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2016年高考英语完形填空的解题技巧


2015 年高考英语完形填空的解题技巧
1. 依据上下文确定答案的法则: 从近几年的完形填空题看, 近义词或近义短语的测试力度逐渐加强, 并成为测试热点。四个选项不是词义相近,要不就是近义动词的同一种时态的现象,或名词的单复数 搭配。若选项词义差异很大,必然文章中藏有提示语,正因如此,往往第一个选项有时需要读完全篇 短文才能准确回答。 2. 词语语义与强于语法原则:完型填空题的首句不留空,目的就是告知短文的故事的四要素: 地点、时间、人物和事由。再则,单纯语法题已基本退出该题型的测试范畴,所以,指导学生时,首 先要告知他们这类现象。 尽管四个选项的词语都符合语法规则,然而该题的解答必须遵循先全面理解 篇章语义,再结合正确语言结构对每个空格作出准确无误的抉择。 3. 解题四步法原则: 第一步:跳读。带着空格通读全文,了解短文大意,判别短文文体,同时能将会做的题及时解决 掉。 第二步:选答。这一步最为关键,要求考生对每一道题进行认真推敲,但是要告诫他们万万不可 按照题的顺序答题,对那些不能拿不准的题先跳过去,遵循先易后难的解题原则。 第三步:推敲。这实际上就是要求考生对完形填空短文的篇章作通盘考虑,把其中一些需要依据 上下文语境来考虑的比较难解答的题,以及句子之间和段落之间的逻辑关联较强的认真推敲,甄别, 筛选和抉择。 第四步:复查。这是解答这类题的最后一步,要求考生解完题之后务必再把文章通读一遍,从整 体上准确把握文章的真正意思,及时修改与全文有出入的一些选项。 应试技巧一:语境信息解题法: 近几年的完形填空题淡化了语法结构性的题,选项重在语意干 扰,也就是说,对具体的语言知识应该融入具体的语境中去考虑,考生应具有通过上下文提示、暗示 或铺垫,对篇章进行整体上的把握的能力。所以,快速浏览全文,迅速领悟篇章主旨,通过上下文语 境选择答案选项乃解决完形填空的关键。 4) Our __47__ challenge was to keep the rock mixture __48__ enough. 47. A. next B. first C. past D. previous 48. A. cold B. wet C. loose D. clean 【题解:47. 答案为 A 项。短文前面提到第一个挑战是发电的问题,那么接下来的挑战就是如何 保持温度的问题。48. 答案为 B 项。从下文提到的洒水车等事情,我们可以判断出这儿应该是“保持 湿度”的语意。】 5) … Still others faced the storm bravely, walking miles to get to work. I __40__ to be one of people on the way to work that morning. I went from subway line to subway line only to find that most __41__ had stopped. After making my way through crowds of people, I finally found a subway line that was __43__.... 40. A. used B. promised C. deserved D. happened 41. A. practice B. routine C. process D. service … 43. A. operating B. cycling C. turning D. rushing 【40. D 项。 从前面一句话和本句中 one of people 可知, 作者当天上午碰巧也是去上班的人之一;41. D 项。从上下文可知,由于风暴大部分地铁线路停运,所以唯有 service 符合题意;43. A 项。从上下文
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的语境中我们可知道作者最后找到有一条地铁线还在营业,operating 本身含有“营业的”意思,相当于 be on service。】 6) After the birth of my second child, I got a job at a restaurant. Having worked with an experienced __36__ for a few days, I was __37__ to wait tables on my own. All went __38__ that first week 36. A. manager B. assistant C. cook D. waitress 37. A. promised B. invited C. allowed D. advised 38. A. well B. quickly C. safely D. wrong 【36. D 项。根据下文“I was allowed to wait tables on my own”可以判断,作者是和有经验的女侍 者一起工作了几天;37. C 项。从上下文可知,几天后作者被允许单独做餐饮招待服务了;38. A 项。有 下文可以判断出,她的第一周工作非常顺手,没出意外。】 应试技巧二:语法结构法: 高考完形填空题基本都是在语境中考查考生对语法知识的掌握程度, 单纯考查这类题很少。而在完形填空题中考察语法项目的主要是动词的各种时态、语态和语气、谓语 和非谓语形式等。 所以这类题需要考生有较为扎实的语法基础知识,能够从句式的结构上辨别出须填 相关的关联词、 连词、 副词、 形容词或相应的动词, 当然还要考虑到主谓一致的关系等语法知识要点。 不过,切记解答这类题,必须是任何空格的语法正确的前提下,再考虑其他方面因素。 7) When it was 5:00pm, I was ready to go home. I was about to turn off my computer __49__ I received an email from Garth, my Director. A. while B. when C. where D. after 【49. B 项,这儿 when 的意思是 just at the moment, 与前面的 when 意思不一样,A 项的 while 无此意,D 项的 after 不符合行为交互逻辑,C 项完全是错误的。】 8) “I have been a soloist for over ten years. __53__ the doctor thought I was totally deaf, it didn’t __54__ that my passion couldn’t be realized. 53. A. However B. Although C. When D. Since 54. A. mean B. seem C. conclude D. say 【53. B 项,由第二段的内容以及本句的句意“尽管医生认为我已经全聋了,但是这并不意味着我 的热情会消失。”,故此处应为让步状语从句;54. A 项,由句意可知。】 应试技巧三:复现解题法:这类题多为同义词、近义词和反义词的复现或同义词、近义词和反义 词异形复现的形式。这种测试手法主要是考查考生的整体篇章意识和上下文推断能力。 9)In particular, there was (and perhaps still is) a belief in fairies. Not all of these __21__ are the friendly, people-loving characters that appear in Disney films, and in some folk-tales they are __22__ and cause much human suffering. 21. A. babies B. believes C. fairies D. supermen 22. A. powerful B. cruel C. frightened D. extraordinary 【21. C 项,同义原词的复现;22. B 项,异形近义词的复现】 10)On August 26, 1999, New York City was struck by a terrible rainstorm. The rain caused the streets to __36__ and the subway system almost came to a stop. 36. A. break B. flood C. sink D. crash 【36. B 项,异形近义词的复现】 11)Garth’s email was short, but I learned more from that __52__ message than I ever did from a textbook.
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A. accurate B. urgent C. brief D. humorous 【52. C 项,异形同义词的复现】 应试技巧四:固定搭配解题法:这类题与语法结构题有点类似,但主要惯用搭配,讲究词与词的 搭配,涉及到关联词、动词、副词、形容词、名词和短语等。 12) Telling him that he no longer needed to enjoy them but I still needed to write them, I __28__ until the day he graduated. 28. A. held up B. gave up C. followed D. continued 【28. D 项。由句意可知,“尽管儿子不愿意再收到我的字条,但是我依然坚持写到他毕业为止。” 这道题实际上是一道固定搭配题,其结构为 not…until,但句中没有否定副词 not,再则,若 A、B 两 项短语用于这一结构中须与 not 连用, 故不合题意;C 项的 followed 应为及物动词, 后面需加宾语方可, 再则 followed 在此有歧义,也不合题意,由于 continue 是延续性动词,所以,无需否定副词,在这一 固定搭配中只有瞬间动词才与 not 连用。】 13) He had spent those years well, graduating from college, __30__ two internships(实习) in Washington, D.C, and finally, becoming a technical assistant in Sacramento. 30. A. organizing B. planning C. comparing D. completing 【30. D 项。大学毕业之后,又实习了两个学期,最后在萨克拉门托做一名技术助理。这儿指完 成实习,故惟有 completing 符合题意。】 应试技巧五:逻辑语气解题法:这类题主要是通过分了解全文的人物、时间、地点等信息之后, 再分析句子与句子之间的关系,段落与段落之间的关系来解题。这种逻辑语气主要包含并列、递进、 因果、转折和委婉语气等等。这类题的选项多为连词、副词或具有连词意义的各类短语。 14) All went well that first week. When Saturday night came, I was luckily given the tables not far from the kitchen. __40__, I still felt it a little hard to carry the heavy trays. 40. A.Therefore B. However C. Otherwise D. Finally 【40. B 项。从整篇文章来看,在这儿只是一个转折语气,表示在前一个星期的顺利,在这一天 却遇到了一些麻烦。Therefore 是递进语气,finally 也属递进语气,但表示是最后一步的语气,多指结 论性的行为,不符合题意;otherwise 虽属转折语气,但多为推断或假设否定语气,而本文所叙述的是 真实事例的呈现,所以,惟有 however 符合题意。】 15) He had spent those years well, graduating from college, completing two internships(实习) in Washington, D.C, and __31__, becoming a technical assistant in Sacramento. 31. A. hopefully B. finally C. particularly D. certainly 【31. B 项。有上文及全句的意思可知,在这儿是作者六年求学和工作的最后一个环节,表示毕 业之后找到了一份工作,从预期上讲,应该是结论性的,所以,惟有 finally 符合题意。】 在进行有关逻辑语气题时,必须要符合原文的意思,要瞻前顾后,审慎分析,细心推断,密切注 意相关连词的连用,注意语气的变化,应从细节着手。 应试技巧六: 利用文化背景和生活常识解题法: 高考完型填空题的命题形式均为独立的语篇形式, 并交织和渗透着各类相关的常识与文化背景知识。 这类题主要是考查考生应该把握的英美国家的文化 背景知识和生活常识, 但是一旦将这些知识放到具体的场合中进行考查时,有些考生可能就不会灵活 地加以运用他们所学过的知识。 因此在解题时,考生所学的语言知识和其他有关英美国家的文化背景 知识在考试中都会发挥重要作用, 唯有在无法准确把握语言知识时,可充分利用所学的社会知识和科 普知识进行语境判断。
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16) Yesterday the sales office rang us to say the car was __23__. A. right B. ready C. fixed D. sold 【23. 答案为 B 项。依据生活常识,买车前一般要提前预订,因此这里的意思是销售部打来电话 通知作者,他们的车已经到了,让他们前去提车。】 1 Different things usually stand for different feelings. Red, for example, is the color of fire, heat, blood and life. People say red is an exciting and active color. They associate (使发生联系) red with a strong feeling like 1 . Red is used for signs of 2 , such as STOP signs and fire engines. Orange is the bright, warm color of 3 in autumn. People say orange is a 4 color. They associate orange with happiness. Yellow is the color of __5__. People say it is a cheerful color. They associate yellow too, with happiness. Green is the cool color of grass in __6__. People say it is a refreshing color. In general, people __7__ two groups of colors: warm colors and cool colors. The warm colors are red, orange and __8__. Where there are warm color and a lot of light, people usually want to be __9__. Those who like to be with __10 _ like red. The cool colors are __11_ and blue. Where are these colors, people are usually worried. Some scientists say that time seems to __12 _ more slowly in a room with warm colors. They suggest that a warm color is a good __13_ for a living room or a __14_ . People who are having a rest or are eating do not want time to pass quickly. __15 time to pass quickly. 1. A. sadness B. anger 2. A. roads B. ways 3. A. land B. leaves 4. A. lively B. dark 5. A. moonlight 6. A. summer 7. A. speak 8. A. green 9. A. calm 10. A. the other 11. A. black 12. A. go round 13. A. one 14. A. factory 15. A. Different colors are better for some offices if the people working there want C. administration D. smile C. danger D. places C. grass D. mountains C. noisy D. frightening D. stars D. winter D. tell D. gray D. helpful D. others D. yellow D. go along D. matter D. hospital D. All

B. light C. sunlight B. spring C. autumn B. say C. talk about B. yellow C. white B. sleepy C. active B. another C. other one B. green C. golden B. go by C. go off B. way C. fact B. classroom C. restaurant B. Cool C. Warm

2 Charlie came from a poor village. His parents had __1__ money to send him to school when he was young. The boy was very sad. Mr. King lived next to him. He found the boy __2__ and had pity on him and lent some money to him. So the boy could go to school. He studied hard and __3__ all his lessons. When he finished middle school, the man introduced him to his friend in the town. And he began to work. Once Mr. King was seriously hurt in an accident. Dying, he asked Charlie to take care of his daughter,
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Sharon. The young man __4__ and several years later he married the girl. He loved her very much and tried his best to make her happy. He often bought beautiful clothes and delicious food for her. He was good at cooking and he cooked __5__ for her. So she became very fat and she felt it difficult to walk. And one day she found there was something wrong with her heart. Her husband wasn’t at home and she had to go to __6__ at once. The doctors looked her over and told her __7__ eat meat, sugar, chocolate and things like these. She was afraid __8__ the doctor’s words and wrote all the names of the food on the paper. When she got home, she put the list on the table and __9__. When she returned home that afternoon, she found many kinds of food: meat, sugar and chocolate in the kitchen. Charlie was busy __10__ there. As soon as he saw her, he said happily, “I’ve bought all the food you like, dear!” 1. A. no B. some C. much D. enough 2. A. lazy B. clever C. careful D. hard 3. A. did well in B. was poor at C. was working D. was good for 4. A. was angry B. thought hard C. agreed D. said “No.” 5. A. a little 6. A. rest 7. A. should 8. A. to remember 9. A. slept 10. A. reading B. a few B. sleep B. would B. to forget B. went out B. seeing C. many C. hospital C. to C. to catch C. cooked C. cooking D. a lot D. work D. not to D. to teach D. ate D. writing

3 Why do I want to go to college? No one has ever asked me __1 _ a question. But many times I have asked myself. I have __2__ a whole variety of reasons. __3__ important reason is that I want to be a better man. Many things make human beings different __4__ or better than or even superior to animals. One of the most important things is __5__ . If I fail to receive higher education, my education __6__. As I want to be a fully __7__ man, I must get a well-rounded education, which good colleges and universities are supposed to __8__. I know one can get educated in many ways, but colleges and universities are __9__ the best places to teach me how to educate myself. Only when I am well-educated, will I be a better human being and __10__ fit into society. 1. A. quite B. so C. such D. another 2. A. come up with B. agreed with C. been fed up with D. got on well with 3. A. Most B. The most C. More D. Much 4. A. to 5. A. education 6. A. finished 7. A. develop 8. A. improve 9. A. between 10. A. can good B. around B. weather B. don’t finish B. developed B. graduate B. among B. may better C. between D. from C. temperature D. science C. will not finish D. has finished C. developing D. experience C. hear D. provide C. inside D. outside C. be able to better D. be able to best 4
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Farley worked for the Canadian government. One day, he was __1__ to learn more about wolves. Do wolves kill lots of caribou(北美驯鹿)? Do they kill people? They gave him lots of food and clothes and guns. Then they put him on a plane and took him to __2__. The plane put him down and went away. There were no houses or people in this place. But there were lots of animals and lots of wolves. People tell terrible stories about wolves. They say wolves like to kill and eat people. Farley remembered these stories, and he was __3__. He had his gun with him__4_. Then one day, he saw a group of wolves. There was a mother wolf with four baby wolves. A father wolf and another young wolf lived with them. Farley watched these wolves every day. The mother was a very __5__ mother. She gave milk to her babies. She gave them lessons about life. They learned how to __6__ food. The father wolf got food for the mother. The young wolf __7__ the children. They were a nice, happy family—wolf family! Farley did not need his __8__ any more. In a short time, he got on well with the family. Farley watched them for five months. He learned that many stories about the wolves were __9__. Wolves do not eat people, and they do not eat many large animals. And he also learned bad things about men. It was men who killed many caribou and wolves. Later, Farley wrote a book about wolves. He wanted people to __10__ them and not to kill them. 1. A. seen B. told C. heard D. found 2. A. a small town B. a big city C. a far place D. a lonely village 3. A. afraid B. happy C. angry D. tired 4. A. at times B. all the time C. once a week D. every afternoon 5. A. bad B. good C. hungry D. thirsty 6. A. cook 7. A. shouted at 8. A. food 9. A. not good 10. A. grow B. make B. looked into B. clothes B. not true B. have C. get C. laughed at C. gun C. not easy C. teach D. pick D. played with D. plane D. not clear D. understand

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1 不同颜色往往可以代表不同的心情。 根据不同颜色的特点以及给人留下的感觉,颜色的选择在日 常生活中往往也起着一定的作用。 本文以其中的一些颜色为例作了相关的解释说明,是一篇知识性很 强的文章。 答案简析 1.B。根据上文的 strong feeling 可知 anger 最合乎文意。 2.C。下文所列举的例子 STOP signs 和 fire engines 都属于危险信号,故选择 danger。 3.B。根据常识,黄色应是秋天树叶的颜色,故应选 leaves。 4.A。下文提到人们把黄色和幸福联系起来,说明黄色是一个充满生机的颜色,故选 lively。 5.C。下文提到黄色是令人愉快的颜色,根据常识太阳光的颜色是黄色,故选 sunlight。 6.B。绿色是春季里草的颜色,故选 spring。 7.C。speak 后面往往接某种语言作宾语;say 后面常接说话的内容;tell 的宾语一般是人;talk about sth.意为谈论某事物。故 C 为正确选项。 8.B。根据上文对 yellow 的解释。说明 yellow 也属于 warm color。 9. C。 与下文喜欢冷色调的人相对应, 再根据上文对各种暖色调的选择, active 合乎文意为正确选项。 10.D。others 相当于 other people 意为“别的人”。another 指“另一个”。other one 不可单独使用,the other one 指“另外的一个”。 11.A。四个选项中只有 black 可归纳到冷色调当中去。 12.B。go around 意为“到处走动”;go off 意为“离开,爆炸”;go along 意为“前进,进行”;go by 意 为“走过,流逝”。根据文意,应选 go by。 13.B。way 根据上文,暖色调的环境下时间似乎过得更慢,说明暖色调是用来装饰居室和饭馆的好 方法,故选择 way。 14.C。比较四个场所只有饭馆适合使用暖色调。 15.B。与暖色调相对立,冷色调适用于办公室,以使人感觉时间过得比较快。 2. 本文讲述了查理为报答金先生生前对自己的大恩大德,在娶了金先生女儿为妻之后精心照料她, 却导致妻子营养过剩而患病去医院检查。医生列出她不能吃的食物,深爱妻子的查理不明情况,反而 照单为妻子买了上面的各种食物。 答案简析 1. A。查理家境贫困,父母没有钱资助他上学,故选 no。 2. B。根据下文,查理不负众望,说明他聪明好学,故选 clever。 3. A。查理学习刻苦,并顺利完成了学业,说明他各门功课成绩较好,故选 did well in。D 选项介词用 错,正确词组为 was good at。 4. C。 根据下文查理娶了金先生女儿为妻并精心呵护她, 说明查理同意了金先生的请求, 故选 agreed。 5. D。根据下文妻子胖得不能走路,说明她食物吃得多。此外食物为不可数名词,因此只能用 a lot of 来修饰。 6. C。心脏不好,应去医院检查,下文指出为她检查的正是医生,故选 hospital。 7. D。由于她的病是因营养过剩引起的,医生应让她不要吃肉,糖果之类的食物,故选 not to。 8. B。她害怕忘了医生的指示,因此将其写在纸上,故选 to forget。 9. B。与下文相对应,这里应填 went out。
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10. C。擅长烹饪的查理将菜买回之后,肯定要忙着为爱妻做饭,故 cooking 为正确答案。 3 本文主要围绕“我为什么要上大学?”这一话题展开讨论,首先介绍了教育对人发展的重要性,然 后说明大学在教育中的地位,从而层次分明地解释了上大学的原因。 答案简析 1. C。such 常用在不定冠词或名词前修饰可数名词或不可数名词,表示“此类的”、“这种的”,故 such 为正确选项。 2. A。come up with 意为“提出、找出”;agree with 意为“同意”;be fed up with 意为“对……厌倦”;get on well with 意为“和……相处得好”。根据文意 A 为正确选项。 3. B。上文讲到我曾找到过各种各样的原因,其中最重要的原因应当是……,因此这里应用 important 的最高级,故选 the most。 4. D。固定结构 be different from 表示“不同于……”。 5. A。本段着重说明了教育在人的发展中的作用,以及大学在教育中的地位。作为总括句,本空应填 education。 6. C。这是一个含有条件状语从句的复合句,意为“如果我不能受到更高等的教育,我就无法完成我的 学业”,故选 will not finish 为正确选择。 7. B。这里只能选可作定语的选项。过去分词 developed 表示“成熟的”,为正确选项。 8. D。大学应是提供高等教育的地方, provide 符合文意为正确选项。 9. B。介词 among 可表示”包括……在内”为正确选项。 10. C。与前半句相对应,这里仍应用比较级,而 may better 意思不对,因此 be able to better 为正确 选项。 4 狼历来被世人视为凶残的动物,事实是否的确如此呢?带着这一疑问,Farley 进行了实地考察,在 和狼进行了零距离的接触后, 改变了自己的观点。本文告诉我们要学会根据事实说话。 答案简析 1. B。Farley 是政府工作人员。从上下文得知, 他是被派去进行调查和研究狼的习性的,故选 told。 2. C。 根据下文飞机把 Farley 送到了一个没有房屋和人的地方, 说明了这个地方不可能是城市,小镇和 村庄故 a far place 为正确答案。 3. A。狼吃人的恐怖故事给孤身一人的 Farley 带来的应是 afraid。 4. B。因为 Farley 害怕, 所以枪应始终不能离身。all the time 意为“一直、始终”。 5. B。根据下文的描述,狼妈妈给孩子们喂奶,对孩子们进行训练,可见是一位好妈妈,故选 good。 6. C。狼只能猎取食物, 而不能烧食物, 生产食物。get 合乎文意,为正确答案。 7. D。shout at 意为“朝……大声叫喊”;look into 意为“调查、观察”;laugh at 意为“嘲笑……”。这三个 词组都不符文意。play with 意为“和……一起玩耍”,合文意为正确答案。 8. C。the nice happy wolf family 让 Farley 不再害怕,因此也就不再需要枪了,故选择 gun.。 9. B。因为他的亲身体验与他所听到的相违背,说明以前关于狼的说法是不对的, 故选 not true。 10. D。understand 意为“了解”合乎文意,为正确答案。

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