Teaching contents: Module 2 Grammar: Link words Description of students: 50 Students. Senior high school students of this stage have certain language ability, but they usually prefer to memor
ize vocabulary and read passages instead of learning grammar. Grammar is crucial to their English capacity, however. Therefore, it is important to emphasize grammar teaching and make grammar study interesting. Time & date: Saturday, June 28th, 2014 Teaching objectives 1. Remind the students of the important function of cohesion that link words perform in the logical development of a passage. 2. Teach the students to distinguish the difference between the link words but, however, although and while by giving lots of examples. Learning-ability target: Help the students grasp the usage of links words but, however, although and while by giving lots of examples. Important & difficult points: the different usage of “but” and “however”, the various usages of the link word “while”. Teaching strategies: Lecturing and practicing Teaching aids：A projector. Teaching procedure: Step 1 Warming-up: Give the students some examples of the consequences of terrible and careless use of the link words. In this way, the teacher can successfully arouse the students’ interest in this grammar, and at the same time remind them of the importance of the link words in the development of a paragraph or sentence. T: Good morning, Class. Today we are going to talk about the link words. Some of you may wonder: what are link words? To make you familiar with link words as quickly as possible, first of all, I’ll show you some examples with the usage of link words. But be careful, these are examples with inappropriate use of link words. As you read, you are to find where the problem is. You can do this in groups of four. I’ll give you 3 minutes to correct the following 3 bizarre sentences. Ready? Sentence 1: Honey is sweet, and the bee stings. Sentence 2: As it was barely four o’clock, the lights were already on. Sentence 3: The puppy is very lovable because it is not at all tidy. (Give Ss a few minutes and then select several students to share their thoughts with the class.) T: Ok, boys and girls, I’m sure you have finished. Do you want to share it with the class? Any volunteer? S1: In Sentence 1, we think “and” should not be used, because the two parts don’t connect smoothly. We will change “and” to “but”. T: Great! That’s a very clear explanation. What about the other two sentences? S2: Sentence 2 is really strange, because at four o’clock, we don’t need to turn the light on. T: Yes. The logic doesn’t make sense. Maybe we can change “as” into… S3: Although. T: Great! Then the sentence is a perfect one. What about Sentence 3?
S4: Nobody will love a puppy because it is dirty. We think “because” is not used correctly. We can use “although”. T: That is also a correct answer! Great! I can see that you all have a very good sense of logic. Step 2 Grammar Explanation T: Well, boys and girls, from the warm-up I see your good sense of logic. You know, in order to develop a paragraph or a sentence in a logical way, the correct usage of link words are very important. Now please turn to page 14 and read the three sentences with “but” and “however” listed in part 1, try to answer the following four questions. (Give Ss 7 minutes to read and think.) T: Ok, dear class. Have you finished it? Before I check your answers, I’ll first illustrate the common usage of “but” and “however” first. BUT 1. To connect two coordinate clauses(连接两个并列分句) Example: I ought to have helped her, but I never could. 2. To connect two coordinative constituents(连接两个并列成分) Example: They see the trees but not the forest. He no longer felt disappointed, but happy and hopeful. 3. It is followed by a adverbial modifier(后接状语) Example: He tried to save it, but in vain. He glanced about, but seeing only the empty room. HOWEVER 1. It is often inserted in the middle of a sentence(多插在句子中间) Example: His first response was to say no. Later, however, he changed his mind. Sales are poor this month. There may, however, be an increase before Christmas. 2. Sometimes, it can also be put at the beginning or end of a sentence.( 有时也放在 句首或句尾) Example: I’ll offer it to Tom. However, he may not want it. You know all this as well as I do, however. T: From the above examples, have you found something special about “however”? S1: It seems that there are special requirements about its location in a sentence. T: Great! That is the very thing that I want to remind you of. You see, “but” and “however” have very similar meaning in a sentence. The differences between their usage lie in that “however” usually appears in special locations, like the beginning and end of a sentence, especially the special location in the middle of a sentence followed by a comma. T: OK. Now let’s turn to Part 2 to do some practice with “but” or “however”. In this part, two kinds of information are offered, one is about the situation in developed countries, the other is about the situation in a poor country. Choose the relevant parts to form a sentence with the link word “but” or “however”. Remember, the two parts must form a contrast. In a developed country, people have nice clothes to wear; but in a poor country,
people have few clothes. ? In a developed country, people have nice clothes to wear; but in a poor country, people have few clothes. ? In a developed country, most people have a home; in a poor country, however, a much larger percentage of the population is homeless. ? In a developed country, one can get good medical care. However, in a poor country, there is often no money for medical care. ? In a developed country, people have small families; in a poor country, the family is larger, however. T: All right, boys and girls! I guess now you have grasped the usage of “but” and “however”. We’ll practice it more later. Now let’s turn to Part 3 to see the usage of another two link words “although” and “while”. ALTHOUGH It has similar meaning with “though”, often used to lead the Adverbial Clause of Concession. （常用来引导让步状语从句, 与 though 同义。 ） ? He said they were married, although I’m sure they aren’t. ? She walked home by herself, although she knew that it was dangerous. WHILE It is often used to lead the Adverbial Clause to signify comparison, concession and time. (引导状语从句，表示对比、让步、时间等) ? Some countries are rich, while others are extremely poor. (comparison) ? I thought I heard him come in while we were having dinner. (during) ? I do every single bit of housework while he just does the dishes now and again. (but) ? While I accept that he's not perfect in many respects, I do actually quite like the man. (although) T: As you can see, in Sentence 1 and 2, “while” is used to show comparison between two different countries. Step 3 Practice T: OK, boys and girls. Today we have learnt several link words “but” “however” “although” and “while”. Have you grasped them? Now we’ll have a short exam to test whether you have grasped them. There are 10 multiple-choice questions in total, I want you to do it alone in 10 minutes. 1. John saves his money, _____ George spends all he gets. A. whether B. as C. though D. while 2. I’d love to come ___ I can’t make it till 8 o’clock. A. so B. but C. however D. while 3. ____ I’m writing this, you can be doing something else. A. Before B. After C. Until D. While 4. ______ times were changed, Bursley was still Bursley.
A. Whether B. Though C. Whenever D. However 5. The south of the country grows richer, ______the north grows poorer. A. while B. neither C. if D. although 6. ____he is very old, he is healthy. A. As B. However C. Though D. Whereas 7. Britain is not mountainous, ___ Italy is. A. however B. while C. although D. unless 8. He was feeling bad. He went to work, ______, and tried to concentrate. A. however B. so C. although D. while 9. He promised to help me. ____, he is busy and hasn’t come. A. While B. Although C. However D. Whether 10. She’s been learning Italian for six years, ______ she doesn’t speak it very well. A. for B. so C. but D. as T: Now time is up. Please exchange your answers with your partner. I’ll show you the correct answers. 1D 2B 3D 4B 5A 6C 7B 8A 9C 10C T: Has anyone got all the correct answers? Very good! Which one do you have difficulty in selecting? I heard lots of students say number 8. Let’s do it together. Maye you don’t know this word “concentrate”, it means to focus your attention in doing something. We can see a clear contrast between the first half of the sentence saying that he went to work although he was ill and the second part of the sentence saying that he couldn’t focus his attention. So we need a link word to show the contrast, therefore “so” is not appropriate. Then let’s see the location of the link word. It should be in the middle of a sentence, followed by a comma… S1: So it should be “however”. T: Great! That is the special use of “however”. Step 4 Review and Summary. Through this class, Ss have learnt and practiced the usage of four link words “but” “however” “although” and “while”. They have a better acquisition of the more familiar ones like “but” and “although”, but poorer acquisition of “however” and “while”. Therefore, further practice of the usage of “however” and “while” is necessary. Homework assignment: Try to make 6 sentences by your own. Three of them should be with “however” with its three different locations. The other three should be with “while” with its three different meanings and usages. Reflection: Students does not enjoy grammar study very much, therefore, it is a challenge for the teachers to design their grammar class to make it both beneficial and
interesting. By giving lots of examples and doing practices, students can better acquire it and don’t get too bored by it.