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高考英语(人教版)要点梳理+重点突破:必修5 Unit 1 Great scientists


必修 5 Unit 1 Great scientists
要 点 梳 理 ●重点单词 1.characteristic n.特征;特性 2.conclude vt. & vi.结束;推断出→conclusion n.结论;结束 3.defeat vt.打败;战胜;使受挫 n.失败 4.attend vt.照顾;护理;出席;参加 5.expose vt.暴露;揭露

;使曝光→exposion n.暴露 6.cure n.治愈;痊愈 vt.治愈;治疗 高效梳理·知识备考

7.challenge n.挑战 vt.向……挑战→challenger n.挑战者 8.absorb vt.吸收;吸引;使专心 9.suspect vt.怀疑 n.被怀疑者;嫌疑犯→suspicion n.怀疑→ suspicious adj.有疑心的 10.foresee vt.预见;预告→foretell v.预言→forecast v.预报 11.blame vt.责备;谴责 n.过失;责备 12.pollute vt.污染;弄脏→pollution n.污染 13.handle n.柄;把手 vt.处理;操纵 14.link vt. & n.连接;联系 15.announce vt.宣布;通告→announcement n.通知;宣告 16. instruct vt.命令; 指示; 教导→instruction n. 教授; 传授→instructions

n.指示,说明 17.construct vt.建设;修建→construction n.建设;建筑物 18.contribute vt. & vi.捐献;贡献;捐助→contribution n.贡献 19.spin vi. & vt.(使)旋转;纺(线或纱) 20.reject vt.拒绝;不接受;抛弃→rejection n.拒绝;抛弃 ●重点短语 1.put forward 提出 2.draw a conclusion 得出结论 3.expose...to 使显露;暴露

4.link...to...

将??和??联系或连接起来

5.apart from 除??之外;此外 6.make sense 讲得通;有意义

7.look into 调查;研究 8.at times 9.be against 有时 反对 对??严格的

10.(be) strict with 11.be to blame 12.with certainty ●重点句型

应受责备 肯定地

1.So many thousands of terrified people died every time there was an outbreak. 因次每一次暴发(霍乱)都会有成千上万恐慌的人死去。 2.Only if you put the sun there did the movements of the other planets in the sky make sense. 只有当你把太阳放在中心位置上, 天空中其他行星 的运动才能说得清楚。 3.He placed a fixed sun at the center of the solar system with the planets going round it.... 他把太阳固定在太阳系的中心位置上,而行星围绕着太阳转?? ●高考范文 (2008·安徽)

假定你是李华,David 是你的美国笔友。他对中国鼓励使用环保购物 袋很感兴趣,来信向你询问此事。请你给他写封回信,主要内容如下: ◇感谢他的关注。 ◇简要介绍相关情况。 ◇谈谈你的感想。 注意:1.词数 100 左右,信的格式已为你写好。 2.可根据内容要点适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 3.参考词汇:环保购物袋 environment-friendly shopping bag;关注 concern。 June 8

Dear David, ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Yours, Li Hua 写作要点: 本篇书面表达要求写一封书信,请注意英文书信格式及文体特点;人 称需用第一人称;时态需用一般现在时。 1.相关词语:environmental protection (环境保护), white pollution (白 色污染),reuse (再利用), rubbish (垃圾)等; 2.英文书信常用句式 believe/hope/think...that...等。 I‘m glad that..., Thank you for..., I

[范文] June_8 Dear_David, I'm glad that you've noticed our efforts directed towards environmental protection. Thank you for your concern. As too much use of plastic bags has caused serious white pollution, our government encourages us to use environment-friendly shopping bags. These bags are made of a variety of materials that can be easily treated when they become rubbish. Besides, they can be reused. More and more people in China have realized the advantages of such bags and started using them. I believe that the wide use of these shopping bags can greatly improve our environment. This is one of the many steps we are taking to

make our country an even cleaner place. Yours, Li_Hua 考 点 探 究 互动探究·能力备考

Ⅰ.词汇短语过关 1.conclude vt. conclusion n. conclusive adj. 断定,推断出;作出结论(不用于进行时) 结论,推论 结论性的

conclude...by/with...以??结束 conclude to do sth. 决定做某事 conclude...from...从??中推断

to conclude (做插入语)最后(一句话) in conclusion 最后,总之 bring...to a conclusion 使??结束 make a conclusion 下结论 arrive at/come to/draw/reach a conclusion 得出结论,告一段落 [即学即练 1](1)He _____________ his speech with a joke. 他以一个笑话结束了他的演讲。 (2)The meeting ____________ at nine o‘clock. 会议 9 点钟结束了。 (3)The police ____________ that he must be the murderer. 警察断定他一定是杀人凶手。

concluded concluded concluded (4)____________, wish all of you good health and a long life.最后祝大 家健康长寿。 (5)____________, I would like to thank all the people present at the meeting today. 最后我想感谢今天参加会议的所有人。 To conclude In conclusion 2.attend vt.&vi. 出席;参加;照料,护理

attendance n. 出席,到场,参加 attend a meeting/a lecture/school 参加会议/听报告/上学 attend on/upon sb. 伺候某人;照顾某人 attend to 处理,注意,专心于,照料 [即学即练 2](1)He didn‘t __________________ yesterday.他昨天没有 参加会议。 (2)He was very tired after the long run, and expected somebody ______________ him. 长跑之后他感到非常疲劳,很想有个人来照顾自己一下。 (3)Business has to __________________. 生意是必须要料理的。 attend the meeting

to attend on be attended to (4)__________your studies. 专心你的学习。 Attend to 3.expose vt. 暴露,揭露,使曝光,使面临 exposure n. 暴露,显露;揭露,揭发 expose sth./sb./oneself (to...) 显露或暴露某事物/某人/自己(给??) be exposed to 暴露于?? [即学即练 3](1)My job as a journalist is to

_______________.我作为记者的职责就是揭露事实。 (2)Don‘t ______ babies ______ strong sunlight. 不要让婴儿受到强烈阳光的照射。 (3)It’s very dangerous to _______________ these viruses without any protection. 不加任何保护,直接暴露在这些病毒下是非常危险的。 expose the truth expose to be exposed to 4.cure n. 治愈;痊愈 curable adj. 可治愈的 vt. 治愈;治疗

a cure for... 针对??的治疗 cure sb. of sth. 消除某人??;治愈某人?? [即学即练 4](1)The doctor can't ______ her ______ the cancer. 医生治不好她的癌症。 (2)Nothing can ______ you ______ your bad habits. 没有什么能去掉你的坏习惯。 (3)This is ___________________ SARS. 这是一种新的 SARS 治疗方法。 cure of cure of

a new cure for 拓展:vt.+sb. +of sth.结构的短语还有: remind sb. of sth.使某人想起某事 suspect sb. of sth.怀疑某人(做)某事 rob sb. of sth.抢了某人某物 inform sb. of sth.通知某人某事 warn sb. of sth.警告某人某事 accuse sb. of sth.控告某人某事 5.absorb vt.吸收,吸进(液体、气体等);理解,获取(信息);吸引住 某人的注意力或兴趣

absorb water/light/heat (=take in) 吸收水/光/热 absorb what sb. said 理解某人所说的话 absorb one's attention 吸引某人的注意力 be absorbed in... 全神贯注于?? [即学即练 5](1)Black cloth __________ light. 黑色布料吸收光线。 (2)Did you ______ everything the professor said? 教授说的你全部理解了吗? (3)He ________________ deep thought. 他陷入沉思。 absorbs

absorb was absorbed in 6.suspect vt.怀疑;不信任 n.嫌疑犯;可疑对象 suspect sth.怀疑某事 suspect that? clause 怀疑?? suspect sb. of(doing) sth. 怀疑某人有某种罪行或做过某事 suspect sb. to be...猜想某人是?? [即学即练 6](1)I began to _________ (that) they were trying to get rid of me.

我开始怀疑他们试图摆脱我。 (2)They ______ him ______ murder. 他们怀疑他犯有谋杀罪。 (3)What made you _________ her ______ having taken the money?你凭 什么怀疑钱是她偷的? (4)The police arrested the _________ yesterday. 警方昨天逮捕了那个嫌疑犯。 suspect suspect of suspect of suspect

7.blame n.&vt.责备;责任 blame sb. for sth./doing sth. 因为某事责备某人/责备某人做了某事 blame sth. on sb.把某事归咎于某人 be to blame (for)应(为??)承担责任;该(为??) 受责备(此处不能用被动语态) accept/bear/take the blame for sth. 对某事负责任 put/lay the blame for sth. on sb. 将某事归咎于某人 [即学即练 7](1)He _________ me ______ my carelessness. 他责备我的疏忽大意。 (2)Mr Li is not __________________ the accident.

这次事故不能怨李先生。 (3)Where does __________________ our failure lie? 我们失败的症结在哪里? blamed for to blame for the blame for 8.contribute vt.&vi.作贡献,捐献;投(稿) contribution n. 贡献,捐献,投稿 contributor n. 捐助者;投稿人 contribute to sth. 增加,增添;促成某事 contribute sth. to/towards 给??捐献/捐赠

contribute (sth.) to sth. 撰稿;投稿 make a contribution to...为??作贡献 [即学即练 8](1)We should __________ food and clothing ______ the relief of the poor. 我们应该捐赠食品和衣物救济贫民。 (2)Drink _______________ his ruin.酗酒促使他毁灭。 (3)The Song Dynasty _____________ three great inventions ______ world civilization. 宋朝为世界文明贡献出三大发明。 (4)He ___________ an article ______ China Daily. 他为《中国日报》撰写了一篇文章。 contribute

for contributed to contributed to contributed to 9.reject vt.抛开;丢掉;拒绝,抵制 n.被拒绝或抛弃的人或物 [即学即练 9](1)My cousin tried to join the army but ____________. 我堂兄试图参军,但没有被接受。 (2)After the transplant his body __________ the new heart. 在移植手术后,他的身体对移植的心脏产生排斥反应。

(3)I __________ the rotten oranges.我把腐烂的橘子扔掉了。 was rejected rejected rejected 提示:reject 与 refuse 的区别 refuse 指拒绝别人的请求、帮助、邀请等,其后可跟不定式。 reject 不能用于拒绝别人的邀请或帮助,其后不能跟不定式。 She refused (to accept) my gift.=She rejected my gift. 她拒绝接受我的礼物。 10.put forward 提出,推荐;将??提前

put away/aside 放在一边;收拾起来;储存 put back 放回,拨回 put down 写下;镇压;放下 put forth 提出;颁布 put...into 把??翻译成 put off 延期,推迟 put on 穿、戴上;(速度、体重)增加;上演 put out 扑灭,熄灭 put through 接通电话 put up 举起;建造;张贴 put up with 忍受,忍耐,容忍

[即学即练 10](1)She often ___________ some useful advice.她常常提出 一些有用的建议。 (2)Can I ______ you/your name ___________ as golf club secretary?我 推荐你担任高尔夫球俱乐部的秘书怎么样? (3)We have ______ the wedding ___________ one week.我们已将婚礼 提前了一周。 (4)______ your watch __________; you‘re five minutes slow. 把你的表往前拨一下,你慢了 5 分钟。 puts forward put forward put

forward by Put forward 11.apart from 除??之外 take...apart 把??拆开 tell...apart 区分,辨别 set/put apart 留出 [即学即练 11](1)____________ the cost, it will take a lot of time.除了花 钱以外,还要花很多时间。 (2)I have nothing ____________ the clothes I am wearing.除了我身上穿 的衣服以外,我什么也没有。

(3)The mechanics ______ the engine ______. 机械师把发动机拆开了。 (4)It’s almost impossible to ______ Jackie and Moira ______ since they had their hair cut. 杰姬和莫伊拉把头发剪了,几乎不可能把她俩区别开来。 Apart from apart from took apart tell apart 12.make sense 讲得通;有道理;很有意义 make sense of sth. 懂;了解??的含义

make no sense 讲不通;无意义 in a sense 就某种意义而言;在某种意义上 in no sense 决不是;决非 There is no sense in doing sth. 做??没必要/道理 a sense of humor/safety 幽默感/安全感 common sense 常识 [即学即练 12](1)What he says ____________. 他说的有道理。 (2)Can you ______________ this poem? 你能明白这首诗的含义吗? (3)What you say is true ___________.

你所说的在某种意义上是真实的。 (4)That just ____________________ me. 那对我毫无意义。 makes sense make sense of in a sense makes no sense to (5)_____________ does this excuse their actions. 这决不能成为他们行为的托辞。 (6)_____________________in getting upset about it now.现在为这件事 苦恼是没有意义的。 In no sense

There is no sense Ⅱ.重点句型详解 1.So many thousands of terrified people died every_time there was an outbreak. 因此每次暴发(霍乱)时,就有大批惊恐的人死去。 这是由名词词组 every time 充当连词的时间状语从句,意为“每 当??” ,相当于 when。某些表达时间的名词词组可直接充当连词, 即“名词连词化现象” 。常见的有: (1)不定代词+time (2)序数词+time (3)the+瞬时名词 如:any time, each time... 如:the first/last time... 如:the minute/moment/instant

(4)the+时间名词

如:the day/night/month/time...

①He brings her flowers every time he goes to see her. 他每次去看她都给她带花。 ②The first time he did the experiment, he succeeded. 他第一次做实验就成功了。 ③I‘ll give him your message the minute he arrives. 等他一到,我就把你的口信给他。 ④He bought a computer the day he got his salary. 他发工资那天买了一台电脑。 [即境活用 1] The boys ran off______ they saw the owner of the orchard

(果园). A.at times C.the moment 答案:C 解析:句中 the moment 引导时间状语从句,相当于 as soon as。 2.Only_if you put the sun there did the movements of the other planets in the sky make sense. 只有当你把太阳放在中心位置上, 天空中其他行星 的运动才能说得清楚。 only 修饰副词、 介词短语或状语从句, 放在句首时, 句子要部分倒装, 即把助动词、情态动词或系动词 be 放在主语之前。 B.the hour D.at once

①Only then did I realize the mistakes I had made. 只有在那时我才意识到我所犯的错误。 ②Only in this way can you make progress. 只有以这种方式你才能取得进步。 ③Only when the war was over in 1949 was he able to get back home.只 有在 1949 年战争结束时他才能回家。 拓展:if only 要是??该多好,但愿。if only 从句可单独使用,这时 要用虚拟语气:表示与过去相反的愿望用 had done;与现在相反的愿 望用 did/were;表示与将来相反的愿望用 “would/could/might+动词 原形” 。 ①If only I had gone to Beijing.

我要是去了北京就好了。 ②If only he could come tomorrow. 他要是明天能来就好了。 [即境活用 2] ______both sides accept the agreement will a lasting peace be established in this region. A.Only if C.If only 答案:A 解析:主句中用了“will+主语+be”倒装结构,故选 Only if。 易 错 点 拨 自我完善·误区备考 B.Unless D.As long as

1. defeat/beat/win 这三个词都有“赢”的意思,但其用法不尽相同。 (1)defeat 和 beat 是同义词, 其宾语必须是 “人或一个集体” 如 a team, 。 a class, a school, an army 等。defeat 侧重在战场上打败敌人,beat 常用 于游戏或比赛中,但在平时运用中常替换使用。 (2)win 表示在较强的竞争中取得了胜利,常带的宾语有:game, war, prize, fame, battle 等。win 还可作为不及物动词来用。 [应用 1] 用 defeat, beat, win 填空

(1)He ____________ all his opponents in the election. (2)Peasants ______ the drought and reaped a good harvest. (3)After a heart? heart talk, I ______ his belief at last. to? defeated/beat

beat won (4)The enemy’s plot was _________ very soon. (5)We wouldn’t have ______without your help. (6)Mary ______ first prize for swimming. defeated won won 2. cure/treat/heal (1)treat 指通过药物、特别的食品或运动治病,强调治疗过程,treat sb. for sth.医治某人??病;还可作“对待,看待”讲,treat...as 把??看 作/视为。

(2)cure 意为“治愈,痊愈” ,特别指病后的恢复健康。其后可接表示 疾病的名词或代词,也可接 sb. of 再加表示疾病的名词。另外,还可 作“矫正,纠正”解,借喻指消除社会上某种不良现象或个人恶习等。 (3)heal 意为“治愈” ,多用于治愈外伤,如:wound, cut, injury, burn 等。 [应用 2] (1)He _________ his students as his own children.他把学生看 作自己的孩子。 (2)The doctors are trying to ______ him with a new drug. 医生们尝试用一种新药为他治病。 (3)His wound is _________ over.