必修 4 语法 Unit 1 主谓一致（Subject—Verb agreement）
1. 定义： 主谓一致指的是句子的谓语动词必须在人称和数的变化方面与主语保持一致。 2. 主谓一致原则： 通常包括语法一致原则、意义一致原则和就近原则 （讲解详见 P88—89） 难点： 1. 在 every…and every…, each… and each…, no… and
no… 等短语中，and 连接单数 名词，正短语在句中作主语时，谓语动词常使用单数。 练一练： Eg: Each man and each woman is asked to attend. 1. 主语由 more than one+单数名词或 many a +单数名词构成，谓语动词用单数。 Eg: Many a man believes the story. 3. What 引导的主语从句作主语，谓语动词的单复数取决于表语的单复数。 Eg: What surprised us most was that his attitude towards his study. What the students need most are interesting books. 4. 定语从句中的关系代词作主语， 谓语动词的形式由先行词的数决定： 若先行词是 one of + 复数名词，谓语动词用复数形式，若先行词是 the one of +复数名词，谓语动词用单数形式。 Eg: He is one of the students who are from Britain. He is the one of the students who is from Britain. 5. “一两个…”用“one or two+名词复数”表达作主语时，谓语用复数；用”a(an)+名词单 数+or two”表达作主语时，谓语动词用单数形式。 Eg: One or two days are enough for them. = A day or two is enough for them. 练一练： 1. 选择： 1）One third of the country _____ covered with trees and the majority of the citizens _____ black people. A. is; are B. is; is C. are; are D. are; is 2) The factory used 65 percent of the raw materials, the rest of which _____ saved for other purposes. A. is B. are C. was D. were 3） . Such poets as Shakespeare _____ widely read, of whose works, however, some _____ difficult to understand. A. are; are B. is; is C. are; is D. is; are 4）. Listening to loud music at rock concerts _____ caused hearing loss in some teenagers. A. is B. are C. has D. have 5）． —Is everyone here? —Not yet ... Look, there _____ the rest of our guests! A. come B. comes C. is coming D. are coming 6）. Barbara is easy to recognize as she’s the only one of the women who _____ evening dress. A. wear B. wears C. has worn D. have worn
Key: 1—6 A D A C A B 2. 用所给单词的正确形式填空。 1）His family ________(be) the largest one in his village. Besides, his family ________(be) all party members. 2) The whole class _______(be) now listening to the teacher carefully. 3）To learn one or two foreign languages __________(be) very important nowadays. 4) The last and most difficult lesson __________(be) Lesson 8. 5) Alice, together with her friends, _________(be) punished for having broken the school rules. 6) Many a scientist ______ (have) devoted their lives to science. 7) Every girl and every boy ________ (have) the right to join the club. 8) A thousand of miles no longer ________(mean) much to us today, for modern jets can easily get us to a great distance within a matter of a few hours. 9) Economics, several courses of which I have taken thus far, ________(prove) to be difficult but useful for almost all students.
Unit 2—4 动词 ing 形式 Unit2 动词 ing 作主语和宾语
1. 定义: 动词-ing 形式是在动词末尾加 -ing， 属于非谓语动词。 如： do-doing, write- writing , sit-sitting , etc.否定形式：not+ v--ing 构成 2. 动词-ing 形式作主语或宾语时，也可称为动名词。 3. 动词-ing 形式作主语 1) 动词-ing 形式作主语表示抽象的或泛指的动作, 谓语动词用单数。如： Eg: Reading aloud is very important for us to learn a foreign language. 2) 动词-ing 形式作主语时常后置, 用 it 作形式主语，用形容词或名词作表语。常见的作表 语的名词或短语有：no use, no good, fun, hard work, a hard / difficult job, a wonder, a waste of time 等。如： Is it worthwhile quarrelling with her? It’s no good waiting here. Let’s go home. 4. 动词-ing 形式作宾语 (跟在动词或介词后面构成动宾或介宾) 1） 有些动词如 admit, avoid, consider, escape, deny, risk, suggest 等后能接动词-ing 形式作宾 语，而不能接动词不定式。如： We’re considering paying a visit to the Science Museum. 2）有些短语如 can’t help, be used to, end up, feel like, lead to, be busy, be tired of, be fond of, be afraid of, be proud of, think of / about, put off, keep on, insist on, be good at, give up 等后常接 名词、代词或动词-ing 形式作宾语。如： I have been used to living here. I’m fond of collecting stamps and coins. 练一练： 1. It’s necessary to be prepared for a job interview. ____ the answers ready will be of great help.
A. To have had B. Having had C. Have D. Having 2. The parents suggested ____ in the hotel room but their kids were anxious to camp out during the trip. A. sleep B. to sleep C. sleeping D. having slept 3. How I regret ___ so much time in the net bar! I should have studied harder. A. to waste B. wasting C. wasted D. being wasted 4. Lydia doesn’t feel like _____ abroad. Her parents are old. A. study B. studying C. studied D. to study 5. Planning so far ahead _____ no sense — so many things will have changed by next year. A. made B. is making C. makes D. has made 6. I still remember _______ to the Famen Temple and what I saw there. A. to take B. to be taken C. taking D. being taken
Unit 3 –ing 形式作表语、定语和宾语补足语
1. -ing 形式作表语 1）动名词作表语时放在系动词之后，用来泛指某种动作或行为，以说明主语的身份、性质 或情况。可转换成主语。如： Her hobby is painting. = Painting is her hobby. My job is looking after the children. = Looking after the children is my job. 2） 现在分词作表语：作表语的现在分词是形容词性，表明主语的性质或特征。主语和表 语不可互换。 Eg: The news she brought us was very exciting. The situation here is very inspiring. 2. -ing 形式作定语 1）动名词作定语：表示名词的属性或事物的用途，可以改为 for 短语。如： building materials = materials for building 建筑材料 a swimming pool = a pool for swimming 2）现在分词作定语：单个现在分词作定语位于名词前面，现在分词短语作定语放在名词后 面，表示主动和正在进行，可转换为定语从句。 Eg: tiring music= music that is tiring a surprising result= a result that is surprising 3) 现在分词短语作定语，放在名词之后，在意思上相当于一个定语从句。 Eg: They lived in a room facing to the south. They lived in a room that faces to the south. The man standing there is my father. The man who is standing there is my father. 4) 现在分词短语也可以用作非限制性定语，相当于一个非限制性定语从句。 Eg: Her brother, working as a teacher, lives in Shanghai. = Her brother, who was working as a teacher, lives in Shanghai. 3. -ing 形式作宾语补足语 1) 动词-ing 形式作宾语补足语常放在宾语后面，表示一个正在进行的主动性的动作，强调 一个过程或一种状态。如：
When we returned to the school, we found a stranger standing at the entrance. We watched the little girl crossing the street. The boss kept the workers working the whole night. 2) 当主句转换为被动结构时, 原来作宾语补足语的动词-ing 形式便转换为主语补足语。 如： They found the result very satisfying. = The result is found very satisfying. They heard him singing in the next room. = He was heard singing in the next room. 3) 能用-ing 形式作宾语补足语的几类动词: ① 表示感觉和心理状态的动词，常见的有 see, hear, feel, smell, find, notice, observe, look at, listen to 等。如： We saw a light burning in the window. ② 表示指使意义的动词，常见的有 have, set, keep, get, catch, leave 等。如： I’m sorry to have kept you waiting. This set me thinking. 练一练： 1. 指出下列-ing 形式所充当的成分。 1） Do you find it funny to see someone sliding on a banana skin, bumping into someone else round a corner, or falling down a hole in the road? 2）He became famous for using a particular form of acting, including mime and farce. 3）That was the problem facing Charlie Chaplin in one of his most famous films. 4）He loved it by using nonverbal humor. 5）Their job is “panning for gold”. 6）Finally he tries cutting and eating the bottom of the shoe. 2. 改错。 1) I am looking forward to visit Charlie Chaplin Museum in Switzerland next week. 2) Charlie’s nonverbal humor often makes people bursting with laughter. 3) We are all fond of Charlie’s early films, which we think are more interested. 4) I missed to see the beginning of the film City Lights the other day. 5) I wouldn’t mind to see The Gold Rush again with you tonight 6) Charlie’s job was entertain people, wasn’t he? 3．选择 1）The next thing he saw was smoke _____ from behind the house. A. rose B. rising C. to rise D. risen 2）Recently a survey _____ prices of the same goods in two different supermarkets has caused heated debate among citizens. A. compared B. comparing C. compares D. being compared 3) Listen! Do you hear someone _____ for help? A. calling B. call C. to call D. called 4. 完成句子。 1）那故事太动人了, 他被深深地感动了。 He was deeply ________ because the story was_________. 2）我发现那人躺在地上, 死了。 I _______ the man _________ on the ground dead. 3.汤姆奇怪的话使我想知道他的真正目的。
Tom’s strange words left me_________ about his real purpose. 4.作弊被抓住的学生要受到惩罚。 The students who are ______________will be punished. 5.浪费时间就是慢性自杀。 _________time is __________yourself slowly.
Unit 4 现在分词作状语
1. 现在分词作状语 可以表示时间, 原因, 结果, 条件, 行为方式或伴随动作等。 1) 表条件,相当于一个条件状语从句。 Using your head, you’ll find a good way. = _____you use your head, you’ll find a good way. 2）表伴随动作： Four people entered the room looking around in a curious way. = Four people enter the room ______ _______around in a curious way. 小结： 表伴随动作，不可以转换成从句，但可以转换成并列句。 3) 表原因，可转换成原因状语从句。 Being poor, he couldn’t afford a TV set. = __________he was poor, he couldn’t afford a TV set. 4) 表方式，可转换成方式状语从句。 He came running back to tell me the news. =He came by the way of running back to tell me the news. 5) 表结果,可转黄成结果状语从句。 The child slipped and fell, hitting his head against the door. = The child slipped and fell, _____ _______ ______ head against the door. 6) 表时间，相当于一个时间状语从句。 Walking in the street, I came across an old friend of mine. = _______ I was walking in the street, I came across an old friend of mine. 7) 表让步，相当于一个让步状语从句。 Knowing all this, they made me pay for the damage. =_________ they knew all this, they made me pay for the damage. 8) 与逻辑主语构成独立主格： -ing 形式作状语时，它的逻辑主语必须和主句的主语是一致的。但是当现在分词的逻辑主 语不是句子的主语，就要用分词的独立主格结构，即逻辑主语+现在分词。 I waiting for the bus, a bird fell on my heard. All the tickets having been sold out, they went away disappointedly.
注意：有时也可用 with (without)+名词（代词宾格）+分词形式
With the lights burning, he fell asleep. 练一练： 判断下列的现在分词分别充当的成分并转换成相应的从句或并列句。 1. You see her step back appearing surprised.
= You see her step back _____________________________________________________. 2. They also express their feelings using unspoken language. =They also express their feelings ______________________________________________. 3. His nose touched Mr. Cook’s moving hand. =His nose touched Mr. Cook’s hand ___________________________________________. 4. They are visitors coming from several countries. = They are visitors _______________________________________________________. 改写句子 1. When he approached Ms Smith, he touched her shoulder and kissed her. =_____ ___________ Ms Smith, he touched her shoulder and kissed her. 2. The person who is translating the songs can speak seven languages. =The person _________ ___ _____ can speak seven languages. 3. Because he comes from Jordan, he moves close to ask you a question. = _______ _____ Jordan, he moves close to ask you a question. 4. She sat at the desk and did her homework. = She sat at the desk ______ ____ _________. 5. Because he hadn’t received an answer, he decided to write another letter to him. =____ ______ ______ an answer, he decided to write another letter to him. 单选 1. Sarah pretended to be cheerful, _____ nothing about the argument. A. says B. said C. to say D. saying 2. _____ around the fire, the tourists danced with the lo-cal people. A. Gather B. To gather C. Gathering D. To be gathering 3. Sit down, Emma. You will only make yourself more tired, _____ on your feet. A. to keep B. keeping C. having kept D. to have kept 4. More highways have been built in China, _____ it much easier for people to travel from one place to an-other. A. making B. made C. to make D. having made 5. _____ at my classmates’ faces, I read the same excite-ment in their eyes. A. Looking B. Look C. To look D. Looked 6. Dina, _____ for months to find a job as a waitress, finally took a position at a local advertising agency. A. struggling B. struggled C. having struggled D. to struggle 语法填空（共 10 小题；每小题 1.5 分，满分 15 分） 阅读下面短文， 按照句子结构的语法性和上下文连贯的要求， 在空格处填入一个适当的 词或者用括号中词语的正确形式填空，并将答案填写在答题卡标号为 16~25 的相应位置上。 One day, Nick invited his friends to supper. He was cooking some delicious food in the kitchen. Suddenly, he ____16____(find) that he has run out of salt. So Nick called to his son, “Go to the village and buy some salt, but pay a fair price for it: neither too much ____17____too little.” His son looked surprised. “I can understand why I shouldn’t pay too much, Father, but if I can pay less, ____18____not save a bit of money?” “That would be a very ____19____(reason) thing to do in a big city, but it could destroy a small village like ours,” Nick said.
Nick’s guests, ____20____had heard their conversation, asked why they should not buy salt more cheaply if they could. Nick replied, “The only reason a man would sell salt ____21____a lower price would be because he was desperate for money. And anyone who took advantage of that situation would be showing a lack of respect ____22____the sweat and struggle of the man who worked very hard to produce it.” “But such a small thing couldn’t ____23____(possible) destroy a village.” “In the beginning, there was only ____24____very small amount of unfairness in the world, but everyone added a little, always ____25____(think) that it was only small and not very important, and look where we have ended up today.”
Unit 5 语法 构词法
讲解详见（P91—94） 练一练： 单句填空 根据句意给括号内的单词加前缀和后缀来完成句子。 1. These gold rings are ________while those glass ones are _________(value). 2. We all like the talk given by the famous scientist yesterday. It is__________ (encourage) 3. Mary’s daughter is old enough to ______and ________herself. (dress) 4.____________(self)is a virtue of the Chinese people. 5. He lost his keys. He is _________. I’m sure he will be ________with everything from now on. (care) 6. At the beginning the Blacks in the US had no right to vote. It was ________ (fair) 7. That plan was a waste of money. We__________(agree) with it. 8. After watching the performance, they were so excited that none of them fell _________ (sleep) until one o’clock.. 9. It is _________(legal) to hunt rare animals in China. 10. My father used to smoke a lot, but he is a ____________(smoke) now. 11. His poor eyesight was a (an)____________ (convenient) to him. 12. What is the_________ (post) for this letter? 13. At last he made a big ___________(decide) and bought thirty-seven cards. 14. It was __________(child) of you to believe him.
Key: 1. valuable valueless 2. encouraging 3. dress undress 4. Unselfishness 5. careless careful 6. unfair 7. disagreed 8. asleep 9. illegal1 10. non-smoker 11. inconvenience 12. postage 13. decision 14. childish