Test 2 LISTENING SECTION 1 Questions 1-10 Questions 1-10 Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer LIBRARY INFORMATION Example Answer Minimum joining age ; 18 years For r
egistration,must take .two 1------and .two forms of I.D.e.g.driving licence,2----Cost to join per year(without current student card):3?-----Number of items allowed:(members of public)4---Loan times: four weeks Fines start at 5? ----Computers can be booked up to6----hours in advance
Need8----to use photocopier Creative Writing class .tutor is John 9---.held on 10-----evenings SECTION 2 Questions11-15 Choose the correct letter,A,B or C. BICYCLES FOR THE WORLD 11 In 1993 Dan Pearman went to Ecuador A B C 12 as a tourist guide as part of his studies as a voluntary worker Dan’s neighbour was successful in Questions11-20
business because he A employed carpenters from the area. B C was the most skilled craftsman in the town. found it easy to reach customers.
Dan says the charity relies on A B C getting enough bicycles to send regularly finding new areas which need the bicycles charging for the bicycles it sends abroad It has received the greatest number of bikes It has almost as many bikes as
What does Dan say about the town of Rivas? A B
Amsterdam C 15 2000? A B C It couldn’t meet its overheads It had to delay sending the bikes It was criticised in the British media Its economy has been totally transformed What problem did the charity face in August
Questions 16 and 17 Answer the questions below. Write NO MORE THAN WORD OR A NUMBER for each answer. 16 How much money did the charity receive when it --------17 What is the charity currently hoping to buy? won an award?
-------Questions 18-20 Choose THREE letters A-G Which THREE things can the general public do to help the charity Pedal Power? A organise a bicycle collection B C D E repair the donated bikes donate their unwanted tools do voluntary work in its office hold an event to raise money
F identify areas that need bikes G write to the government
SECTION 3 Questions 21-30 Questions 21-30
Complete the table below .
Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer.
‘Student Life’video project
.using the camera Enjoyed: .going to a British 21--------------Most useful Language Practice: .listening to instructions .learning 23-------------vocabulary
Contact with students doing other courses (has asked some to 22 ------- with him) listening to British students’ Language because of: -normal speed -large amount of 24-------------
.operating video camera .working people: -learning about 25----------compromising -26-----------------people who have different views with
the importance of
Things to do .decide when to future: the beginning .make more effort to 29-------with the camera
don’t make the film too
differently in 28-----------each stage at 30-------
SECTION 4 Questions31-40
Complete the notes below.
NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND /OR A NUMBER for each answer. ANTARCTICA
.world’s highest,coldest and windiest continent
.more than 31---------times as big as the UK .most of the area is classified as 32-------RESEARCH STATIONS .international teams work together .33---------is integrated with technical support .stations contain accommodation,work areas,a kitchen,a 34---------and a gym .supplies were brought to Zero One station by sledge from a 35----------at the edge of the ice 15 km away .problem of snow build-ups solved by building on 36-------with adjustable legs
FOOD AND DIET .average daily requirement for an adult in Antarctica is approximately 37------ kilocalories .rations for field work prepared by process of freeze-drying RESEARCH The most important research focuses on climate change,including -measuring changes in the ice-cap(because of effects on sea levels and 38------) -monitoring the hole in the ozone layer -analysing air from bubbles in ice to measure 39------caused by human activity WORK OPPORTUNITIES Many openings for 40-------people including -research assistants -administrative and technical positions
READING READING PASSAGE 1
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13,which are based on reading passage 1 below.
The brith of modern plastics In 1907,Leo Hendrick Baekeland,a Belgian scientist working in New York,discovered and patented a revolutionary new synthetic material.His invention,which he named ‘Bakelite’,was of enormous technological importance,and effectively launched the modern plastics industry. The term ‘plastic’ comes from the Greek plassein,meaning ‘to mould’.Some plastics are derived from natural sources,some are semi-synthetic (the result of chemical action on a natural substance),and some are entirely synthetic,that is,chemically engineered from the constituents of coal or oil.Some are‘thermoplastic’,which means that like candlewax,they melt when heated and can then be reshaped.Other are ‘thermosetting’:like eggs,they cannot revert to their original viscous state,and their shape is thus fixed for ever.Bakelite had the distinction of being the first totally synthetic thermosetting plastic. The history of today’s plastics begins with the discovery of a series of semi-synthetic thermoplastic materials in the mid-nineteenth century. The impetus behind the
development of these early plastics was generated by a number of factors-immense technological progress in the domain of chemistry,coupled with wider cultural changes,and the pragmatic need to find acceptable substitutes for dwindling supplies of ‘luxury’ materials such as tortoiseshell and ivory. Baekeland’s interest in plastics began in 1885 when, as a young chemistry student in Belgium, he embarked on research into phenolic resins,the group of sticky substances produced when phenol (carbolic acid) combines with an aldehyde (a volatile fluid similar to alcohol ).He soon abandoned the subject, however, only returning to it some years later.By 1905 he was a wealthy New Yorker, having recently made his fortune with the invention of a new photographic paper. While Baekeland had been busily amassing dollars, some advances had been made in the development of plastics. The years 1899 and 1900 had seen the patenting of the first semi-synthetic thermosetting material that could be manufactured on an industrial scale. In purely scientific terms, Baekeland’s major contribution to the field is not so much the actual discovery of the material to which he
gave his name, but rather the method by which a reaction between phenol and formaldehyde could be controlled, thus making possible its preparation on a commercial basis. On 13 July 1970,Baekeland took out his famous parent describing this preparation, the essential features of which are still in use today. The original parent outlined a three-stage process, in which phenol and formaldehyde (from wood or coal) were initially combined under vacuum inside a large egg-shaped kettle. The result was a resin known as Novalak, which became soluble and malleable when heated. The resin was allowed to cool in shallow trays until it hardened, and then broken up and ground into powder.Other substances were then introduced. Including fillers, such as woodflour, asbestos or cotton, which increase strength and moisture resistance, catalysts (substances to speed up the reaction between two chemical without joining to either ) and hexa, a compound of ammonia and formaldehyde which supplied the additional formaldehyde necessary to form a Thermosetting resin .This resin was then left to cool and harden,and ground up a second time.The resulting
granular powder was raw Bakelite was poured into a hollow mould of the required shape and subjected to extreme heat and pressure,thereby’setting’its form for life. The design of Bakelite objects,everything from earrings to television sets,was governed to a large extent by the technical requirements of the moulding process.The object could not be designed so that it was locked into the mould and therefore difficult to extract.A common general rule was that objects should taper towards the deepest part of the mould,and if necessary the product was moulded in separate pieces.Moulds had to be carefully designed so that the molten Bakelite would flow evenly and completely into the mould.Sharp corners proved impractical and were thus avoided,giving rise to the smooth,’streamlined’style popular in the 1930s.The thickness of the walks of the mould was also crucial:thick walls took longer to cool and harden,a factor which had to be considered by the designer in order to make the most efficient use of machines. Baekelaand’s invention,although treated with disdain in
its early years,went on to enjoy an unparalleled popularity which lasted throughout the first half of the twentieth century.It became the wonder product of the new world of industrial expansion -’the material of a thousand uses’.Being both non-porous and heat-resistant,Bakelite kitchen goods were promoted as being germ-free and sterilisable.Electrial manufacturers seized onits insulating relished properties,and its dazzling consumers array of everywhere
shades,delighted that they were now,at last,no longer restricted to the wood tones and drab browns of the preplastic era.It then fell from favour again during the 1950s,and was despised and destroyed in vast quantities.Recently,however,It has been experiencing something of a renaissance,with renewed demand for original Bakelite objects in the and coollectors’marketplace,and museums,societies
dedicated individuals once again appreciating the style and originality of this innovative material. Questions 1-3 Complete the summary. Complete ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for
each answer. Write your answers in boxes 1-3 on your answer sheet. Some plastics behave in a similar way to 1-------in that they melt under heat and can be moulded into new forms.Bakelite was unique because it was the frist material to be both entirely2--------in origin,and thermosetting. There were several reasons for the research into plastics in the nineteenth century,among them the great advances that had been made in the field of3------and the search for alternatives to natural resources like ivory. Questions 4-8 Complete ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer. Write your answer in boxes 4-8 on your answer sheet.
The Production of Bakelite
Phenol Combine under vacuum Formaldehyde ↓
Stage one resin,called4-----|
cool until hardened ↓ break up and grind into powder 5------(e.g.cotton,asbestos) Catalysts ammonia formaldehyde 6----------Stage two resin ↓ | |
Cool until hardened ↓ Break up and grind into powder ↓ 7---------------Bakelite ↓ Heat ↓ Pour into mould
↓ Apply 8--------↓ Cool until hardened Questions 9 and 10 Choose Two letters A-E. Write your answers in boxes 9 and 10 on your answer sheet. NB your answers may be given in either order. intense heat and
Which TWO of the following factors influencing the design of Bakelite objects are mentioned in the text? A B mould the function which the object wound serve the ease with which the resin could fill the
the facility with which the object could be
removed from the mould D the limitations of the material used to
manufacture the mould E the fashionable styles of the period
Questions 11-13 Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1? In boxes 11-13 on your answer sheet, write TRUE if the statement agrees with the Information FALSE if the statement contradicts the Information NOT GIVEN 11 if there is no information on this
Modern-day plastic preparation is based on the
same principles as that patented in 1997 12 Bakelite was immediately welcomed as a
practical and versatile material. 13 Bakelite was only available in a limited range