使句的动词原形变成带 to 的不定式，并在不定式的前面根据句 子的意思加上 tell, ask, order 等动词，如果祈使句为否定句，在不定式 的前面加上 not。 She said to us, ―Please sit down.‖---- She asked us to sit down. He said to him, ― Go away!‖ ---- He ordered him to go away. He said, ―Don‘t make so much noise, boys.‖ ---- He told the boys not to make so much noise. 在将直接引语变成间接引语时要特别注意几个变化： 1） 人称的变化： 间接引语是转述别人的话，说话时由于角色的不同，人称代词要根据 实际情况作相应的变化。 规律：一主二宾三不变 （即第一人称看主语；第二人称看宾语；第三人称不变化） e.g. Mr Black said, ―I‘m busy.‖---- Mr Black said that he was busy. ―Do you mind my opening all your windows?‖ he asked us. ---- He asked us if we minded his opening all our windows. 2) 时态的变化：如主句的谓语动词是一般过去时，直接引语变成间接引语时，从句的谓 语动词在时态方面要作相应的变化。 中主句的谓语动词是现在时， 从句的时态则无需变化。 直接引语转换成间接 引语时时态的变化 一般现在时 一般过去时 现在进行时 过去进行时 现在完成时 过去完成时 一般过去时 过去完成时 过去完成时 过去完成时不变 一般将来量 过去将来时 2） 例 直 接 引 语 He said, "I'm afraid I can't finish this work." He said, "I'm using the knife." She said, "I have not heard from him since May." He said; "I came to help you." He said, "I had finished my homework before supper." Zhou Lan said, "I'11 do it after class." 句 间 接 引 语 He said that he was afraid he couldn't finish that work. He said that he was using the knife. She said that she had not heard from him since May. He said that he had come to help me. He said that he had finished his homework before supper. Zhou Lan said that she would do it after class.
直接引语转换成间接 引语时的变化 this these now today yesterday the day before tomorrow the next (following)day here come there go that those then that day
例 直 接 引 语 She said, "I will come this morning." He said, "These books are mine." He said, "It is nine o'clock now. He said, "I haven't seen her today." She said, "I went there yesterday." She said, “I'11 go there tomorrow. ?“ He said, "My sister was here three days ago." She said, "I will come here this evening."
句 间 接 引 语 She said that she would go that morning. He said that those books were his. He said that it was nine o'clock then. He said that he hadn't seen her that day. She said that she had gone there the day before. She said that she would go there the next (following) day. He said that his sister had been there three days before. She said that she would go there that evening.
Some languages points :
1.thrilling 1)形容词,‖惊险的‖ , ―令人兴奋的‖. There was a thrilling finish to the race.赛跑结果令人兴奋. 2)名词,可数,一阵强烈的情绪(快乐,激动,恐惧); 使人兴奋的事情. He felt a thrill the moment he got into the theatre. 他一走进剧院就感到一阵激动. Meeting the Queen was a great thrill. The movie was full of thrills. 2.over and over (again) 一再地,反复地 He repeated the story over and over again. 3.do seem ―的确看起来------― He does speak well. She did come yesterday. 4.other than 除了=except Is anybody other than yourself coming? You‘ll have to use this chair; there is no other than this. 在否定句中, 相当于 besides Besides you , no one is qualified. 5.remind 提醒,可接从句或不定式的复合结构. May I remind you that the dinner –bell will ring presently? 我可以提醒你晚餐铃就要响了 吗? I write to remind you to send me the bill. 我写信提醒你把帐单寄给我. I remind him of his promise. Do you remind him about the book he borrowed ?你给他提醒过他借的那本书了吗? 6.learning soft:学习软件,动名词作定语,表示它的性质和类别. 如: sleeping train /dining-room / sitting-room / singing competition 7.user-friendly (尤指计算机硬件,程序等)易操作的,易懂的,易学的. 8.whenever possible= whenever it is possible Come and see me whenever you want to. 9.eye- catching 抢眼的,由名词+动词+ing 构成 .如: peace-loving 热爱和平的 10.make sb +adj. make me ashamed of myself make the street as light as day make sb aware of the danger
Period 5-6 Task and project
1.increase 既可做名也可做动，意为“增加，提高，增强” There was a steady increase in production. 生产出现了稳步增长。
Foreign investments increased six times. 国外投资增加了六倍。 He increased the size of his farm year by year. 他逐年扩大了农场的规模。 2.go up 在句中表示“上涨，涨价” Everything went up except salaries. 除了工资以外，所有的东西都涨价了。 Cotton has gone up. 棉花涨价了。 还可表示“上升，增长，升级”“楼房等盖起来，修建起来” ， National income would go up next year by 8.6 percent. 国民收入将增长 百分点。 The temperature is going up. 气温要上升了。 There are supermarkets going up everywhere. 到处都在建超市。 How many houses have gone up this year? 今年盖了多少房子？ 3.figure 是“数字” Let‘s add up the figures. 让我们把这些数字家起来。 amount 是“数量” I am doing a certain amount of writing. 我正在从事一定数量的写作。 rate 是“速度，速率” The train is now going at a rapid rate. 火车正快速奔驰。 4.remain / stay the same 表示“保持不变” ，在此都是系动词，表示“继续保持，仍然处 于某种状态” She remained calm. 她保持镇静。 The door remained closed. 门一直关着。 The shop stays open till 7 o‘clock. 这个商店一直开门到七点。 5. start off 表示“开始” ，或“动身，出发” The play starts off with a murder. 这部戏以一场谋杀开始。 The boy started off across the field. 男孩动身穿越田野。 短语 start out 也有“动身，出发”之意思 We started out from home in the morning. 我们早晨从家里动身出发。 The professor ended up his speech. 那位教授结束了他的演讲。 end up 还表示“最后（有某种结局） ，最后（成了） ，最后（到达某处） ” How does the story end up? 这故事最后结局如何？ He ended up as head of the film. 他最后成了公司的头。 The car ended up in the ditch. 最后汽车掉到沟里。 5.vary 表示“有差异，变化”做不及物动词 People vary greatly in their ideas. 人们的想法有很大的差异。 The sort of thing varies from person to person. 这一类的事因人而异。 vary 做及物动词，表示“变换，是有变化” You should vary your diet. 你应该变换你的饮食。 Old people don‘t like to vary their habits. 老人不喜欢改变他们的习惯。 6.peak 是动词，表示“达到高峰” The flood waters should peak at midnight.洪水在午夜会达到高峰。 当名词表示“山峰，浪峰，高峰” The mountain peak was covered with snow. 山顶覆盖着雪。 7.drop 句中做不及物动词，表示“降低，下降” 还有“掉下，落下” The price of sugar will drop soon. 很快糖价就要下降。 The teapot dropped out of her hand. 茶壶从她手中掉了下来。
He dropped his idea. 他放弃了想法。 drop 还可表示“放下来，投下来” “放低，降低” He dropped his bag. 他把包放了下来。 He dropped his voice, breathing with difficulty. 他压低声音，困难的呼吸着。 8. out of…在文中“…中间有” Nine out of ten people will agree with what you say. 十分之九的人回同意你的观点。 out of… 还表示“从…出来；出于，由于；用完，卖完；失去，没有工作” She went out of the room, taking the flowers with her. 她拿着鲜花从房间里出来。 She did it out of pity. 她出于怜悯做这件事。 Get out of the way. 滚开。 He was soon out of patience. 他很快就失去了耐心。 We are out of water. 我们的水用完了。 9.consider 表示“考虑” 跟名词 Will you consider my request? 你考虑一下我的要求好吗？ 跟从句 The housekeeper considered how she could answer. 管家考虑他应如何回答问 题。 跟动名词 I must consider giving a new course. 我必须考虑教授一门新课程。 跟由连接词引起的不定式短语 Have you considered how to get there? 10.update 表示“更新” ，有时表示“使不过时，使现代化” Do you want to update your furniture recently? 你最近想更新家具吗？ 11. It seem (to me) that …觉得，仿佛感觉到，似乎好像 It seems to me that someone is calling for help. 我似乎感到有人在喊救命。 It seems that nobody knew what had happened. 看来似乎没有人知道发生什么事了？ seem 还可做系动词，后面跟形容词，分词，名词，介短 The doctor seems very capable. 那个医生似乎很有能力。 She seems an unusually clever girl. 她看起来是个不同寻常的漂亮女孩。 12. have regretted 后面跟的动名词的否定式 not having done 跟不定式 I regret to say that I can‘t come. 很抱歉我不能来。 跟动名词 He regretted being unable to help us. 没有能帮助我们，他感到很抱歉。 对于发生在 regret 之前的动作，用 v-ing 的完成式或不定式来表示 I regret not to have taken his advice. 我后悔没有听从他的劝告。 I regret not having taken his advice. 我后悔没有听从他的劝告。 He taught me how to get my ideas across. 他教我如何讲清楚我的想法。 Project Step1 Encourage students to report the main idea of each paragraph Paragraph 1 the definition of an campaign Paragraph 2 the target audience and how to determine the target audience Paragraph 3 what the ad campaign says Paragraph 4 how to reach the target audience Step2 Ask students to read the handout carefully. Then answer the following questions. 1.What do you know about an campaign? An ad campaign is an organized programme of advertisements using various types of ads to reach a particular audience. 1. What must you keep in mind when you start a successful advertising canpaign?
A clear goal and target audience. 2. Why do you need to research your audience? Because the right message needs to be created for the right people. 3. What is important when you are planning an ad campaign? It is important to try to appeal to the way the audience will react. 4. What should your advertising campaign be based on? Mainly on the target audience and the media that reaches that pqrticular group best. Step 3 Ask students to do Parts B1 and B2 on page 91 of the workbook. Step 4 Have students to do Parts D1 and D2 on page 93 of the workbook as homework. 1.determine 在句中表示“确定，决定” Can we determine the date of our party? 我们现在能够确定我们聚会的日期吗？ Determine 表示“决心 ，决意做某事”后面跟不定式，从句，on 或 upon 引起的短语。 I determined to travel no further that night. 我决心那天晚上不再游玩了。 He determined that he would go at once. 他决心马上走。 determined 表示“决心，下定决心” ，它作表语时，后面跟不定式或从句。 I was determined not to follow their advice. 我下定决心不听从他们的建议。 2. appeal to… 在文中表示“投合兴趣和爱好” This idea appealed to our manager. 这个想法投合了我经理的想法。 和 for 连用，可表示“呼吁请求得到什么” They are appealing for money to build a new hall. 他们正在请求一笔钱以修建一个大 厅。 He appealed to his friends‘ money. 他请求他的朋友们给他一笔钱。 He appealed against the judge‘s decision. If you don‘t obey me, I shall appeal to force. 3.approach 在句中是名词,意为“对待,处理的方式和方法”常与介词 to 连用 There is no easy approach to mathematics. 学习数学没有轻松的方法。 还可表示“接近,走近” His spirits rose at the approach of the holidays. 随着假日的临近,他的精神振奋起来。 The approach to the house was a narrow path. 通往那撞房子的路是一条狭窄的小道。 4. get … across “把…讲清楚,使…被理解” He taught me how to get my ideas across. 他教我如何讲清楚我的想法。