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【步步高】2015届高中英语外研版(通用)【配套WORD文档】:语法专题三 非谓语动词


专题三
◆非谓语动词的考查要点

非谓语动词

1.动词不定式复习中应注意的几个问题 (1)不定式作表语与“be+to do sth.”的异同。不定式作表语说明主语的内容或性质。 My job is to teach English.(说明内容) be+to do sth.(表示按计划要做的事) He is to go abroa

d. (2)后接不定式作宾语的词语。 下列词语常接不定式作宾语:afford,promise,refuse,expect,hope,learn,offer,wish, want,fail,plan,agree,forget,like,prefer,decide,manage,try,arrange,determine, desire 等。 下列词语后可接“疑问词+不定式”:teach,decide,wonder,show,learn,forget, ask,find out,advise,discuss 等。 (3)如何理解和使用不定式作宾补。 ①动词(短语)see,watch,notice,hear,listen to,observe,feel,taste,smell,make, let,have 等的宾补用动词原形,变被动时要加 to,此时的不定式就是主语补足语。 ②常用不定式作宾补的几种情况: 主语+ask/require/tell/order/force/get/want/like+sb.to do sth. 主语+think/judge/suppose/believe/consider/imagine/feel+sb.+to be/to have done 主语+call on/upon/depend on/wait for/ask for+sb.+to do sth. (4)不定式作定语的特殊用法。 ①下列词语后常接不定式作定语:chance,wish,right,courage,need,promise,time, opportunity,way,the first,the second,the last,the only 等。 ②不定式作定语和所修饰的名词在逻辑上有主谓关系。 There is no one to look after her. ③不定式与被修饰的名词在逻辑上有动宾关系。 She is now looking for a room to live in. (5)不定式作状语的用法。 不定式作状语,在句中主要表示目的、结果、原因等。only to do 表示出人意料的结果。 We hurried to the classroom only to find none there. in order (not) to,so as (not) to 用来引导目的状语;enough...to,so...as to do,such+名 词...as to do 作结果状语。 The girl was so kind as to help the old man off the bus.

I’m not such a fool as to believe that. (6)不定式的完成时的特殊用法。 ①表示不定式中谓语动词发生的动作先于主句的谓语动词发生的动作。 The novel was said to have been published. I regret to have been with you for so many years. seem,appear,be said,be supposed,be believed,be thought,be known,be reported 等动词常用于上面句型。 此外,glad、happy、satisfied、sorry、surprised、disappointed 后也接完成时,但要注意 与一般时的区别。 I’m sorry to keep you waiting for a minute.对不起,请稍等。(说话时还未等) I’m sorry to have kept you waiting.对不起,让你久等了。(说话时已等了很久) ②不定式的完成时还可表示 “ 过去本想做某事但未做 ” 的虚拟语气。 (A)should like to/would like to/would love to+完成时。(B)was/were to+不定式的完成时,表示该做某事或 想做但未实现。(C)expect/hope/mean/promise/suppose/think/want/wish+不定式的完成时,表 示过去未曾实现的愿望。 (7)不定式的省略。 ①同一结构并列由 and 或 or 连接。 I want to finish my homework and go home. I’m really puzzled what to think or say. 特例:To be or not to be,this is a question. It is better to laugh than to cry.(表示对比) ②不定式作表语,其前面的主语从句中含有 do 时,后面的 to 省略。 What he did was lose the game. ③句中含有动词 do 时,but,except,besides,such as 等后面的 to 可省略。 即“前有 do, 后省 to”。 Don’t do anything silly,such as marry him. ④主句含有不定式,后面有 rather than,rather than 后省 to。 ⑤Why not,had better,would rather,can’t but 等词后省 to。 You’d better take it seriously. ⑥多用在同一句或联系紧密的对话中,为了避免重复,作宾语、主补或宾补的不定式再 次出现时, to 后的内容常承前省略(只保留 to 即可)。 但如果承前省略的不定式有助动词 have 或 be 的任何形式,后应该保留原形 have 或 be。 Susan is not what she used to be. —You came late last night. You ought to have finished your homework.

—I know I ought to have. 常见的有:I’d like/love/be happy to。 题组训练 1 用所给动词的适当形式填空 1.It’s important for the figures to be updated(update) regularly. 2. Today we have chat rooms, text messaging, emailing...but we seem to be losing(lose) the art of communicating facetoface. 3.If they win the final tonight,the team are going to tour around the city to be cheered(cheer) by their enthusiastic supporters. 4.The difference in thickness and weight from the earlier version makes the iPad 2 more comfortable to hold(hold). 5.Simon made a big bamboo box to keep(keep) the little sick bird till it could fly. 6.Passengers are permitted to carry(carry) only one piece of hand luggage onto the plane. 7.More TV programs,according to government officials,will be produced to raise(raise) people’s concern over food safety. 8.The ability to express(express) an idea is as important as the idea itself. 2.动名词复习中应注意的几个问题 (1)下列动词后只能接动名词: suggest, finish, avoid, can’t help, mind, enjoy, require, practise, miss,escape,pardon,advise,consider,imagine,keep,appreciate,permit。 (2)下列动词短语后接动名词:leave off,put off,give up,look forward to,feel like,have trouble/difficulty (in),devote to,be/get used to,pay attention to,be fond of,be worth。 (3)介词后要接动名词;what about,how about,be fond of,be good at 等的介词后接动名词。 注意 on/upon doing sth.=as soon as 引导的从句,作此意讲时 on/upon 后也可以接名词。 On his arrival at the station,he found the train had just started. (4)动名词作宾语和动词不定式作宾语的区别: ①begin,start,continue,like,love,dislike,hate,prefer,can’t stand 例句 1.It began to rain./It began raining. 2.It was beginning to snow. 3.I love lying (to lie)on my back. 4.I like listening to music,but today I don’t like to. 5.I don’t prefer to swim in the river now. ②remember,forget,regret,try 解析 1.意思无差别,但谓语动词用进行时时,后面 只跟不定式。 2.表示一种倾向多接动名词作宾语,如果表 示某一特定的或具体的行动,多接不定 式。

例句 1.I remember to meet her at the station. I remember seeing her once somewhere. 2.I forgot giving it to you yesterday. I forgot to tell you about it.Now here it is. 3.I regret not having worked hard. I regret to hear of your sister’s death. 4.Try knocking at the back door. We must try to get everything ready. 5.That will mean flooding some land. I had meant to go on Monday. ③want,require,need

解析 1.remember to do sth.记住要做的事 remember doing sth.回顾过去发生的事 2.forget to do sth.忘记要做的事 forget doing sth.忘记做过的事 3.regret to do sth.对将要做的事抱歉 regret doing sth.对发生过的事后悔 4.try to do sth.设法,试图做某事 try doing sth.试试看,试一试 5.mean to do sth.打算做??,想要做?? mean doing sth.意味着

例句 1.These desks need repairing. These desks need to be repaired. 2.The patient required examining. The patient required to be examined. 题组训练 2 用所给动词的适当形式填空 1.It’s no use complaining(complain) without taking action. 2.Lydia doesn’t feel like studying(study) abroad. Her parents are old. 3.Being exposed(expose) to the sun will do harm to your skin. 4.She is afraid of being taken(take) to the public. 5.Mary’s coming(come) late made her mother angry. 3.现在分词复习中应注意的几个问题

解析

表达意思一样,但用不定式时要用被动形式, 用动名词时用主动形式(表被动意义)。

(1)现在分词在句中作时间、原因、伴随、条件、结果等状语。 ①时间状语(分词前面可加 when,while 等) Hearing the good news,he jumped with great joy. ②原因状语 Not having finished her work in time,the boss fired her. Seeing nobody at home,he decided to leave them a note. ③伴随状语 The girls came in,following their parents.

④结果状语 The poor old man died,leaving nothing to his children. 注意:现在分词作状语的几个特性:①时间性。与谓语动词同时发生,用一般式,如发 生在谓语动作之前时则用完成式 having done。②语态性。与句子主语之间的关系,是主谓 关系或动宾关系。遵循的规则“主动进行,被动完成”。③人称一致性。分词的逻辑主语就 是句子的主语。 (2)现在分词作表语。 主语+be+v.ed 表示被动,主语是人;主语+be+v.ing 表示主动,主语是物。 4.过去分词复习中应注意的几个问题 过去分词作状语,可转换为相应的状语从句或并列分句,用来说明原因、时间、条件、 伴随等。 (1)作原因状语 Tired by the trip,he soon fell asleep. =Because he was tired by the trip,he soon fell asleep. Lost in thought,he almost ran into a car. =As he was lost in thought,he almost ran into a car. (2)作时间状语 Seen from the hill,the city looks like a garden. =When the city is seen from the hill,it looks like a garden. (3)作条件状语 Given more time,I would have worked out the problem. =If I have been given more time,I would have worked out the problem. (4)作伴随状语 The teacher came in,followed by some students. =The teacher came in and (he) was followed by some students. 分词短语作状语时, 通常与主句中的主语在逻辑上一致, 但有时它也可以有自己独立的 逻辑上的主语,这种结构称为独立主格结构。 Her grandfather being ill,she had to stay at home looking after him. 题组训练 3 用所给动词的适当形式填空 1.The island,joined(join) to the mainland by a bridge,is easy to go to. 2.Sit down,Emma.You will only make yourself more tired,keeping(keep) on your feet. 3.The next thing he saw was smoke rising(rise) from behind the house. 4.Look over there—there’s a very long,winding path leading(lead) up to the house.

5.Even the best writers sometimes find themselves lost(lose) for words. 6.Offered(offer) an important role in a new movie,Andy has a chance to become famous. 7.Gathering(gather) around the fire,the tourists danced with the local people. 8. More highways have been built in China, making(make) it much easier for people to travel from one place to another. 9.The players selected(select) from the whole country are expected to bring us honor in this summer game. 10.Lucy has a great sense of humor and always keeps her colleagues amused(amuse) with her stories. ◆语法与写作 根据提示翻译下面的句子 1.我盼望收到你的来信。(用动名词作宾语) I am looking forward to hearing from you. 2.如今违反交通规则和乱扔垃圾并不是不常见,它们对生命和环境造成了严重的危害。(用 动名词 breaking 作主语、现在分词 causing 作状语) (2013· 安徽· 书面表达) (2013· 山东· 写作)

These days,breaking traffic rules and littering are not uncommon,causing serious harm to life and the environment. 3.不容怀疑,和社会上其他工作相比较,清洁工的工作更艰难些。(用 compared with 作状 语) (2013· 广东· 读写任务)

There is no doubt that what a cleaner does is more harder compared with any other jobs in the society. 4.又一次我们在同一地方进行爬山比赛。(用 climbing 作定语) Once again we had a climbing match at the same place. 5.沐浴在阳光下,我们高兴地跳起来欢呼着。(用 bathed 作状语)(2013· 江西· 书面表达) Bathed in the sunshine,we jumped and cheered with joy. ◆语法填空 (2013· 湖南· 书面表达)

A He’s a 40yearold man who looks and acts like a 10yearold boy,but Nicky Freeman could help unlock the secrets of eternal youth.Nicky has a 1.virtually (virtual) unknown condition that sees him age only one year for every four,2.trapping (trap) him forever in the body of a boy. “3.If the average life span is 70,it means Nicky could live to be 280,”says his mother Kayleen,4.who lives in Western Australia.While Nicky may hold the secret to the fountain of youth,5.he has paid a tragic price for his condition.Unable to see or speak,Nicky,who 6.began

(begin) going through puberty(青春期) at 30,lives in a home for disabled adults. Doctors can give his mother very few answers and there is little hope of a cure.Kayleen fears Nicky’s rough entry into the world may have played a key role in the symptoms her eldest child began to exhibit. “During pregnancy,I developed a strong allergic reaction 7.to eggs,” Kayleen,a former nurse,recalls.“If I was in a kitchen where 8.an egg was cracked,my eyes would swell.For the next year and a half,Nicky seemed much like any 9.other baby,but there were two differences that stood out in his mother’s mind 10.from an early age:being incredibly strong and not reaching for toys like other kids.” B The Stand Your Ground law is not yet a reality in several states, where selfdefense against an attacker today could make you the criminal.1.Under many current state laws,if you were to be killed by somebody with a knife or something on the street,selfdefence with any kind of object that could be defined as a deadly weapon,2.primarily (primary) guns and knives could get you—the victim—3.charged (charge) with a crime for using too much force. In April 2005,the state of Florida was the first to pass a Stand Your Ground bill 4.which/that allows a licensed gun owner over age 21,who 5.feels (feel) threatened,to shoot the perpetrator (行凶者) in selfdefense,without trying to first escape.Since then,6.other states have passed similar selfdefense law. The Stand Your Ground selfdefense law allows people to defend themselves with deadly force,even in public places,when 7.they sense a lifethreatening situation 8.for themselves or others.Further,they would not be judged guilty in civil court,even if bystanders were to be injured.9.While/Though/Although it already is legal in most cases to use deadly force against 10.an attacker in your home,the new selfdefense law also causes great concern.


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