the Attributive Clause
修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定 1．定语从句： 语从句。定语从句一般紧跟在它 所修饰的先行词之后。
2．先行词： 被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词。 3．关系词：引导定语从句的词叫关系词。 关系词有关系代词和关系副词。关系代词有that, which, who, whom, whose,
as等；关系副词有 when, where, why等。 关系词通常有下列三个作用： A、引导定语从句；B、代替先行词；C、在定 语从句中担当一个成分。
■关系代词的一般用法 先行词是人，在从句中作主语用who，作宾语用 whom或who，作定语用whose；先行词是物，在 定语从句中作主语或宾语都用which，作定语用of which或whose均可。在限制性定语从句中which, who, whom都可用that代替。关系代词作宾语时常 被省略。
This is the man _____helped me yesterday. who (作主语) who/whom/that The teacher (______________) you want to see is coming. (作see的宾语，可以省略) I met a boy whose ______father was a astronaut. (作定语) Here is the coat which/that _________will be made to you. (作主语） This is the factory (_________) we visited last which/that year. (作visited的宾语，可以省略) of which He has a book whose cover (=the cover_______) _____ is very beautiful. （作定语）
■关系副词的一般用法 关系副词有when, where, why，在定语从句中作 状语，分别表示时间、地点和原因。 when的先行词通常是time, day, season, age, occasion等时间名词； where的先行词通常是place, city, town, village, house, case, situation, scenes等地点或情形名词； why的先行词只能是reason。 关系副词when和where有时可用“介词＋which” 代替，why可用for which代替。
when (=on which) There are occasions _______________ one must yield. （屈服） Beijing is the place _______________ I was where (=in which) born. why (=for which) Is this the reason _____________ he refused our offer?
注意：先行词虽然是时间或地点，但若 在定语从句中作主语或宾语时，要用关 系代词。
(1)The factory ______his father worked has where closed. (作状语) 比较：The factory which/that __________was built in 1978 has closed.(作主语) (2) I’ll never forget the days ______ we lived when together.(作状语) that 比较：I’ll never forget the days (______) we spent in Australia. (作及物动词spent的宾语) (3) The reason (_____) she was ill was that she why had eaten bad meat. (作状语，用关系副词) 比较：The reason (____ ) he gave for his that absence was obviously fabricated. (作gave的宾语，用关系代词)
在定语从句中，关系代词 which 和 that 都可指物， 一般情况下，可以互换使用。但在下列情况下值得 注意： ■只能用that而不能用which的情形 (1) 当先行词为：all, little, few, much, none 及 some-, any-, no-, every- 与 thing 所组成的复合单 词时，只能用that。如： There is nothing that will stop us making progress. (2) 当先行词前面有only, some, any, no, every, little, few, much, all, very等形容词修饰时，只能 用that。如： This is the only problem that we can’t work out.
(3) 当先行词由形容词的最高级或序数词修饰时， 只能用that。如： This is the most interesting book that I have ever read. (4) 当先行词同时包括人和物时，只能用that。如： Luxun and his works that we are familiar with are considered great. (5) 当先行词在定语从句中作表语时，只能用that。 如： This is a book that I have been looking for since last week. (6) 当主句是以 which 开头的特殊疑问句时，只能 用 that。如： Which is the picture that you drew yesterday?
■只能用which而不能用that的情形 (1) 当非限制性定语从句中的先行词指物时，只 能用 which。如： The pencil-case, which I bought last week, is missing. (2) 关系代词前面有介词时，只能用which。如： The tree under which we used to take a rest has been cut down. (3) 先行词为代词 that 或 that 所修饰时，只能用 which。如： I don’t take that which is too expensive.
who (whom) 和that的用法区别详解 在定语从句中，关系代词who (whom) 和that都可指人和 物，在一般情况下，可以互换使用， 一、用who (whom) 而不用that的情形 (1) 在非限制性定语从句中的先行词指人时，只能用who (whom)。如： My sister, who is studying abroad, sent me a beautiful present just before this Christmas. (2) 当定语从句对指人的先行词进行隔位修饰时，只能用 who (whom)。如： Do you know the girl in front of the blackboard who is speaking to the students? (3) 当先行词为people和those时，只能用who (whom)。 Those who want to go there come here please.
(4) 当先行词为one, ones, anyone, everyone, none, all(指人) 时，只能用who (whom)。如： Anyone who is against us is our enemy. (5) 先行词指人，而关系代词在从句中作主语时，一般多 用who。如： The man who came here yesterday said he would come again in a few days. (6) 在there be句型中名词的定语从句多用who (whom)。 There are students in our class who / whom you have met. (7) 当句子中有两个指人的现行词分别带有两个定语从句 时，若一个定语从句的引导词为that, 那么，另一个定语 从句的引导词必定为who。如： The boy that you met just now is Li Ming’s brother who just graduated from a university.
二、用that 而不用who (whom)的情形 (1) 当先行词前面有形容词的最高级或序数词修 饰时，引导词只能用that。如： The tallest player that plays football for our team is from Shandong. (2) 当先行词前面有only, some, any, no, every, little, few, much, all, very等词修饰时，引导词只能用that。 如： He is the only student that said “no” to the teacher. (3) 当主句是以who开头的特殊疑问句时，引导词 只能用that。如： Who is woman that you talked with just now?
(4) the same as 与 the same that the same as所引导定语从句的内容与先行词同类 而不同物；the same that表示所引导的从句内容与 先行词同类同物，即：同一事物。如： She is wearing the same coat that I lost a few days ago. She is wearing the same coat as I lost a few days ago.
限制性定语从句 形式上 意义上 非限制性定语从句
不用逗号“ ，”与主句隔 开 是先行词不可缺少的定语， 如删除，主句则失去意义或 意思表达不完整
用逗号“ ，”与主句 隔开 只是对先行词的补充 说明，如删除，主句 仍能表达完整的意思。
译成先行词的定语： 译法上 “…的 ”
1. 作宾语时可省略 关系词 的使用 上 2. 可用that 3. 可用who 代替whom
1. 不可省略 2. 不用that 3. 不可用who 代替
一、 非限制性定语从句通常不能用that引导。如： 1. I like the book, which was bought yesterday. 我 喜欢这本书，这是昨天买的。 2. I like the book which / that was bought yesterday. 我喜欢昨天买的那本书。 二、 非限制性定语从句不能用why引导。要用for which代替why。 如： 1. I had told them the reason, for which I didn't attend the meeting. 我已经把理由告诉了他们，为 此我没有去开会。 2. I had told them the reason why I didn't attend the meeting. 我告诉了他们我不去开会的理由。(限 制性定语从句“the reason why...”是常见搭配。)
三、 非限制性定语从句置于句首时，不能用 which引导。关系代词as引导非限制性定语从句 位置比较灵活，可以放主句前，也可以放主句 后。 如： 1. As I expected, he didn't believe me. 正如我 所预料的，他不相信我。 2. She heard a terrible noise, which brought her heart into her mouth. 她听到一个可怕的声 音，这让她把心都提到嗓子眼了。
四、 非限制性定语从句由“介词+关系代词” 引导时，其中的关系代词不能用as。 如： 1. He bought the car for more than $20,000, with which his father was angry. 他花两万多 美元买了这辆车，他父亲对此很生气。 2. I finished my work ahead of time, after which I sat some time reading the newspaper. 我提前干完了我的活，随后我坐 着看了一会儿报纸。
五、 在非限制性定语从句中，指人的关系代词作 宾语时，只能用宾格whom; 不能用who替换， 也不能省略。 如： 1. Do you know Tom, whom we talked about? 你认识汤姆吗? 我们谈到过他。 2. This book, which you can get at any bookshop, will give you all the information you need. 这本书会给你提供所有你需要的资料， 它在任何一家书店都能买到。(非限制性定语从 句中引导词在从句中作宾语，无论指人还是指 物都不能省略。)
六． Which可指前面整个句子。 The sun sends out light and heat, which makes it possible for living things to exist on the earth. 太阳发出光和热，这使得生物能够在地 球上生存。 His father is an engineer, ____ makes him very proud. Ａ．for what Ｂ. which Ｃ. that Ｄ. what
2.The weather turned out to be very B good, ___was more than we could expect. A. when B. which C. that D. it
as与which引导非限制性定语从句的区别 这类定语从句只能由 which 或 as 引导。两者之 间的区别在于： 1. which 引导的定语从句只能位于主句后，但as 引导的从句可位于主句前、中、后。如： David, as you know, is a photograopher. (不可用 which) As is often the case, Li Ming is late. (不可用 which) 2. as在定语从句中作主语时，从句谓语通常要有 be或别的系动词，但which不受此限制。如： Li Ming was late, which (=and this) made Mr. Zhang very angry. 李明迟到了，这件事使张先生 非常生气。(不可用as)
3. as 引导的定语从句只表示一个众所周知或意料 之中的事，但 which 不受此限制。如： He married her, which was unexpected. 他和她结 婚了，这是出乎意料的。(不可用as) 4. as有“正如”之意，而which则意为“这(件事， 一点)”，可用and this/that/it来代替。 5. as多用于固定搭配中：as is often the case(这 是常有的事)，as was expected(不出所料)，as often happens(正如经常发生的那样)，as is known to all(众所周知)，as has been said before(如上所述)，as is mentioned above(正如上 面所提到的)等。
注：which 代表整个句子，还可用于in which case, at which point, on which occasion等。如： I may have to work late, in which case I’ll telephone you. 我可能得晚点下班，那样我 会给你打电话的。
(一).定语从句 构成及种类: 1>.The school where we live and study lies west of the town.
2>.I, who am your English teacher, will try my best to help you. 结构：
先行词 + 关系词 + 定语从句
1.(2006北京) Women ______ drink who ▲ more than two cups of coffee have a greater chance of having heart disease than those ______ who ▲ don’t. 2.(2004上海) A fast food restaurant is the▲ place __________, just as where the name suggests, eating is performed quickly.
3.(2003北京) We are living in an age ________ many things are done when on computer. 4.(2005北京春) Do you still remember the chicken farm _______________ we visited that / which） （ three months ago? 5.(1996NMET) After living in Paris for 50 years, he returned to the small town _________ he grew where up as a child.
6.(2006福建) Look out! Don’t get close to the house ________ roof whose is under repair. 7.(2002上海) Is this the reason ___________ he explained to the (that /which) meeting for his carelessness in his work?
1. 关系代词 that与which 的不同点 2.介词 + 关系代词 引导的定语从句
3. as 引导的定语从句 4.一些特殊词之后定语从句关联词的选择
that 与 which 的不同点:
A.1).He handed everything ▲ (that) _______he had stolen.(1988MET) (that) 2).The only thing _______ we ▲ can do now is to work hard at our lessons. 3).This is the most exciting film ▲ _________ I have ever seen. (that) 4).They talked of the persons --------------and things ___________ they (that) --------------remembered in the school.
4).Who is the man ___________ is that ▲ standing over there? 总结: 下列5种情况下, 要用 that 引导 定语从句, 不能用 which. 1).当先行词是 all, much, little, something, anything, everything. nothing 等不定代词时; 或者先行词 被all, much, little,some any, every, no 等词修饰时;
3.当先行词被 the only; the very;
the first; the last 等词修饰时;
4.当先行词中既有人又有物时; 5. 当主句中有 who 或者 which 时, 为了避免重复, 定语从句只能用 that 引导.
B.1>. (2005浙江卷) Jim passed the -------------------driving test, ________ surprised which --------------everybody in the office. 2>.(1998NMET) Wilma became the first woman to win 3 Olympic gold medals in track, ________ which made her mother very proud. 3>.(2004北京卷) Luckily, we had brought a map without ________ which ▲ we would have lost our way.
总结: 下列两种情况下不能用 that 引导 定语从句: 1>.引导非限制性定语从句, 不能用that; 2>. 关系代词前有介词前置时,不能用that;
This is the classroom ______________ we study in. (that / which) This is the classroom in ____________ we study. which
介词 + 关系代词 的考查
1>.(2006湖南卷)We saw several natives advancing towards our party, and one of them came up to us,________ we gave some bells and glasses. A.to which B.to whom C.with whom D.with which 2>.(2005山东卷) He was educated at a local grammar school, __________ he went on to Cambridge. A.from which B.after that C.after which D.from that
3>.(2006浙江卷) I was given three books on cooking, the first_____ I really enjoyed. A.of that B.of ★ which C.that D.which 4>.(2005重庆卷) Mark was a student at this university from 1999 to 2003, ______ he studied very hard and was made Chairman of the Students’ Union. A.during which time B.for which time ★ C.during whose time D.by that time
as 引导的定语从句 高考热点3: _______________
1>.(NMET)The teacher set us such ------a difficult problem ________ none as of us worked out. (对比: The teacher set us ------- a such difficult problem ________ none that of us worked it out.) 2>.(2000上海春) These houses are sold at ------- a low price _______ such as people expected.
As 3>. (2001NMET) _______ is known to everybody, the moon travels around the earth once every month. 总结:
1>. as 可以引导限制性定语从句， 先行词中有 such, as, so, the same 等词修饰, 构成固定搭配: such……as……; as……as……., so……….as……; the same….as…. 同时 as 充当从句的主语、宾语或者 表语.
2>. as 还可以引导非限制性定语从句, 代表主句的所有内容, as 从句既可以 放在主句前, 也可以放在主句后. 从句动词经常是: see, know, mention. imagine, mention, expect, point out 等词. as 的含义为 “正如, 像….一样” Notes: which 也可以引导非限制性定语从句, 代表主句的所有内容, 但是 which从句
as 与 which 引导非限制性定语从句 的区别: 1>.(1998上海) He was very rude to the which customs officer, _______ of course made things even worse. 2>.(1999NMET) Carol said the work would be done by October, which _________ personally I doubt very much. As 3>.(2004北京) _______ is reported in the newspapers, talks between the two countries are making progress.
4>.(2005浙江) _______ I explained As on the phone, your request will be considered at the next meeting.
一些特殊词之后定语从句关联词的选择: A.1>.(2003上海) I can think of many cases ________ students obviously where knew a lot of English words and expressions but couldn’t write a good essay. 2>.(2007陕西）Today we are going to discuss a number of cases ________ beginners of English fail where
to use the language properly.
3>.(2006山东卷) We are just going to reach a point _________ both where ---------sides will sit together and talk. 4>.(2007江西卷) After graduation she reached a point in her career _________ she needed to decide where ----------what to do. 但是，有时候需要克服思维定势， 具体问题具体分析： ----- Do you have anything to say for yourself? -----Yes, there is one point _______ we (that) must insist on. <2006江西卷＞
B. <2004湖北卷＞ What surprised
us most was not what he said ________ that but the way ________ he said it. in which ________ ×
C. This is the third time _________ (that)
you have made the same mistake.
A.1).A modern city has been set up in _________ was a wasteland ten what
years ago. 宾语从句 2).A modern city has been set up in a place ________________ was which / that ---------a wasteland before. 定语从句 3).A modern city has been set up _________ there was a wasteland where ten years ago. 地点状语从句
B.1).----Where did you get to know
her? where ----It was on the farm ______ 定语从句 that she worked _______ I got 强调句 to know her. where 2).It was in the village ________ that he was born _________ the celebration was held.
C. 定语从句 与 同位语从句 1>.People were excited at the that news _________ China succeeded in launching 同位语从句 Chang’e One. 2>.The news （that / which） ______________ he told us made us excited. 定语从句
1. 1).He has two daughters, both of ________ are doctors. whom 2).He has two daughters, and ▲ both of ________ are doctors. them 2. 1>.______ is well known that It China has launched Chang’e One successfully. As 2>.______ is known to all, Chang’e One has been launched successfully. 3>.________ is known to all is that What China has succeeded in sending up Chang’e One.
3.1>.He is such a good teacher ________ we all like him. that 2>.He is such a good teacher as ________ we all like. 3>. He is a good teacher,
as ________ we all know.
4>. He is a good teacher, _______ makes us respect him. which
where 4.1>.Is this the factory _________ he worked five years ago? that / which) 2>.Is this the factory (____________ he visited the other day? 3>. Is this factory ______________ the one (that) he visited the other day?
Little by little, one goes far