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定语从句导学案及 高考真题(有答案)


定语从句学案 一、基本概念 (一) 定语从句 在复合句中作定语,修饰____或_____的从句叫定语从句。 (二) 先行词 被定语从句所修饰的名词或代词。一般情况下,定语从句紧跟先行词。但也有因各种原因定语从 句与先行词被分割的现象。 (三)关系代词和关系副词 定语从句的引导词。与先行词关系密切,因此紧跟先行词,并在定语从句中充当一个成分。关系 代词有:______, _____

__,________,________和 whose, 另外,as 也可充当_____代词。关系代词 在定语从句中充当主语、宾语、表语和定语。关系副词有:______, ______和_____。在定语从句 中充当状语。 二、关系代词的用法 (一)基本用法 根据先行词的不同,和在从句中所充当的成分不同,选用不同的关系代词。 如下表: 关系词 who 先行词 _____ 从句成分 主语,宾 语 例句 Do you know the man _____ is talking with your mother? Mr. Smith is the person with _________ ______ 人 宾语 I am working The boy (_________) she loved died in the war. I like those books whose topics are 关 系 代 词 ______ 人,物 主语,宾 语 whose 人,物 ______ about history. The boy ______ father works abroad is my classmate. A plane is a machine ______ can fly. She is the pop star (______) I want to see very much. The book (which) I gave you was worth which _____ 主语,宾 语 $10. The picture _______ was about the accident was terrible. as 人,物 主语,宾 语 He is such a person as is respected by all of us. This is the same pen as I lost yesterday. as 做 宾 语 一 般不省略 whom, which 和 that 在从句 中做宾语时, 常可以省略, 但介词提前 时后面关系 代词不能省 略, 也不可以 用_______. 备注

例如: (注意关系代词在定语从句中所充当的成分) ① Do you know the professor who/that will give us a speech next week? ③ The plan that/which they argued about was settled at last. (作_________) ② I read a report about his new novel that/ which will soon be published. (作________) (作_______) (作_______) (作_______) ④ This is the new secretary (who/whom/that) I would like to introduce to you. ⑤ The soldier whose legs were badly wounded was operated on without delay.
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定语从句学案 注意:关系代词在定语从句中充当宾语时可以省略,充当主语时则不能。 (见上例③④) (二)关系代词 that 代替 which 的一些情况 which, that 在代替物时,一般可以通用。 但在有些情况下,只用 that。 ⑴ 先行词是最高级__________或它的前面有________________修饰时。 ① This is the best ______ has been used against pollution. ② English is the most difficult subject _____ you will learn during these years. ⑵ 先行词是_____________,或它前面有一个______________时。 ① This is the last place (that) I want to visit. ② It is the first American movie of this kind that I’ve ever seen. ⑶ 先行词是 all, much, little, ____________, everything, anything, _____________, none 等代词时。 ① You should hand in all that you have. ② We haven’t got much that we can offer you. ⑷ 先行词前面有 the only, the ________, any, few, little, no, ______, much, every 等修饰时。 ① The only thing that we can do is to give you some money. ② The little money (that) he had was stolen. (三)宜用 who, 而不用 that 的一些情况 ⑴ 先行词是 one, ones, anyone 时。 ① One who has nothing to fear for oneself dares to tell the truth. ② Don’t tell anyone about the news who oughtn’t to know it. ⑵先行词是 those 时。 ① Those who were not fit for their work could not see the beautiful clothes made of the magic cloth. (四)其它情况 ⑴ 先行词既有人又有物时。 ① Do you know the things and persons that they are talking about? ② The bike and its rider that had run over an old man were taken to the police station. ⑵ 主句已有疑问词 who 或 which 时。 ① Which is the bike that you lost? ② Who is the woman that was praised at the meeting? (五)与 whose 有关的问题 ⑴ whose 是代词的所有格,它既可以代人也可以代物。 ① I saw a woman whose bag was stolen. ② Please show me the book whose cover is red. ⑵ 当 whose 表示物与物的所有格关系时,亦可用 of which 的形式。 ① The building whose roof you can see from here is a new restaurant. → The building, the roof ___ _______ you can see from here, is a new restaurant.或 → The building, _______ the roof you can see from here is a new restaurant. 三、介词前提的问题 关系代词在定语从句中充当介词宾语时,介词可以前提至关系代词前。 Have you seen the pen (which) I wrote the note with just now? →Have you seen the pen with which I wrote the note just now? 但是,要注意的是: ⑴ 介词前提后,先行词是人或物,关系代词分别只能用_____和______,而不再用 that 或 who。
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(which 作介词_______的宾语)

定语从句学案 ⑵ 介词前提后,关系代词不再能省略。 ⑶ 有些含有介词的短语动词中的介词不能前提,如:look for, look after, take care of 等。 例如:(T or F) ① ( ( ):Who is the old man to that you were talking to? ):Who is the old man to whom you were talking ? 或 Who is the old man (that/ whom) you

were talking to? ② ( ):These are the sheep of which the boy took care. ( ):These are the sheep (which/that) the boy took care of. 四、关系代词在从句中作主语时,从句中的主谓一致 关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词在人称和数上应与先行词一致。 ① Who is the guy that is reading over there? ② The number of people that are going to the exhibition is expected to be over 25,000. ③ All that needs to be done has been done. ④ He is one of the students who use computer a lot for study. ⑤ Timmy is the only one of the pupils that has failed the exam. 例③中的 all 意为“一切” ,作单数。例⑤中没通过考试的学生事实上只有一人,因此谓语动词也 用单数。 二、语法知识拓展 (一)选择适当的关系代词 that, which, who, whom 或 whose,把下列句子补充完整。 1. Rice is a plant ________ is grown in the south. 2. Those ________ want to go please sign their names here. 3. All ________ glitters is not gold. 4. This is the only way 5. Both the girl and her dog leads to your success. were crossing the street were hit by a coming car.

6. This is the biggest building ________we have ever built in our school. 7. This is the second school ________ I used to work at, and many students there still have contact with me. 8. There is a mountain ________ top is always covered with snow. 9. You can take any seat ________ is free. 10. Could you tell me from _________ you borrowed this book? (二)用定语从句合并下列句子 1. The lady is a film star. You took a photo of the lady yesterday. _______________________________________________________________________ 2. What’s the address of the factory? We noticed the advertisement of the factory the other day. ________________________________________________________________________ 3. This is the stadium He often goes to the stadium on Sundays. ________________________________________________________________________ 4. A professor is going to give us a speech this Friday afternoon. He has been working on environmental protection. ________________________________________________________________________
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定语从句学案 5. He hasn’t got enough money. He can buy a laptop with the money. ________________________________________________________________________ (三)单项填空 1. Who is the woman A. who 2. The doctor B. / is sweeping the floor over there? C. that D. when is leaving for Africa next month. B. whom the nurse is talking D. who the nurse is talking no one had ever heard. C. about that C. when C. about which was very low. C. its price C. whom D. whose price D. the girl D. who D. whose D. with whom I lent to you?

A. the nurse is talking to him C. the nurse is talking to 3. He talked about a hero A. of whom A. that A. who A. which price A. that had seen. A. that A. / A. who Students’ Union. A. who was A. what A. who’s A. who A. which agrees B. who were B. who B. whose B. whomever B. who agree B. who B. that B. where 4. Have you read the book B. whom B. as B. the price of whose B. who B. from whom

5. American women usually identify their best friend as someone ______ they can talk frequently. 6. Recently I bought a second-hand car

7. Lily, is Helen ______ you want to introduce me to? 8. The professors talked with us about the beautiful schools and the experienced teachers ______ they C. which C. where C. in which D. what D. it D. which

9. This is the only bus ______ goes to the village school. 10. Is there a shop around _______sells China Daily? 11. She was the only one of the girls in our class _______ accepted as candidate for the president of our C. who has been C. when C. which C. whoever C. who agrees D. who have been D. that D the one whose D. no matter who D. which agree

12. She is no longer the sweet little girl ______ she used to be. 13. Is this singer ______ songs you like best? 14. He got angry with _____ was against his opinion. 15. Anyone _____with what I said may raise your hand. 16. That’s the dog ______. A. we’ve been looking after C. what we’ve been looking after A. when B. that B. after which we’ve been looking D. we’ve been taking care for C. what D. as

17. This is the last time ______ I’ll give you a lesson. 18. The family _____ I stayed with in Paris are coming to London.
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定语从句学案 A. whose A. that A. which A. made of A. whose A. that A. getting A. going A. at which A. that A. when A. what A. by which (四)改错 B. which B. by which B. in which B. made from B. in which B. who B. having got B. went B. on that B. in which B. that B. by which B. on which C. what C. which C. among which C. making up of C. of which C. from whom C. being got C. go C. when C. in that C. what C. by that C. for which D. whom D. with which D. one of which D. making of D. of it D. to whom D. to get D. to go D. of which D. when D. as D. / D. on that

19. This is the very knife ______ I used to cut apples yesterday. 20. China has many rivers, _____ the Yangtze River is the longest.. 21. The use they are ______ the waste helps to save a lot of money. 22. That tree, the branches ______ are almost bare, is a very old one. 23. In the dark street, there wasn’t a single person ______ she could turn for help. 24. What is the way Smith thought of ______ enough money to buy the new house? 25. Jack spent as much time as he could ______ over his lessons. 26. The freezing point is the temperature ______ water changes into ice. 27. I am impressed by the fact that he makes good use of every minute _____ he can spare. 28. This is the last time ______ I will write to you. 29. I don’t like the way ______ he spoke to me. 30. The train ______ he was traveling was delayed for more than an hour.

1. Is this museum you visited a few days ago? 2. The girl which is standing next to our teacher is her daughter. 3. He rushed to help the man his car was trapped in the mud. 4. All which is need is supply of oil. 5. This is the best film which I have seen this year. 6. The cake you made it yesterday was very delicious. 7. Do you know the man wrote the letter? 8. Who is the great man who saved my boy? 9. Here are the patients after whom you will look.
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定语从句学案 10. This is all the money with that he can buy a Christmas present for his mother. (五)高考真题回顾 1. We went through a period _____ communications were very difficult in rural areas. (2008 上海) A. which B. whose C. in which D. with which 2. Human facial expressions differ from those of animals in the degree _____ they can be controlled on purpose. (2007 重庆) A. with which B. to which C. of which D. for which 3. Animals suffered at the hands of Man ______ they were destroyed by people to make way for agricultural had to provide food for more people. (2008 江西) A. in which B. for which C. so that D. in that 4. Some children want to challenge themselves by learning a language different from ______ their parents speak at home. (2008 浙江) A. what B. that C. which D. one 5. You can only be sure of _____ you have at present; you cannot be sure of something _____ you might get in the future. (2007 安徽) A. that; what B. what; / C. which; that D. /; that 6. Women _____ drink more than two cups of coffee a day have a greater chance of having heart disease than those _____ don’t. (2006 北京) A. who, / B. /; who C. who, who D. /; / 7. The Beatles _____ many of you are old enough to remember, came from Liverpool. (2006 天津) A. what B. that C. how D. as 8. In an hour, we can travel to places _____ would have taken our ancestors days to reach. (2006 上海) A. where B. when C. which D. what 9. I saw a woman running toward me in the dark. Before I could recognize who she was, she had run back in the direction ________ she had come.( 2006 重庆卷) A. of which B. by which C. in which D. from which 10. Look out! Don’t get too close to the house ______ roof is under repair. (2006 福建) A. whose B. which C. of which D. that 11. – Mom, what did your doctor say? -- He advised me to live ____ the air is fresher. (2006 四川) A. in where B. in which C. the place where D. where 12. The schools themselves admit that not all children will be successful in the jobs ______ they are being trained. (2005 江西) A. in that B. for that C. in which D. for which 13. The English play ____ my students acted at the New Year ’s party was a great success. (2004 全国) A. for which B. at which C. in which D. on which 14. George Orwell, ____ was Eric Arthur, wrote many political novels and essays. (2004 全国) A. the real name B. what his real name C. his real name D. whose real name 15. The factory produces half a million pairs of shoes every year, 80% ________ are sold abroad. (2004 辽宁) A. of which 定语从句(二) B. which of C. of them D. of that

一、 “介词+关系代词”结构
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定语从句学案 1. 可代替 when, where, why, that 等关系词 e.g. There is no reason _____ ________ (why) we shouldn’t be friends. 2. 介词后面的关系词不能省略。 e.g. Here is the money _____ ______ to buy a piano. 3. that 前不能有介词。 4. 某些在从句中充当时间, 地点或原因状语的 “介词+关系词” 结构可以跟关系副词 when 和 where 互换。 e.g. This is the house ___ which I lived two years ago. =This is the house where I lived two years ago. Do you remember the day ____ which you joined our club? Do you remember the day when you joined our club? 二、关系副词的用法: 关系词 关 系 副 词 when where why 先行词 时间 地点 原因 从句成分 时间状语 地点状语 原因状语 there. This is the house where I was born. I can’t imagine the reason why he turned down my offer. 例句 I will never forget the day when we met 备注 可 用 _______ 代替 可用 in which 代替 可 用 _______ 代替

(一)基本用法 关系副词起连接主句和从句的作用,又在从句中作状语,when, where 和 why 分别表示时间, 地点和原因。 1. when 在从句中作时间状语。常用 on which, in which, at which, during which 等代替。 e.g. April the first is the day when people make fun of others. =April the first is the day _____ which people make fun of others. 2. where 在从句中作地点状语。常可由 in which, on which, at which, on which 等取代。 e.g. This is the house where he lived two years ago. =This is the house ____ which he lived two years ago. 3. why why 在定语从句中作原因状语。可用 for which 代替。why 不可引导非限定性定语从句,此时 可用 for which 代替。 e.g. This is the reason why he went away. =This is the reason ______ which he went away. (二)关系副词常可用“介词+关系代词”的结构改写 这里的关系代词只限于 which 和 whom,例如 ① I will never forget the night when I met you for the first time. =I will never forget the night _____ which I met you for the first time. ② This is the house in which I lived two years ago. =This is the house _______ I lived two years ago.

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定语从句学案 ③ We don’t know the reason for which he suddenly fell ill. =We don’t know the reason _____ he suddenly fell ill. 注意:并不是所有的介词+关系代词的结构都可用关系副词替代。 例如: I am very impressed by the way in which he works. 这里 in which 代表的是 in the way, 在句中作方式状语。只有当介词+关系代词结构作表示时 间、地点和原因的状语时,才能相应地用 when, where 和 why 代替。 (三)如何判断是用关系代词还是关系副词 这本质上取决于关系代词和关系副词在定语从句中充当的成分。前者充当主语、宾语、表语 或定语,后者充当状语。 试比较下面两组句子: ① This is the factory that/which produces radios. This is the factory where radios are produced. 第一句中划线部分在从句中作________,故而应选用关系代词: ② Do you remember the days _____ we spent together? Do you remember the days _____ we worked together? 第一句中关系代词在从句中作________, 而第二句中关系副词作_________. (四)一些需要特殊记忆的关系词的用法 1. I don’t like the way in which he look at people. 当先行词是 way 时,除了 in which,还可以用 that 来引导定语从句。that 还经常省略。又如: Judging from the way ______/______/_____he walked, I believe he was wounded in the leg. 2. Finally came the day when he had to leave his hometown. 当先行词为 time, moment, day 等,并在从句中作状语时,从句也可以用 that 引导,that 也常 省略。又如: ① It was the first time (that) we had stayed up so late. ② The moment (that/when) he sent the mail, John realized what a mistake he had made. ③ She was the only girl I went steady with during the four years (that /when) I was at university. 四、判断关系代词与关系副词的方法: 1. 用关系代词,还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。及物动词后面没有宾语,就必须要 求用关系代词;而不及物动词则要求用关系副词。 判断下列句子的对错 ( ) This is the mountain village where I visited last year. ( ) I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside. ( ) This is the mountain village (which) I visited last year. ( ) I'll never forget the days (which) I spent in the countryside. 2. 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状),也就能正确选择出关系代词/关系 副词。 例 1. Is this museum ___ you visited a few days age? A. where B. that C. on which D. the one 例 2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held. A. where B. that C. on which
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D. the one
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定语从句学案 关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分,先行词在从句中做主、定、宾语时,选择关系代词 (who, whom, that, which, whose); 先行词在从句中做状语时, 应选择关系副词 ( where 地点状语, when 时间状语,why 原因状语) 。 五、语法知识拓展 (一)选择适当的关系代词或关系副词把下列句子补充完整。 1. His father died in the year _________ he was born. 2. He is unlikely to find the place _________ he lived forty years ago. 3. Do you remember the day _________ you joined our club? 4. Recently I bought a beautiful vase _______ price was quite reasonable. 5. The reason _______ I came here is to get your help. 6. I got the book in a small bookstore, the name of ______ I cannot remember. 7. I will never forget the day ______ we first met. 8. Is this the factory _______ you once worked for? 9. Is that the reason _______ he gave for his terrible behavior? 10. The kind girl _______ shared her umbrella with me this morning turned out to be my boss. (二)用定语从句合并下列句子 1. Bamboo grows well in these places. It’s warm and wet all year round in these places. _________________________________________________________________________ 2. Shall we go shopping this weekend? I’ll have finished all my work by then. _________________________________________________________________________ 3. Sandy is not a very popular singer, because of his strange way. He dances in a strange way. __________________________________________________________________________ 4. Is there any reason? They don’t agree with each other on anything. __________________________________________________________________________ 5. How can I forget that birthday? I was caught cheating on that day. __________________________________________________________________________ (三)单项填空 1. Do you know the reason A. which A. which 3. Is this the reason A. why A. that A. why Tom didn’t come yesterday? B. why B. where B. for which B. which B. that C. who C. that C. that C. when C. which D. that D. when D. to which D. where D. whom

2. After living in Paris for fifty years he returned to the small town ______ he grew up as a child. she gave for not finishing her homework yesterday?

4. After the war, a new school was put up ______ there had once been a theatre. 5. Do you know the reason ______ she got so angry yesterday? 6. Do you believe the reason ______ he gave for his being late?
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定语从句学案 A. why A. where A. which A. that, when A. when; which A. which A. as 13. We are living in an age A. which A. that A. which A. which A. that A. that eat A. which A. what A. who A. where A. where A. which A. that A. which A. who have B. that B. which B. whose B. when B. when B. is eaten B. that B. which B. whom B. which B. which B. that B. which B. that B. whom have
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B. for which B. which B. / B. what, when B. that; which B. when B. then

C. which C. while C. of which C. when, that C. which; that C. where C. if C. whose C. when C. what C. where C. on which C. we eat C. what C. that C. which C. in which C. in that C. of which C. from that C. how C. who has
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D. it D. when D. by which D. something, that D. when; that D .that D. when D. when D. whose D. who D. how D. at which D. that eats D. as D. where D. that D. at which D. at which D. what D. from which D. as D. whose had

7. He has got himself into a dangerous situation ______ he is likely to lose control over the plane. 8. I don’t like the way _____ you speak to her. 9. The old man told us _____ the days ______ he was poor were gone. 10. I shall never forget the day ____ Shenzhou V was launched, ____ has a great effect on my life. 11. I walked in the garden, ____ Tom and Jim were tying a big string onto one of the trees. 12. Let's put off the picnic until next week, ______ the weather may be better. many things are done on computer.

14. Winter is the time of year _____ the days are short and nights are long. 15. Is there anyone in your class _____ family is in the city? 16. Can you suggest a time ______ we can meet? 17. These days _____ we spent together cannot be easily forgotten. 18. Nearly all the food ______ comes from animals and plants. 19. This is _____ I can do for you right now. 20. I can still remember the sitting-room _____ my mother and I used to sit in the evening. 21. On the train I saw a student _____ I thought was your sister. 22. Egypt is a country _____ is famous for its pyramids. 23. China is the country _____ he spent the best part of his life. 24. Have you got anything _____ belongs to me? 25. This is the magazine _____ I copied the paragraph. 26. I didn’t like the way _____ she treated children. 27. He is the only one of the three _____ got the new idea.

定语从句学案 28. The boss _____ department Ms King worked ten years ago look down upon women. A. in which A. with him A. which (四)改错 B. in that B. who B. in which C. in whose C. with whom C. that D. whose D. whom D. where 29. Alec asked the policeman _____ he worked to contact him whenever there was an accident. 30. It was at our college library _____ I borrowed the novel.

1. Is this the museum the one the exhibition was held? 2. Who is late for the meeting tomorrow will be punished. 3. That is not the hospital that I stayed last time. 4. I am looking forward to the day which I become independent. 5. Why do you believe a person once told so many lies? 6. Nobody will forget the earthquake happened in Sichuan. 7. He is one of the students who is never late. (五)高考真题回顾 1. Occasions are quite rare _____ I have the time to spend a day with my kids. (2008 山东) A. who B. which C. why D. when 2. Later in this chapter cases will be introduced to readers ______ consumer complaints have resulted in changes in the law. (2008 江西) A. where B. when C. who D. which 3. All the neighbors admire the family _____ the parents are treating their child like a friend. (2008 安 徽) A. why B. where C. which D. that 4. Those successful deaf dancers think that dancing is an activity _____ sight matters more than hearing. (2007 天津) A. when B. whose C. which D. where 5. Today, we’ll discuss a number of cases ______ beginners of English fail to use the language properly. (2007 陕西) A. which B. as C. why D. where 6. —Where did you get to know her? —It was on the farm _______ we worked. ( 2007 山东) A. that B. there C. which D. where 7. After graduation she reached a point in her career _____ she heeded to decision what to do. (2007 江 西) A. that B. what B. which C. which C. that D. where D. where 8. The village has developed a lot A. when we learned farming two years ago. (2007 福建)

9. If a shop has chairs _______ women can park their men, women will spend more time in the shop.
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定语从句学案 (2005 上海) A. that A. where 定语从句(三) 指代对象 主格 宾语 所有格 B. which B. which C. when C. when D. that D. where

10. There were dirty marks on her trousers _______ she had wiped her hands.(2004 广西)

非限制性定语从句 指代人 who __________ of whom, whose 指代物 _________ which, as of which, whose

1. 引导非限定性定语从句的关系代词如下表所示:

注意:①关系代词 that 不能引导非限定性定语从句。 ②引导非限定性定语从句的关系副词主要有 when, where。不可用 why。 2. 运用非限定性定语从句的情况: (1)关系代词指代整个主句内容 e.g. Our new house has a lovely garden, which makes us very happy. (2)当先行词是专有名词或物主代词和指示代词所修饰时,其后的定语从句通常是非限制性的。 例如: Charles Smith, who was my former teacher, retired last year. (3)当出现 some, many, few, a few, little, much, most, two of which, whom 等结构时 e.g. You’ve made many mistakes, most of which were due to your carelessness, 3. 限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别: 类别 限制性定语 从句 语法意义及特征 对先行词起修饰限制作用,如果去掉,主句意思 就不完整明确, 这种从句与主句的关系十分密切, 写时不用逗号分开。 对先行词作附加的说明,与主句的关系不十分密 非限制性定 切,较松散。从句和主句之间用逗号分开,相当 语从句 于一个插入语,不能用 that 引导,关系代词做宾 语时也不能省略。 非限制性定语从句主要在以下方面不同于限制性定语从句: ⑴ 非限制性定语从句和主句的关系不十分密切, 它不是对先行词进行修饰或确定, 只是对先行词 作些附加的说明。专有名词通常被非限制性定语从句所修饰。例如:地名,人名,国家名等。 ⑵ 非限制性定语从句不是先行词必不可少的修饰语,因此如果去掉从句,主句的意思仍然清楚。 ⑶ 从句和主句之间往往用逗号分开,翻译时复合句通常译成两句话。 ⑷ 与限制性定语从句一样,非限制性定语从句也可用关系代词 who, which, whom, whose, as 和关 系副词 when, where,引导。that ,why 不引导非限制性定语从句。 例如: ① We will fly to Xi’an first, _______ we plan to stay for a couple of days. 我们将先飞往西安,在那里我们打算停留两天。 ② My wife, ______ is a doctor, is working abroad this year. 我的妻子是位医生,她今年在国外工作。 ③ ______ is known to all, ice is water in its solid state.
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例句 The accident happened at the time when I left.

His mother, whom he loved deeply, died ten years ago.

定语从句学案

众所周知,冰是水的固态。
㈢ 非限制性定语从句中值得注意的几个问题 ⑴ 在 which 引导的非限制性定语从句,先行词可以是一个名词或代词,也可以是句子的一部分, 甚至整个句子。 ① My new car, which I paid several thousand dollars for, isn’t running well. 先行词是_____ ② He said that he had never seen her before, which was not true. 先行词是_______________________________ ⑵ which 和 as 引导的非限制性定语从句比较 which 和 as 都可引导非限制性定语从句,并且先行词都可以是一句句子,但 which 通常指代上文 提到的情况,而 as 则可以指代上文或下文。 as 在这类句子中经常有“正如”的意思。另外,as 还经常与 such…as, the same…as 等连用。 例如: ① He has to work on Sundays, which he doesn’t like. ② As we expected, he gave a wonderful performance. ③ Mike is late, as is often the case. ④ I never heard such stories _____ he told. ⑤ She knew he felt just the same _____ she did. ⑶ 在从句中作宾语的关系代词 which, who, whom 一般不省略。 例如: ① Jeanne was her old friend, from whom she borrowed a necklace. ② He built a telescope, through which he could study the skies. 4. as 与 which 的区别: 定语从 句 限制性 定语从 句中 非限制 性定语 从句中 区别 名词前有 as,such 和 the same 修饰时,关系 代词用_______ ,不能用 which as 和 which 都可以指代前面整个主句。如果 有“正如,象”的含义,并可以放在主句前, 也可以放在后面,那么用 as;而 which 引导 的从句只能放主句后, 并无“正如”的意思。 例句 He is not such a fool as he looks. Don’t read such books as you can’t understand. They won the game, as we had expected. They won the game, which we hadn’t expected. As is well known, he is a famous film star in the 1980s.

关系代词 as 引导的定语从句 ⑴和 such 连用,这时的 as 相当于 who, which。有时 such 和 as 连在一起。例如: ① Wendy is not such a fool as she looks. ② Such cars as I saw were too expensive to me. ③ We had hoped to give you a chance such as nobody else ever had. 注意:这种用法和 such … that …的区别 在 such … as …中,as 是关系代词,它在从句中充当成分。例①中作 looks 的表语,在例②和③中 分别作 saw 和 had 的宾语。而在 such … that …中 that 引导的结果状语从句,解释为“以至于” 。 that 不充当任何成分,只起语法上的连接作用。 例如:
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定语从句学案 ① She gave me such a surprise that I couldn’t say anything at that moment. ② His idea was such a good one that we all agreed to use it. ⑵ 和 same 连用 ① You must show my friend the same respect as you show me. ② She wears the same kind of clothes as her sister usually does. ⑶引导非限制性定语从句 A as 引导非限制性定语从句,指代整个主句内容,从句可置于句首,句中或句尾 1). As ________________ ,China is a beautiful country with a long history . 每个人都知道,中国是一个有着悠久历史的美丽国家。 2). The earth , as we know , moves round the sun . 地球,我们______,围着太阳转。 3). Tom works hard and is willing to help others, as we all know. 汤母工作努力,并且乐于助人,这一点我们都知道。 B.非限制性定语从句中的谓语为被动式时,常用 as 做主语 be said/known/announced/reported/mentioned/expected/discussed 1). Grammar , ______ has been said before, is not a set of dead rules. 语法,就像以前所说,不是一套死规则。 2). ______ is known to all , TaiWan is part of China . C.as 引导非限制性定语从句,有“如,似,正像”的含义,因此,下列句式多用 as as has been said above 如上所说; as anybody _________正像每个人所看到的那样 as we had expected 正如我们___________那样 1).Things are not always as they appear. 事情并不一直像他们表面那样。 2).The boy has as much progress as we had expected. 正像我们所预料的那样,这个男孩取得了大的进步。 5. 定语从句和其它从句的区分 ① 定语从句一定有先行词 ② 定语从句的关系代词和关系副词在从句中一定充当成分。 我们来看具体的从句的比较: (一)定语从句和表语从句 例① 1) This is where your father worked when he was young. 2) This is the shop where my brother once worked. (二)定语从句和状语从句 例② 1) Let’s do it when we are free. 2) Let’s do it next month, when we are free. 这里 when 引导的是定语从句,先行词是 next month。又如: 1) Put it where it was. (三)定语从句和强调句 例③ 1) -- Where did you interview the composer? -- It was in the hotel _____ he stayed. (四)定语从句和并列句 A. where B. that where 引导的是__________从句,无先行词。 2) Put it in the drawer where I keep documents. where 引导的是_______从句。

例④1) There are 45 students in our class, of whom two fifths are girls. of whom/which +分数/百分数/ both / all / none / some / many …这样的结构常出现在定语从句 中,尤其是在较正式的文体中。更常见的是:分数/百分数/ both / all …+of whom/which, 此句是
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定语从句学案 定语从句。 2) There are 45 students in our class, and two fifths of them are girls. 此句中的第二分句由并列连词 and 引起,因此,不是________从句。 语法知识拓展 (一)选择适当的关系代词或关系副词把下列句子补充完整。 1. We should read such books _____ will make us better and wiser. 2. He failed in the exam, ______ proves that he wasn’t working hard enough. 3. Is it that factory _____ this car is produced? 4. _____ is often the case, we have worked out the production plan. 5. She was very kind towards the children, _____ her husband seldom was. 6. In the office I never seem to have time until after 5.00 p.m., ______ many people have gone home. 7. He called on another girl, ______ he believed was more suitable for the job. 8. The clever boy made a hole in the wall, through ______ he could see what was going on inside the house. 9. I intended to compare notes with a friend, ______ unfortunately couldn't spare me even one minute. 10. Last week, only two people came to look at the same house _______ Mr. Black is trying to sell. (二)用定语从句合并下列句子 1. Don’t do such things. You are not sure about the things. __________________________________________________________________________ 2. The weather turned out to be very good. 3. My uncle had three sons. It was more than we could expect. __________________________________________________________________________ Two of them died during the last earthquake. She had wiped her hands there. __________________________________________________________________________ 4. There were dirty marks on her trousers. __________________________________________________________________________ 5. He visited the primary school. He once studied for four years there. __________________________________________________________________________ (三)单项填空 1. These houses are sold at such a low price _______ people didn’t expect. A. like B. as C. that D. which 2. I bought a book written in _____ easy English ____ beginners can understand. A. such an, as B. such, that C. so, that D. such, as 3. This is so difficult a question _____. A. that many students can’t answer B. which many students can’t answer it C. as no one can answer it D. as nobody can answer 4. He tore all my letters and _____didn’t upset me at all. A. this B. it C. which D. as 5. John said he'd been working in the office for an hour, ______ was true. A. he B. this C. which D. who 6. You should make it a rule to leave things _______ you can find them again. A. when B. where C. then D. there 7. The manager decided to give the job to ______ he believed had a sense of duty. A. who B. whom C. whoever D. whomever 8. ____ I had expected, the number of the audience was well over two thousand. A. As B. Which C. Whom D. That 9. After five hours’ drive, they reached ___ they thought was the place they had been dreaming of. A. that B. where C. which D. what
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定语从句学案 10. Do you like any of the music ____ you’ve listened? A. which B. that C. for which D. to which 11. Whenever I met her, _____ was fairly often, I liked her sweet and hopeful smile. A. who B. that C. when D. which 12. Nowadays, more and more students are working directly on the Internet _____ different types of courses are supplied. A. that B. which C. where D. whose 13. Is there a supermarket around _____ I can get some food? A. where B. that C. which D. from it 14. It was on the farm _____ he grown up _____ he told me about his childhood. A. where, that B. that, that C. where, when D. that, when 15. That was the young man, I think, _____ I saw the other day help to catch the thief. A. who B. one C. the one D. which 16. You must show my wife the same respect ______ you show me. A. as B. that C. who D. what 17. ______ is known to all, China will be an advanced and powerful country in 20 or 30 years. A. Which B. That C. As D. It 18. New York, ______last year, is a nice old city. A. that I visited B. which I visited C. where I visited D. in which I visited 19. ______ is reported in the newspapers that talks between the two countries are making progress. A. It B. As C. That D. What 20. He invited ten friends to his home, _____ are foreigners. A. six of whom B. the six of whom C. six of them D. the six of them 21. She was ______I met at the party, _____you knew. A. the one, as B. who, that C. the one what, which D. that, as 22. He tore up my photo and ______ upset me. A. this B. it C. which D. what 23. The factory produces half a million pairs of shoes every year, 80% ___ are sold abroad. A. of which B. which of C. of them D. of 24. Human beings are different from animals in _____ they can make tools. A. which B. what C. that D. where 25. It was in the lab ______ was taken charge of by Professor Zhou _____ they did the experiment A. where, that B. which, which C. that, where D. which, that (四)改错 1. The house, that we bought last month, is very nice. 2. His movie won several awards at the film festival, as was beyond his wildest dream. 3. The owner of the cinema needed to make a lot of improvements and employ more people to keep it running, it meant spending tens of thousands of pounds. 4. We shouldn’t spend our money testing so many people, and most of whom are healthy. 5. As is known to all that the earth is round. 6. My early attempts at learning to drive were unsuccessful, were they? 7. I don’t think a warm winter always has a negative influence on our life, isn’t it? 8. There’s little water in the glass, isn’t there? 9. I am good at painting, am not I? (五) 高考真题回顾 1. They fly to Washington, ____ they plan to stay for two or three days.(2008 重庆) A. where B. there
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C. which
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D. when

定语从句学案 2. The Science Museum, _____ we visited during a recent trip to Britain, is one of London’s tourist attractions. (2008 江苏)A. which B. what C. that D. where 3. Villagers here depend on the fishing industry, ____ there won’t be much work. (2008 上海春季) A. where B. that C. by which D. without which 4. I’ll give you my friend’s home address, _____ I can be reached most evenings.(2008 北京) A. which B. when C. whom D. where 5. The growing speed of a plant is influenced by a number of factors, ______ are beyond our control. (2008 湖南)A. most of them B. most of which C. most of what D. most of that 6. For many cities in the world, there is no room to spread out further, ______ New York is an example. (2008 四川) A. for which B. in which C. of which D. from which 7. Yesterday she sold her car, _____ she bought a month ago.(2008 浙江) A. when B. where C. that D. which 8. The man pulled out a gold watch, _____ were made of small diamonds.(2008 陕西) A. the hands of whom C. which the hands of B. whom the hands of D. the hands of which

9. The road conditions there turned out to be very good, ______ was more than we could expect. (2008 全国卷 II) A. it B. what C. which D. that 10. By nine o’clock, all the Olympic torch bccares had reached the top of Mount Qomolangms, ____ appeared a rare rainbow soon. (2008 福建) A. of which B. on which C. from which D. above which 11. It was along the Mississippi River ____ Mark Twain spent much of his childhood. (2008 天津) A. how B. which C. that D. where 12. The English spoken in the United States is only slightly different from ______ spoken in England. (2008 全国 I) A. which B. what C. that D. the one 13. The news _____ our athletes won another gold medal was reported In yesterday’s newspaper. (2008 上海春季) A. which B. whether C. what D. that 14. If you talk nice and polite, people listen to you. If you shout, this is no good, _____? (2007 北京春 季) A. do you B. don’t you B. don’t you C. is it C. will you D. isn’t it D. won’t you 15. When you’ve finished with the book, don’t forget to put it back on the shelf, _____? A. do you

定语从句(1)
一、基本概念 (一) 定语从句 在复合句中作定语,修饰名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。 (二) 先行词

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定语从句学案

被定语从句所修饰的名词或代词。一般情况下,定语从句紧跟先行词。但也有因各种 原因定语从句与先行词被分割的现象。 (三)关系代词和关系副词 定语从句的引导词。与先行词关系密切,因此紧跟先行词,并在定语从句中充当一个 成分。关系代词有:who, whom, which, that 和 whose, 另外,as 也可充当关系代词。 关系代词在定语从句中充当主语、宾语、表语和定语。关系副词有:when, where 和 why。在定语从句中充当状语。

二、关系代词的用法 (一)基本用法 根据先行词的不同,和在从句中所充当的成分不同,选用不同的关系代词。 如下表: 关系词 先行 词 人 从句成 分 例句 备注

who

主语, 宾 Do you know the man who is 语 talking with your mother? Mr. Smith is the person with whom whom, which 和 that 在从句 中做宾语 时,常可以 省略,但介 词提前时后 面关系代词 不能省略, 也不可以用 that

whom 关 系 代 词 whose



宾语

I am working The boy (whom) she loved died in the war. I like those books whose topics are

人, 物 定语

about history. The boy whose father works abroad is my classmate.

that

人, 物

主语, 宾 语

A plane is a machine that can fly. She is the pop star (that) I want to see very much.

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定语从句学案

The book (which) I gave you was which 物 主语, 宾 worth $10. 语 The picture which was about the accident was terrible. He is such a person as is respected as 人, 物 主语, 宾 by all of us. 语 This is the same pen as I lost yesterday. as 做宾语一 般不省略

例如: (注意关系代词在定语从句中所充当的成分) ① Do you know the professor who/that will give us a speech next week? (作主语)

② I read a report about his new novel that/ which will soon be published. (作主语) ③ The plan that/which they argued about was settled at last. (作宾语) (作宾

④ This is the new secretary (who/whom/that) I would like to introduce to you. 语) ⑤ The soldier whose legs were badly wounded was operated on without delay. 语)

(作定

注意:关系代词在定语从句中充当宾语时可以省略,充当主语时则不能。 (见上例③ ④)

(二)关系代词 that 代替 which 的一些情况 which, that 在代替物时,一般可以通用。 但在有些情况下,只用 that。 ⑴ 先行词是最高级形容词或它的前面有最高级形容词修饰时。 例如: ① This is the best that has been used against pollution. ② English is the most difficult subject that you will learn during these years. ⑵ 先行词是序数词,或它前面有一个序数词时。 例如:

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定语从句学案

① This is the last place (that) I want to visit. ② It is the first American movie of this kind that I’ve ever seen. ⑶ 先行词是 all, much, little, something, everything, anything, nothing, none 等代词时。 例如: ① You should hand in all that you have. ② We haven’t got much that we can offer you. ⑷ 先行词前面有 the only, the very, any, few, little, no, all, much, every 等修饰时。 例如: ① The only thing that we can do is to give you some money. ② The little money (that) he had was stolen.

(三)宜用 who, 而不用 that 的一些情况 ⑴ 先行词是 one, ones, anyone 时。 例如: ① One who has nothing to fear for oneself dares to tell the truth. ② Don’t tell anyone about the news who oughtn’t to know it. ⑵先行词是 those 时。 例如: ① Those who were not fit for their work could not see the beautiful clothes made of the magic cloth.

(四)其它情况 ⑴ 先行词既有人又有物时。 例如: ① Do you know the things and persons that they are talking about? ② The bike and its rider that had run over an old man were taken to the police station. ⑵ 主句已有疑问词 who 或 which 时。 例如: ① Which is the bike that you lost?

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定语从句学案

② Who is the woman that was praised at the meeting?

(五)与 whose 有关的问题 ⑴ whose 是代词的所有格,它既可以代人也可以代物。 例如: ① I saw a woman whose bag was stolen. ② Please show me the book whose cover is red. ⑵ 当 whose 表示物与物的所有格关系时,亦可用 of which 的形式。 例如: ① The building whose roof you can see from here is a new restaurant. → The building, the roof of which you can see from here, is a new restaurant.或 → The building, of which the roof you can see from here is a new restaurant.

三、介词前提的问题 关系代词在定语从句中充当介词宾语时,介词可以前提至关系代词前。 例如: Have you seen the pen (which) I wrote the note with just now? 宾语) →Have you seen the pen with which I wrote the note just now? 但是,要注意的是: ⑴ 介词前提后, 先行词是人或物, 关系代词分别只能用 whom 和 which, 而不再用 that 或 who。 ⑵ 介词前提后,关系代词不再能省略。 ⑶ 有些含有介词的短语动词中的介词不能前提,如:look for, look after, take care of 等。 例如: ① 错误:Who is the old man to that you were talking to? 正确:Who is the old man to whom you were talking ? 或 Who is the old man (that/ whom) you were talking to? (which 作介词 with 的

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定语从句学案

② 错误:These are the sheep of which the boy took care. 正确:These are the sheep (which/that) the boy took care of.

四、关系代词在从句中作主语时,从句中的主谓一致 关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词在人称和数上应与先行词一致。 例如: ① Who is the guy that is reading over there? ② The number of people that are going to the exhibition is expected to be over 25,000. ③ All that needs to be done has been done. ④ He is one of the students who use computer a lot for study. ⑤ Timmy is the only one of the pupils that has failed the exam. 例③中的 all 意为―一切‖,作单数。例⑤中没通过考试的学生事实上只有一人,因此 谓语动词也用单数。

that 与 which, who, whom 的用法区别: 情况 用法说明 1.先行词为 all, everything, anything, nothing, little, much,等不定代词时。 2.先行词被 all, any, every, each, much, little, no, some, few 等修饰时 只用 that 的 情况 3.先行词有形容词最高级和序数词修 饰时 4.先行词既指人又指物时 5.先行词被 the only, the very 修饰时 6.句中已经有 who 或 which 时,为了 避免重复时 例句 1. He told me everything that he knows. 2. All the books that you offered have been given out. 3. This is the best film that I have ever read. 4. We talked about the persons and things that we remembered. 5. He is the only man that I want to see.

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6. Who is the man that is making a speech? 1.在非限制性定语从句中,只能用 which 指代物,用 who/whom 指人 只用 which, who, whom 的情况 2.在由―介词+关系代词‖引导的定语 从句中,只能用 which 指物,whom 指人。 3.先行词本身是 that 时,关系词用 which, 先行词为 those, one, he 时多 用 who。 1. He has a son, who has gone abroad for further study. 2. I like the person to whom the teacher is talking. 3. Those who respect others are usually respected by others.

二、语法知识拓展 (一)选择适当的关系代词 that, which, who, whom 或 whose,把下列句子补充完整。 1. Rice is a plant ________ is grown in the south. 2. Those ________ want to go please sign their names here. 3. All ________ glitters is not gold. 4. This is the only way 5. Both the girl and her dog leads to your success. were crossing the street were hit by a coming car.

6. This is the biggest building ________we have ever built in our school. 7. This is the second school ________ I used to work at, and many students there still have contact with me. 8. There is a mountain ________ top is always covered with snow. 9. You can take any seat ________ is free. 10. Could you tell me from _________ you borrowed this book?

(二)用定语从句合并下列句子

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1. The lady is a film star. You took a photo of the lady yesterday. ___________________________________________________________________ 2. What’s the address of the factory? We noticed the advertisement of the factory the other day. ___________________________________________________________________ 3. This is the stadium He often goes to the stadium on Sundays. _____________________________________________________________________ 4. A professor is going to give us a speech this Friday afternoon. He has been working on environmental protection. _____________________________________________________________________

5. He hasn’t got enough money. He can buy a laptop with the money. _____________________________________________________________________

(三)单项填空 1. Who is the woman A. who 2. The doctor B. / is sweeping the floor over there? C. that D. when

is leaving for Africa next month. B. whom the nurse is talking D. who the nurse is talking no one had ever heard. C. about that D. who

A. the nurse is talking to him C. the nurse is talking to 3. He talked about a hero A. of whom

B. from whom

4. Have you read the book A. that B. whom

I lent to you? C. when D. whose

5. American women usually identify their best friend as someone ______ they can talk frequently.
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A. who

B. as

C. about which was very low.

D. with whom

6. Recently I bought a second-hand car A. which price

B. the price of whose C. its price

D. whose price

7. Lily, is Helen ______ you want to introduce me to? A. that B. who C. whom D. the girl

8. The professors talked with us about the beautiful schools and the experienced teachers ______ they had seen. A. that B. who C. which D. what

9. This is the only bus ______ goes to the village school. A. / B. that C. where D. it

10. Is there a shop around _______sells China Daily? A. who B. where C. in which D. which

11. She was the only one of the girls in our class _______ accepted as candidate for the president of our Students’ Union. A. who was been 12. She is no longer the sweet little girl ______ she used to be. A. what B. who C. when D. that B. who were C. who has been D. who have

13. Is this singer ______ songs you like best? A. who’s B. whose C. which D the one whose

14. He got angry with _____ was against his opinion. A. who B. whomever C. whoever D. no matter who

15. Anyone _____with what I said may raise your hand. A. which agrees B. who agree 16. That’s the dog ______. A. we’ve been looking after C. what we’ve been looking after B. after which we’ve been looking D. we’ve been taking care for C. who agrees D. which agree

17. This is the last time ______ I’ll give you a lesson. A. when B. that C. what D. as

18. The family _____ I stayed with in Paris are coming to London.
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A. whose

B. which

C. what

D. whom

19. This is the very knife ______ I used to cut apples yesterday. A. that B. by which C. which D. with which

20. China has many rivers, _____ the Yangtze River is the longest.. A. which B. in which C. among which D. one of which

21. The use they are ______ the waste helps to save a lot of money. A. made of B. made from C. making up of D. making of

22. That tree, the branches ______ are almost bare, is a very old one. A. whose B. in which C. of which D. of it

23. In the dark street, there wasn’t a single person ______ she could turn for help. A. that B. who C. from whom D. to whom

24. What is the way Smith thought of ______ enough money to buy the new house? A. getting B. having got C. being got D. to get

25. Jack spent as much time as he could ______ over his lessons. A. going B. went C. go D. to go

26. The freezing point is the temperature ______ water changes into ice. A. at which B. on that C. when D. of which

27. I am impressed by the fact that he makes good use of every minute _____ he can spare. A. that B. in which C. in that D. when

28. This is the last time ______ I will write to you. A. when B. that C. what D. as

29. I don’t like the way ______ he spoke to me. A. what B. by which C. by that D. /

30. The train ______ he was traveling was delayed for more than an hour. A. by which B. on which C. for which D. on that

(四)改错 1. Is this museum you visited a few days ago? ___________________________________________________________________ 2. The girl which is standing next to our teacher is her daughter.
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___________________________________________________________________ 3. He rushed to help the man his car was trapped in the mud. ___________________________________________________________________ 4. All which is need is supply of oil. ___________________________________________________________________ 5. This is the best film which I have seen this year. ___________________________________________________________________ 6. The cake you made it yesterday was very delicious. ___________________________________________________________________ 7. Do you know the man wrote the letter? _____________________________________________________________________ 8. Who is the great man who saved my boy? _____________________________________________________________________ 9. Here are the patients after whom you will look. _____________________________________________________________________ 10. This is all the money with that he can buy a Christmas present for his mother. _____________________________________________________________________

(五)真题回顾 1. We went through a period _____ communications were very difficult in rural areas. (2008 上海) A. which B. whose C. in which D. with which

2. Human facial expressions differ from those of animals in the degree _____ they can be controlled on purpose. (2007 重庆) A. with which B. to which C. of which D. for which

3. Animals suffered at the hands of Man ______ they were destroyed by people to make way for agricultural land to provide food for more people. (2008 江西) A. in which B. for which C. so that D. in that

4. Some children want to challenge themselves by learning a language different from

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______ their parents speak at home. (2008 浙江) A. what B. that C. which D. one

5. You can only be sure of _____ you have at present; you cannot be sure of something _____ you might get in the future. (2007 安徽) A. that; what B. what; / C. which; that D. /; that

6. Women _____ drink more than two cups of coffee a day have a greater chance of having heart disease than those _____ don’t. (2006 北京) A. who, / B. /; who C. who, who D. /; /

7. The Beatles _____ many of you are old enough to remember, came from Liverpool. (2006 天津) A. what B. that C. how D. as

8. In an hour, we can travel to places _____ would have taken our ancestors days to reach. (2006 上海) A. where B. when C. which D. what

9. I saw a woman running toward me in the dark. Before I could recognize who she was, she had run back in the direction ________ she had come.( 2006 重庆卷) A. of which B. by which C. in which D. from which

10. Look out! Don’t get too close to the house ______ roof is under repair. (2006 福建) A. whose B. which C. of which D. that

11. – Mom, what did your doctor say? -- He advised me to live ____ the air is fresher. (2006 四川) A. in where B. in which C. the place where D. where

12. The schools themselves admit that not all children will be successful in the jobs ______ they are being trained. (2005 江西) A. in that B. for that C. in which D. for which

13. The English play ____ my students acted at the New Year’s party was a great success. (2004 全国) A. for which B. at which C. in which D. on which

14. George Orwell, ____ was Eric Arthur, wrote many political novels and essays. (2004 全

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国) A. the real name name 15. The factory produces half a million pairs of shoes every year, 80% ________ are sold abroad. (2004 辽宁) A. of which B. which of C. of them D. of that B. what his real name C. his real name D. whose real

参考答案 (一)选择适当的关系代词 that, which, who, whom 或 whose,把下列句子补充完整。 1. that/which 6. (that) 2. who 3. that 4. that 9. that 5. that 10. whom

7. (that)

8. whose

(二)用定语从句合并下列句子 1. The lady (that/who/whom) you took a photo of yesterday is a film star. 2. What’s the address of the factory whose advertisement we noticed the other day? 3. This is the stadium he often goes to on Sundays. 4. A professor who/that has been working on environmental protection is going to give us a speech this Friday afternoon. 5. He hasn’t got enough money with which he can buy a laptop.

(三)单项填空 1-5 CCAAD 6-10 DDABD 26-30 AABDB 11-15 AD DCC 16-20 ABDAC 21-25 DCDDA

(四)改错 1. Is this the museum you visited a few days ago? 或者 Is this museum the one you visited a few days ago? 2. The girl who/that is standing next to our teacher is her daughter.

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3. He rushed to help the man whose car was trapped in the mud. 4. All that is need is supply of oil. 5. This is the best film (that) I have seen this year. 6. The cake you made yesterday was very delicious. 7. Do you know the man who/that wrote the letter? 8. Who is the great man that saved my boy? 9. Here are the patients whom you will look after. 10. This is all the money with which he can buy a Christmas present for his mother.

(五)真题回顾 1-5 CBDAB 6-10 CDCDA 11-15 DDCDA

定语从句(2)
一、 “介词+关系代词”结构 1. 可代替 when, where, why, that 等关系词 e.g. There is no reason for which (why) we shouldn’t be friends.

2. 介词后面的关系词不能省略。 e.g. Here is the money with which to buy a piano.

3. that 前不能有介词。

4. 某些在从句中充当时间,地点或原因状语的“介词+关系词”结构可以跟关系副词 when 和 where 互换。 e.g. This is the house in which I lived two years ago. This is the house where I lived two years ago.

Do you remember the day on which you joined our club? Do you remember the day when you joined our club?
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二、关系副词的用法: 关系词 先行 词 时间 从句成 分 时间状 语 地点状 语 原因状 语 例句 备注

关 系 副 词

when

I will never forget the day when we 可用 on met there. This is the house where I was born. I can’t imagine the reason why he turned down my offer. which 代替 可用 in which 代替 可用 for which 代替

where

地点

why

原因

(一)基本用法 关系副词起连接主句和从句的作用,又在从句中作状语,when, where 和 why 分 别表示时间,地点和原因。

1. when 在从句中作时间状语。常用 on which, in which, at which, during which 等代替。 e.g. April the first is the day when people make fun of others. =April the first is the day on which people make fun of others.

2. where 在从句中作地点状语。常可由 in which, on which, at which, on which 等取代。 e.g. This is the house where he lived two years ago. =This is the house in which he lived two years ago.

3. why why 在定语从句中作原因状语。可用 for which 代替。why 不可引导非限定性定语 从句,此时可用 for which 代替。 e.g. This is the reason why he went away.

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=This is the reason for which he went away.

(二)关系副词常可用“介词+关系代词”的结构改写 这里的关系代词只限于 which 和 whom,例如

④ I will never forget the night when I met you for the first time. =I will never forget the night on which I met you for the first time.

⑤ This is the house in which I lived two years ago. =This is the house where I lived two years ago.

⑥ We don’t know the reason for which he suddenly fell ill. =We don’t know the reason why he suddenly fell ill. 注意:并不是所有的介词+关系代词的结构都可用关系副词替代。

e.g. I am very impressed by the way in which he works. 这里 in which 代表的是 in the way, 在句中作方式状语。只有当介词+关系代词结 构作表示时间、地点和原因的状语时,才能相应地用 when, where 和 why 代替。

(三)如何判断是用关系代词还是关系副词 这本质上取决于关系代词和关系副词在定语从句中充当的成分。前者充当主语、 宾语、表语或定语,后者充当状语。 试比较下面两组句子: ③ This is the factory that/which produces radios. This is the factory where radios are produced. 第一句中划线部分在从句中作主语,故而应选用关系代词: The factory produces radios. 而第二句中划线部分在从句中作地点状语故而应选用关系副词: Radios are produced in the factory.
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④ Do you remember the days (that) we spent together? Do you remember the days when we worked together? 第一句中关系代词在从句中作宾语:We spent the days together. 而第二句中关系 副词作时间状语:We worked together during the days.

(四)一些需要特殊记忆的关系词的用法 1. I don’t like the way in which he look at people. 当先行词是 way 时,除了 in which,还可以用 that 来引导定语从句。that 还经常省 略。e.g. Judging from the way he walked, I believe he was wounded in the leg. 2. Finally came the day when he had to leave his hometown. 当先行词为 time, moment, day 等, 并在从句中作状语时, 从句也可以用 that 引导, that 也常省略。又如: ① It was the first time (that) we had stayed up so late. ② The moment (that/when) he sent the mail, John realized what a mistake he had made. ③ She was the only girl I went steady with during the four years (that /when) I was at university.

三、关系副词的省略: 1. the time, every time, each time, the moment 等后的关系副词可以省略。 e.g. By the time (when) he was fourteen years old, Jim had learnt more than two thousand English words.

2. 在某些表示地点的名词后,关系副词有时也可以省略。如 the place 等。 e.g. This is the place (where) I saw him last time.

3. 先行词 the reason 后面的关系副词可以省略。 e.g. The reason (why) he came here is quite clear.

4. 当先行词是 way 时,关系副词常常省略。 e.g. I know the way (that) he learns English.
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四、判断关系代词与关系副词的方法: 1. 用关系代词, 还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。 及物动词后面没有宾语, 就必须要求用关系代词;而不及物动词则要求用关系副词。 判断下列句子的对错 (×) This is the mountain village where I visited last year. (×) I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside. (√) This is the mountain village (which) I visited last year. (√) I'll never forget the days (which) I spent in the countryside. 习惯上总把表地点或时间的名词与关系副词 where, when 联系在一起。此两题错 在关系词的误用上。

2. 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状),也就能正确选择出关 系代词/关系副词。 例 1. Is this museum ___ you visited a few days age? A. where B. that C. on which D. the one

例 2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held. A. where B. that C. on which D. the one

答案:例 1 D,例 2 A

例 1 变为肯定句: This museum is ___ you visited a few days ago. 例 2 变为肯定句: This is the museum ___ the exhibition was held. 在句 1 中,所缺部分为宾语,而 where, that, on which 都不能起到宾语的作用,只 有 the one 既做了主句的表语,又可做从句的宾语,可以省略关系代词,所以应选 D。 而句 2 中, 主、谓、宾俱全,从句部分为句子的状语表地点,既可用副词 where, 又因 in the museum 词组, 可用介词 in + which 引导地点状语。 而此题中, 介词 on 用 的不对,所以选 A。

关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分,先行词在从句中做主、定、宾语时,选

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择关系代词 (who, whom, that, which, whose); 先行词在从句中做状语时,应选择关 系副词 ( where 地点状语,when 时间状语,why 原因状语) 。

语法知识拓展 (一)选择适当的关系代词或关系副词把下列句子补充完整。 1. His father died in the year _________ he was born. 2. He is unlikely to find the place _________ he lived forty years ago. 3. Do you remember the day _________ you joined our club? 4. Recently I bought a beautiful vase _______ price was quite reasonable. 5. The reason _______ I came here is to get your help. 6. I got the book in a small bookstore, the name of ______ I cannot remember. 7. I will never forget the day ______ we first met. 8. Is this the factory _______ you once worked for? 9. Is that the reason _______ he gave for his terrible behavior? 10. The kind girl _______ shared her umbrella with me this morning turned out to be my boss.

(二)用定语从句合并下列句子 1. Bamboo grows well in these places. It’s warm and wet all year round in these places. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. Shall we go shopping this weekend? I’ll have finished all my work by then. _____________________________________________________________________ 3. Sandy is not a very popular singer, because of his strange way. He dances in a strange way.

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_____________________________________________________________________ 4. Is there any reason? They don’t agree with each other on anything. _____________________________________________________________________ 5. How can I forget that birthday? I was caught cheating on that day. _____________________________________________________________________

(三)单项填空 1. Do you know the reason A. which B. why Tom didn’t come yesterday? C. who D. that

2. After living in Paris for fifty years he returned to the small town ______ he grew up as a child. A. which 3. Is this the reason A. why B. where C. that D. when

she gave for not finishing her homework yesterday? B. for which C. that D. to which

4. After the war, a new school was put up ______ there had once been a theatre. A. that B. which C. when D. where

5. Do you know the reason ______ she got so angry yesterday? A. why B. that C. which D. whom

6. Do you believe the reason ______ he gave for his being late? A. why B. for which C. which D. it

7. He has got himself into a dangerous situation ______ he is likely to lose control over the plane. A. where B. which C. while D. when

8. I don’t like the way _____ you speak to her. A. which B. / C. of which D. by which

9. The old man told us _____ the days ______ he was poor were gone. A. that, when B. what, when C. when, that D. something, that

10. I shall never forget the day ____ Shenzhou V was launched, ____ has a great effect on
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my life. A. when; which B. that; which C. which; that D. when; that

11. I walked in the garden, ____ Tom and Jim were tying a big string onto one of the trees. A. which B. when C. where D .that

12. Let's put off the picnic until next week, ______ the weather may be better. A. as 13. We are living in an age A. which B. that B. then C. if D. when

many things are done on computer. C. whose D. when

14. Winter is the time of year _____ the days are short and nights are long. A. that B. which C. when D. whose

15. Is there anyone in your class _____ family is in the city? A. which B. whose C. what D. who

16. Can you suggest a time ______ we can meet? A. which B. when C. where D. how

17. These days _____ we spent together cannot be easily forgotten. A. that B. when C. on which D. at which

18. Nearly all the food ______ comes from animals and plants. A. that eat B. is eaten C. we eat D. that eats

19. This is _____ I can do for you right now. A. which B. that C. what D. as

20. I can still remember the sitting-room _____ my mother and I used to sit in the evening. A. what B. which C. that D. where

21. On the train I saw a student _____ I thought was your sister. A. who B. whom C. which D. that

22. Egypt is a country _____ is famous for its pyramids. A. where B. which C. in which D. at which

23. China is the country _____ he spent the best part of his life. A. where B. which C. in that D. at which

24. Have you got anything _____ belongs to me? A. which B. that
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25. This is the magazine _____ I copied the paragraph. A. that B. which C. from that D. from which

26. I didn’t like the way _____ she treated children. A. which B. that C. how D. as

27. He is the only one of the three _____ got the new idea. A. who have B. whom have C. who has D. whose had

28. The boss _____ department Ms King worked ten years ago look down upon women. A. in which B. in that C. in whose D. whose

29. Alec asked the policeman _____ he worked to contact him whenever there was an accident. A. with him B. who C. with whom D. whom

30. It was at our college library _____ I borrowed the novel. A. which B. in which C. that D. where

(四)改错 1. Is this the museum the one the exhibition was held? _____________________________________________________________________ 2. Who is late for the meeting tomorrow will be punished. _____________________________________________________________________ 3. That is not the hospital that I stayed last time. _____________________________________________________________________ 4. I am looking forward to the day which I become independent. _____________________________________________________________________ 5. Why do you believe a person once told so many lies? _____________________________________________________________________ 6. Nobody will forget the earthquake happened in Sichuan. _____________________________________________________________________ 7. He is one of the students who is never late. _____________________________________________________________________

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(五)真题回顾 1. Occasions are quite rare _____ I have the time to spend a day with my kids. (2008 山东) A. who B. which C. why D. when

2. Later in this chapter cases will be introduced to readers ______ consumer complaints have resulted in changes in the law. (2008 江西) A. where B. when C. who D. which

3. All the neighbors admire the family _____ the parents are treating their child like a friend. (2008 安徽) A. why B. where C. which D. that

4. Those successful deaf dancers think that dancing is an activity _____ sight matters more than hearing. (2007 天津) A. when B. whose C. which D. where

5. Today, we’ll discuss a number of cases ______ beginners of English fail to use the language properly. (2007 陕西) A. which B. as C. why D. where

6. —Where did you get to know her? —It was on the farm _______ we worked. ( 2007 山东) A. that B. there C. which D. where

7. After graduation she reached a point in her career _____ she heeded to decision what to do. (2007 江西) A. that B. what C. which D. where

8. The village has developed a lot 建) A. when B. which

we learned farming two years ago. (2007 福

C. that

D. where

9. If a shop has chairs _______ women can park their men, women will spend more time in the shop. (2005 上海) A. that B. which C. when D. where

10. There were dirty marks on her trousers _______ she had wiped her hands.(2004 广西) A. where B. which C. when D. that

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定语从句学案

参考答案 (一)选择适当的关系代词 that, which, who, whom 或 whose,把下列句子补充完整。 1. when 6. which 2. where 7. (when) 3. when 4.whose 5. why 9. (that) 10. who/that

8. (that/which)

(二)用定语从句合并下列句子 1. Bamboo grows well in places where it’s warm and wet all year round. 2. Shall we go shopping this weekend by which time I’ll have finished all my work.? 3. Sandy is not a very popular singer because of the strange way he dances. 4. Is there any reason why they don’t agree with each other on anything? 5. How can I forget that birthday when I was caught cheating?

(三)单项填空 1-5 BBCDA 6-10 CABAA BCCCC 11-15CDDCB 16-20 BACCD 21-25 ABABD 26-30

(四)改错 1. Is this the museum where the exhibition was held?或者 Is this museum the one where the exhibition was held. 2. Whoever is late for the meeting tomorrow will be punished.或者 Anyone who is late for the meeting tomorrow will be punished. 3. That is not the hospital where/ in which I stayed last time. 4. I am looking forward to the day when /on which I become independent. 5. Why do you believe a person who/that once told so many lies? 6. Nobody will forget the earthquake that/which happened in Sichuan. 7. He is one of the students who are never late. (五)真题回顾 1-5 DABDD 6-10 DDDDA

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