1 句式变化指导 很多考生的英语作文句式单一、呆板,语言缺乏多样性和灵活性,这 与高考作文要求考生的语言结构富于变化、错落有致差距甚远。要想 使语言富于变化,考生就要多练习英语句型的改写或转换,为写作打好句 型基础。 句式变化一:改变句子开头 许多考生在写作中倾向于用与人有关系的词,经常用名词和代词作 为句子的开头,如 People,We,I,He,They,
A.People throughout the country have greatly demanded all kinds of nutritious food. B.There is a great demand across the country for all kinds of nutritious food. 第二句用“there be句型”开头,这样既改变了“主语+谓语+宾语”的单 调句型,又把想强调的意思突显出来。实际上,为了把文章写得生动活泼, 除了用主语开头外,还可以用句子的其他成分开头。 1.用状语开头 Too often,students stray into the habit of cheating on tests. Dark and empty,the house looked very different from the way I remembered it.
2.用同位语开头 Air,water and oxygen,everything is necessary for life. 3.用表语开头 Equally essential to the highest success in learning a language is intense interest plus persistent effort. 4.用宾语开头 My advice you would not listen to;my help you laughed at.Now you will have what you asked for. 5.以短语修饰语开头
To me the news was very interesting,but to my wife very boring.
(2)以分词短语开头 Disturbed by the discord of American life in recent decades,John took flight for the Pacific islands. (3)以不定式短语开头 To pass the exam,you should work very hard. 句式变化二:巧用连词 有的考生在作文中过多地使用简单句,成了简单句堆砌;有的写复杂 句时,动辄就用so,and,then,but,or,however,yet等,这样非但达不到丰富表 达方式的目的,反而使句子结构松散、呆板。为了避免这种现象,可以通
过使用其他连词,尤其是一些表示从属关系的连词,如 that,because,since, although,after,as,before,when,whenever,if,unless,as if等,不仅能够丰富句 型,而且还能够把思想表达得更清楚,意义更连贯。如: Natural resources are very limited.They will be exhausted in the near future. It is not true.But it becomes a major concern around the world.This is a widely accepted fact. 这段文字用几个简单句表达,它们之间内在的逻辑关系含糊不清,意思支 离破碎。如果使用连词,将简单句与其前后合并,形成主次关系,就把一个 比较复杂的内容和关系表达得层次清楚、结构严谨。如: It is a widely accepted fact that there is a major concern around the world for
the exhaustion of limited natural resources in the near future,though it is unlikely to be true. 句式变化三:长短句交叉 长句和短句是就句子的词数多少、形体长短而言的。长句和短句 各有其优点和缺点。长句因为使用的定语、状语较多,限制了概念的外 延,增大了概念的内涵,所以比较精确、严密,但使用起来不够活泼简便。 短句由于词数少,直截了当,一般比较简洁、明快、有力,但不利于表达复 杂的语义内容。在具体语言活动中,最好长短句交替使用。这既体现了 节奏上的要求,也是意义上的需要。如: ①We can imagine the beautiful surroundings.②There are many trees along
the streets.③There is a clean river in the city.④There are many fishes in the river.⑤There are willow trees on the one side.⑥There are some pieces of grassland on the other side.⑦There are many flowers on them. 以上七个句子都是简单句,句型结构单一,而且句子长短统一都在七八词 左右,十分单调。下面是修改后的段落: ①Just imagine the beautiful surroundings if we make our cities greener.② Green trees line the streets.③A clean river winds through the city,in which a lot of fishes abound.④On the one side stand rows of willow trees.⑤On the other side lies a stretch of grassland sprinkled with many yellow and red flowers.
改写后的这段文字,有长句①、③、⑤,也有短句②和④,一长一短,抑扬 顿挫的节奏感就出来了。不仅句子长短交替,而且句型结构变化也很大, 使文章流畅自然、生动活泼。 再如: The Mississippi River is one of the longest rivers in the world,and in spring time it often overflows its banks,and the lives of many people are endangered. 此句用and把三个分句一贯到底,既乏味又可笑。如果使用了关系代词 which,语义就会更连贯,语言也会更流畅。如:
The Mississippi River,which is one of the longest rivers in the world,often overf lows its banks in spring time,endangering the lives of many people.
句式变化四:利用倒装结构 英语的基本句型是S+V+O,如果偶尔打破常规,改变某一成分的位 置,不仅可以丰富句型,而且能强调、突出被倒装的部分,收到意想不到的 表达效果。如: In no other place in the world can one find such enthusiasm for applying for hosting the 2012 Olympic Games. 总之,英语的句式是多种多样的,只要从要表达的内容出发,合理选用,文 章的句式就会富于变化。同时,在学习写作的过程中,考生应不断练习各 种各样的句式构造,以提高语言表达能力。
2 写作典例 (2014湖南) 学校正在组织科技创新大赛,你想为日常生活中某件物品(如钢笔、书 包、鞋子……)设计添加新功能来参赛。请以“My Magic 写一篇英语短文,介绍你的创意。 内容: 1.说明设计理由; 2.介绍新功能。 注意: 1.词数不少于120个; ”为题
【范文】 My magic neutral water pen The neutral water pen is widely used in the process of study but we often have trouble using them because of its limited ink and other inconvenience. To deal with these problems,consequently,I have worked heart and soul to create my own magic neutral water pen. The most shining function of this newly designed pen is that it will contain special ink powder which makes it have endless ink.Furthermore,the pen is made of the extremely strong materials,which can protect the pen from the
damage when it might fall down onto the ground.Better still,so smoothly
does it write that it can contribute to making our handwriting better.
Such is my magic neutral water pen.Are you interested in it? Hope it will be of great use for users. 【写作点评】 (1)第二段以不定式短语To deal with these problems开头,使文章句式充满 多样性。 (2)巧妙地运用了连词:that,when,丰富了文章的句型,也使文章更加连贯 了。 (3)使用了定语从句、状语从句,彰显了作者的写作功底,也增加了得分 点。
(2015山西忻州一中期中) 假如你是高三学生李华,你校正在组织寒假赴英冬令营营员选拔活动。 冬令营由英国文化委员会(British Council)组织,营地在牛津大学(Oxford University)。请根据以下要点给你的英国笔友John写一封电子邮件: 1.你很感兴趣,认为机会难得。 2.家人反对及其反对的理由。 3.希望John给出建议。 注意:1.词数100左右; 2.可适当增加细节。
Dear John, How is everything going?
【范文】 Dear John, How is everything going? You know,I’m in Senior Three now.A selective test is going to be held next week in our school.Those who pass the test will have a chance to join a winter holiday camp in Oxford University.It has long been my dream to travel abroad and learn authentic English.And the winter camp is officially organized by the British Council.So I treasure the opportunity very much. Now I would like to enter for the test.However,my family are all against it.
As far as I’m concerned,what they care more is the college entrance examination,which I should concern the most.I don’t think it’s a waste of time to take part in the camp.Could you give me some advice? I believe I will benefit a lot from your valuable and timely advice. I’m looking forward to your reply. Yours, Li Hua