定语从句学案 一、基本概念 （一） 定语从句 在复合句中作定语，修饰____或_____的从句叫定语从句。 （二） 先行词 被定语从句所修饰的名词或代词。一般情况下，定语从句紧跟先行词。但也有因各种原因定语从 句与先行词被分割的现象。 （三）关系代词和关系副词 定语从句的引导词。与先行词关系密切，因此紧跟先行词，并在定语从句中充当一个成分。关系 代词有：______, _____
__,________，________和 whose, 另外，as 也可充当_____代词。关系代词 在定语从句中充当主语、宾语、表语和定语。关系副词有：______, ______和_____。在定语从句 中充当状语。 二、关系代词的用法 （一）基本用法 根据先行词的不同，和在从句中所充当的成分不同，选用不同的关系代词。 如下表： 关系词 who 先行词 _____ 从句成分 主语，宾 语 例句 Do you know the man _____ is talking with your mother? Mr. Smith is the person with _________ ______ 人 宾语 I am working The boy (_________) she loved died in the war. I like those books whose topics are 关 系 代 词 ______ 人，物 主语，宾 语 whose 人，物 ______ about history. The boy ______ father works abroad is my classmate. A plane is a machine ______ can fly. She is the pop star (______) I want to see very much. The book (which) I gave you was worth which _____ 主语，宾 语 $10. The picture _______ was about the accident was terrible. as 人，物 主语，宾 语 He is such a person as is respected by all of us. This is the same pen as I lost yesterday. as 做 宾 语 一 般不省略 whom, which 和 that 在从句 中做宾语时， 常可以省略， 但介词提前 时后面关系 代词不能省 略， 也不可以 用_______. 备注
例如： （注意关系代词在定语从句中所充当的成分） ① Do you know the professor who/that will give us a speech next week? ③ The plan that/which they argued about was settled at last. （作_________） ② I read a report about his new novel that/ which will soon be published. （作________） （作_______） （作_______） （作_______） ④ This is the new secretary (who/whom/that) I would like to introduce to you. ⑤ The soldier whose legs were badly wounded was operated on without delay.
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定语从句学案 注意：关系代词在定语从句中充当宾语时可以省略，充当主语时则不能。 （见上例③④） （二）关系代词 that 代替 which 的一些情况 which, that 在代替物时，一般可以通用。 但在有些情况下，只用 that。 ⑴ 先行词是最高级__________或它的前面有________________修饰时。 ① This is the best ______ has been used against pollution. ② English is the most difficult subject _____ you will learn during these years. ⑵ 先行词是_____________，或它前面有一个______________时。 ① This is the last place (that) I want to visit. ② It is the first American movie of this kind that I’ve ever seen. ⑶ 先行词是 all, much, little, ____________, everything, anything, _____________, none 等代词时。 ① You should hand in all that you have. ② We haven’t got much that we can offer you. ⑷ 先行词前面有 the only, the ________, any, few, little, no, ______, much, every 等修饰时。 ① The only thing that we can do is to give you some money. ② The little money (that) he had was stolen. （三）宜用 who, 而不用 that 的一些情况 ⑴ 先行词是 one, ones, anyone 时。 ① One who has nothing to fear for oneself dares to tell the truth. ② Don’t tell anyone about the news who oughtn’t to know it. ⑵先行词是 those 时。 ① Those who were not fit for their work could not see the beautiful clothes made of the magic cloth. （四）其它情况 ⑴ 先行词既有人又有物时。 ① Do you know the things and persons that they are talking about? ② The bike and its rider that had run over an old man were taken to the police station. ⑵ 主句已有疑问词 who 或 which 时。 ① Which is the bike that you lost? ② Who is the woman that was praised at the meeting? （五）与 whose 有关的问题 ⑴ whose 是代词的所有格，它既可以代人也可以代物。 ① I saw a woman whose bag was stolen. ② Please show me the book whose cover is red. ⑵ 当 whose 表示物与物的所有格关系时，亦可用 of which 的形式。 ① The building whose roof you can see from here is a new restaurant. → The building, the roof ___ _______ you can see from here, is a new restaurant.或 → The building, _______ the roof you can see from here is a new restaurant. 三、介词前提的问题 关系代词在定语从句中充当介词宾语时，介词可以前提至关系代词前。 Have you seen the pen (which) I wrote the note with just now? →Have you seen the pen with which I wrote the note just now? 但是，要注意的是： ⑴ 介词前提后，先行词是人或物，关系代词分别只能用_____和______，而不再用 that 或 who。
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定语从句学案 ⑵ 介词前提后，关系代词不再能省略。 ⑶ 有些含有介词的短语动词中的介词不能前提，如：look for, look after, take care of 等。 例如：(Ｔ ｏｒ Ｆ) ① ( ( )：Who is the old man to that you were talking to? )：Who is the old man to whom you were talking ? 或 Who is the old man (that/ whom) you
were talking to? ② ( )：These are the sheep of which the boy took care. ( )：These are the sheep (which/that) the boy took care of. 四、关系代词在从句中作主语时，从句中的主谓一致 关系代词在定语从句中作主语时，从句的谓语动词在人称和数上应与先行词一致。 ① Who is the guy that is reading over there? ② The number of people that are going to the exhibition is expected to be over 25,000. ③ All that needs to be done has been done. ④ He is one of the students who use computer a lot for study. ⑤ Timmy is the only one of the pupils that has failed the exam. 例③中的 all 意为“一切” ，作单数。例⑤中没通过考试的学生事实上只有一人，因此谓语动词也 用单数。 二、语法知识拓展 （一）选择适当的关系代词 that, which, who, whom 或 whose，把下列句子补充完整。 1. Rice is a plant ________ is grown in the south. 2. Those ________ want to go please sign their names here. 3. All ________ glitters is not gold. 4. This is the only way 5. Both the girl and her dog leads to your success. were crossing the street were hit by a coming car.
6. This is the biggest building ________we have ever built in our school. 7. This is the second school ________ I used to work at, and many students there still have contact with me. 8. There is a mountain ________ top is always covered with snow. 9. You can take any seat ________ is free. 10. Could you tell me from _________ you borrowed this book? （二）用定语从句合并下列句子 1. The lady is a film star. You took a photo of the lady yesterday. _______________________________________________________________________ 2. What’s the address of the factory? We noticed the advertisement of the factory the other day. ________________________________________________________________________ 3. This is the stadium He often goes to the stadium on Sundays. ________________________________________________________________________ 4. A professor is going to give us a speech this Friday afternoon. He has been working on environmental protection. ________________________________________________________________________
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定语从句学案 5. He hasn’t got enough money. He can buy a laptop with the money. ________________________________________________________________________ （三）单项填空 1. Who is the woman A. who 2. The doctor B. / is sweeping the floor over there? C. that D. when is leaving for Africa next month. B. whom the nurse is talking D. who the nurse is talking no one had ever heard. C. about that C. when C. about which was very low. C. its price C. whom D. whose price D. the girl D. who D. whose D. with whom I lent to you?
A. the nurse is talking to him C. the nurse is talking to 3. He talked about a hero A. of whom A. that A. who A. which price A. that had seen. A. that A. / A. who Students’ Union. A. who was A. what A. who’s A. who A. which agrees B. who were B. who B. whose B. whomever B. who agree B. who B. that B. where 4. Have you read the book B. whom B. as B. the price of whose B. who B. from whom
5. American women usually identify their best friend as someone ______ they can talk frequently. 6. Recently I bought a second-hand car
7. Lily, is Helen ______ you want to introduce me to? 8. The professors talked with us about the beautiful schools and the experienced teachers ______ they C. which C. where C. in which D. what D. it D. which
9. This is the only bus ______ goes to the village school. 10. Is there a shop around _______sells China Daily? 11. She was the only one of the girls in our class _______ accepted as candidate for the president of our C. who has been C. when C. which C. whoever C. who agrees D. who have been D. that D the one whose D. no matter who D. which agree
12. She is no longer the sweet little girl ______ she used to be. 13. Is this singer ______ songs you like best? 14. He got angry with _____ was against his opinion. 15. Anyone _____with what I said may raise your hand. 16. That’s the dog ______. A. we’ve been looking after C. what we’ve been looking after A. when B. that B. after which we’ve been looking D. we’ve been taking care for C. what D. as
17. This is the last time ______ I’ll give you a lesson. 18. The family _____ I stayed with in Paris are coming to London.
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定语从句学案 A. whose A. that A. which A. made of A. whose A. that A. getting A. going A. at which A. that A. when A. what A. by which （四）改错 B. which B. by which B. in which B. made from B. in which B. who B. having got B. went B. on that B. in which B. that B. by which B. on which C. what C. which C. among which C. making up of C. of which C. from whom C. being got C. go C. when C. in that C. what C. by that C. for which D. whom D. with which D. one of which D. making of D. of it D. to whom D. to get D. to go D. of which D. when D. as D. / D. on that
19. This is the very knife ______ I used to cut apples yesterday. 20. China has many rivers, _____ the Yangtze River is the longest.. 21. The use they are ______ the waste helps to save a lot of money. 22. That tree, the branches ______ are almost bare, is a very old one. 23. In the dark street, there wasn’t a single person ______ she could turn for help. 24. What is the way Smith thought of ______ enough money to buy the new house? 25. Jack spent as much time as he could ______ over his lessons. 26. The freezing point is the temperature ______ water changes into ice. 27. I am impressed by the fact that he makes good use of every minute _____ he can spare. 28. This is the last time ______ I will write to you. 29. I don’t like the way ______ he spoke to me. 30. The train ______ he was traveling was delayed for more than an hour.
1. Is this museum you visited a few days ago? 2. The girl which is standing next to our teacher is her daughter. 3. He rushed to help the man his car was trapped in the mud. 4. All which is need is supply of oil. 5. This is the best film which I have seen this year. 6. The cake you made it yesterday was very delicious. 7. Do you know the man wrote the letter? 8. Who is the great man who saved my boy? 9. Here are the patients after whom you will look.
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定语从句学案 10. This is all the money with that he can buy a Christmas present for his mother. （五）高考真题回顾 1. We went through a period _____ communications were very difficult in rural areas. (2008 上海) A. which B. whose C. in which D. with which 2. Human facial expressions differ from those of animals in the degree _____ they can be controlled on purpose. (2007 重庆) A. with which B. to which C. of which D. for which 3. Animals suffered at the hands of Man ______ they were destroyed by people to make way for agricultural had to provide food for more people. (2008 江西) A. in which B. for which C. so that D. in that 4. Some children want to challenge themselves by learning a language different from ______ their parents speak at home. (2008 浙江) A. what B. that C. which D. one 5. You can only be sure of _____ you have at present; you cannot be sure of something _____ you might get in the future. (2007 安徽) A. that; what B. what; / C. which; that D. /; that 6. Women _____ drink more than two cups of coffee a day have a greater chance of having heart disease than those _____ don’t. (2006 北京) A. who, / B. /; who C. who, who D. /; / 7. The Beatles _____ many of you are old enough to remember, came from Liverpool. (2006 天津) A. what B. that C. how D. as 8. In an hour, we can travel to places _____ would have taken our ancestors days to reach. (2006 上海) A. where B. when C. which D. what 9. I saw a woman running toward me in the dark. Before I could recognize who she was, she had run back in the direction ________ she had come.（ 2006 重庆卷） A. of which B. by which C. in which D. from which 10. Look out! Don’t get too close to the house ______ roof is under repair. (2006 福建) A. whose B. which C. of which D. that 11. – Mom, what did your doctor say? -- He advised me to live ____ the air is fresher. (2006 四川) A. in where B. in which C. the place where D. where 12. The schools themselves admit that not all children will be successful in the jobs ______ they are being trained. (2005 江西) A. in that B. for that C. in which D. for which 13. The English play ____ my students acted at the New Year ’s party was a great success. (2004 全国) A. for which B. at which C. in which D. on which 14. George Orwell, ____ was Eric Arthur, wrote many political novels and essays. (2004 全国) A. the real name B. what his real name C. his real name D. whose real name 15. The factory produces half a million pairs of shoes every year, 80% ________ are sold abroad. (2004 辽宁) A. of which 定语从句（二） B. which of C. of them D. of that
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定语从句学案 1. 可代替 when, where, why, that 等关系词 e.g. There is no reason _____ ________ (why) we shouldn’t be friends. 2. 介词后面的关系词不能省略。 e.g. Here is the money _____ ______ to buy a piano. 3. that 前不能有介词。 4. 某些在从句中充当时间， 地点或原因状语的 “介词+关系词” 结构可以跟关系副词 when 和 where 互换。 e.g. This is the house ___ which I lived two years ago. =This is the house where I lived two years ago. Do you remember the day ____ which you joined our club? Do you remember the day when you joined our club? 二、关系副词的用法： 关系词 关 系 副 词 when where why 先行词 时间 地点 原因 从句成分 时间状语 地点状语 原因状语 there. This is the house where I was born. I can’t imagine the reason why he turned down my offer. 例句 I will never forget the day when we met 备注 可 用 _______ 代替 可用 in which 代替 可 用 _______ 代替
（一）基本用法 关系副词起连接主句和从句的作用，又在从句中作状语，when, where 和 why 分别表示时间， 地点和原因。 1. when 在从句中作时间状语。常用 on which, in which, at which, during which 等代替。 e.g. April the first is the day when people make fun of others. =April the first is the day _____ which people make fun of others. 2. where 在从句中作地点状语。常可由 in which, on which, at which, on which 等取代。 e.g. This is the house where he lived two years ago. =This is the house ____ which he lived two years ago. 3. why why 在定语从句中作原因状语。可用 for which 代替。why 不可引导非限定性定语从句，此时 可用 for which 代替。 e.g. This is the reason why he went away. =This is the reason ______ which he went away. （二）关系副词常可用“介词+关系代词”的结构改写 这里的关系代词只限于 which 和 whom，例如 ① I will never forget the night when I met you for the first time. =I will never forget the night _____ which I met you for the first time. ② This is the house in which I lived two years ago. =This is the house _______ I lived two years ago.
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定语从句学案 ③ We don’t know the reason for which he suddenly fell ill. =We don’t know the reason _____ he suddenly fell ill. 注意：并不是所有的介词+关系代词的结构都可用关系副词替代。 例如： I am very impressed by the way in which he works. 这里 in which 代表的是 in the way, 在句中作方式状语。只有当介词+关系代词结构作表示时 间、地点和原因的状语时，才能相应地用 when, where 和 why 代替。 （三）如何判断是用关系代词还是关系副词 这本质上取决于关系代词和关系副词在定语从句中充当的成分。前者充当主语、宾语、表语 或定语，后者充当状语。 试比较下面两组句子： ① This is the factory that/which produces radios. This is the factory where radios are produced. 第一句中划线部分在从句中作________，故而应选用关系代词： ② Do you remember the days _____ we spent together? Do you remember the days _____ we worked together? 第一句中关系代词在从句中作________, 而第二句中关系副词作_________. （四）一些需要特殊记忆的关系词的用法 1. I don’t like the way in which he look at people. 当先行词是 way 时，除了 in which，还可以用 that 来引导定语从句。that 还经常省略。又如： Judging from the way ______/______/_____he walked, I believe he was wounded in the leg. 2. Finally came the day when he had to leave his hometown. 当先行词为 time, moment, day 等，并在从句中作状语时，从句也可以用 that 引导，that 也常 省略。又如： ① It was the first time (that) we had stayed up so late. ② The moment (that/when) he sent the mail, John realized what a mistake he had made. ③ She was the only girl I went steady with during the four years (that /when) I was at university. 四、判断关系代词与关系副词的方法： 1. 用关系代词，还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。及物动词后面没有宾语，就必须要 求用关系代词；而不及物动词则要求用关系副词。 判断下列句子的对错 （ ） This is the mountain village where I visited last year. （ ） I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside. （ ） This is the mountain village (which) I visited last year. （ ） I'll never forget the days (which) I spent in the countryside. 2. 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状)，也就能正确选择出关系代词/关系 副词。 例 1. Is this museum ___ you visited a few days age? A. where B. that C. on which D. the one 例 2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held. A. where B. that C. on which
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D. the one
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定语从句学案 关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分，先行词在从句中做主、定、宾语时，选择关系代词 (who, whom, that, which, whose)； 先行词在从句中做状语时， 应选择关系副词 ( where 地点状语， when 时间状语，why 原因状语) 。 五、语法知识拓展 （一）选择适当的关系代词或关系副词把下列句子补充完整。 1. His father died in the year _________ he was born. 2. He is unlikely to find the place _________ he lived forty years ago. 3. Do you remember the day _________ you joined our club? 4. Recently I bought a beautiful vase _______ price was quite reasonable. 5. The reason _______ I came here is to get your help. 6. I got the book in a small bookstore, the name of ______ I cannot remember. 7. I will never forget the day ______ we first met. 8. Is this the factory _______ you once worked for? 9. Is that the reason _______ he gave for his terrible behavior? 10. The kind girl _______ shared her umbrella with me this morning turned out to be my boss. （二）用定语从句合并下列句子 1. Bamboo grows well in these places. It’s warm and wet all year round in these places. _________________________________________________________________________ 2. Shall we go shopping this weekend? I’ll have finished all my work by then. _________________________________________________________________________ 3. Sandy is not a very popular singer, because of his strange way. He dances in a strange way. __________________________________________________________________________ 4. Is there any reason? They don’t agree with each other on anything. __________________________________________________________________________ 5. How can I forget that birthday? I was caught cheating on that day. __________________________________________________________________________ （三）单项填空 1. Do you know the reason A. which A. which 3. Is this the reason A. why A. that A. why Tom didn’t come yesterday? B. why B. where B. for which B. which B. that C. who C. that C. that C. when C. which D. that D. when D. to which D. where D. whom
2. After living in Paris for fifty years he returned to the small town ______ he grew up as a child. she gave for not finishing her homework yesterday?
4. After the war, a new school was put up ______ there had once been a theatre. 5. Do you know the reason ______ she got so angry yesterday? 6. Do you believe the reason ______ he gave for his being late?
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定语从句学案 A. why A. where A. which A. that, when A. when; which A. which A. as 13. We are living in an age A. which A. that A. which A. which A. that A. that eat A. which A. what A. who A. where A. where A. which A. that A. which A. who have B. that B. which B. whose B. when B. when B. is eaten B. that B. which B. whom B. which B. which B. that B. which B. that B. whom have
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B. for which B. which B. / B. what, when B. that; which B. when B. then
C. which C. while C. of which C. when, that C. which; that C. where C. if C. whose C. when C. what C. where C. on which C. we eat C. what C. that C. which C. in which C. in that C. of which C. from that C. how C. who has
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D. it D. when D. by which D. something, that D. when; that D .that D. when D. when D. whose D. who D. how D. at which D. that eats D. as D. where D. that D. at which D. at which D. what D. from which D. as D. whose had
7. He has got himself into a dangerous situation ______ he is likely to lose control over the plane. 8. I don’t like the way _