Unit 1 Festivals around the world
Learning about language
Read and find the phrases in the text.
回 到… 6.整天
take place in memory of dress up play a trick on lead sb. back to
day and night
7.好象 8.和…玩得开心 9. 期望、期待… 10. 获得独立 11.呈…形状 12. 用…装饰… 13.聚会，聚集
as though / as if have fun with sb. look forward to gain independence in the shape of decorate … with … get together
1. Festivals are meant to celebrate important times of year. mean v. 1) 打算, 意欲 (+to-v) I mean her no harm. Do you mean to go without money? He means to cause trouble. 2) 意谓着; 有...的意义( + that从句 / + v-ing) What does the sentence mean? This new project means that we’ll have no time to go on a trip.
mean to do 打算做… mean doing 意味着... He meant to find a job in Shanghai, but finally he went to Hangzhou. Missing the bus means waiting for another two hours. meaning n. 意义, 意思, 含义 meaningful adj. 意义深长的, 有意义的
Success means working hard.
The sign means that the road is blocked.
What do you mean to do with it?
2. Discuss when they take place, …
take place, happen, break out的比较
take place 指经过安排的事情
break out 灾难、疾病、战争等突然爆发
The World War ________ broke outin 1914.
The football match will _________ take place tomorrow. happenedlast night. A terrible traffic accident ________
3. Most ancient festivals would celebrate the end of the cold weather, planting in spring and harvest in autumn. 1）本句中的the end of the cold weather， planting in spring和 harvest in autumn均作 celebrate的宾语。? 2）would用在此处表示过去的习惯、习性、 倾向等，意思是“过去常常……‖，常与often, frequently, sometimes, for hours等连用，且动 词常用终止性的。
1) will（would的现在时）可以表示现在或 当前的习惯性、经常性、倾向性，常译 成“惯于、总是”。如：? He will sit for hours reading.?? 2) used to 也表示“过去常常”， 但其隐含 义为 “过去常常做某事，而现在已经不 这么做了”。 I used to get up early in the morning when I was still a high school student.
4. At that time people would starve if food … starve v. (1) 挨饿， 饿死 The explorers starved to death in the desert. (2) 缺乏， 渴望获得某事物(+for / + to-v) The homeless children were starving for love. (3) 感觉饿 When will the dinner be ready? I’m starving. starvation n. 挨饿；饥饿 die of starvation 饿死
5. … should go to clean graves and light incense in memory of their ancestors. in memory of sb.作为某人的纪念, 纪念某人 ( = to the memory of sb. ) They will build a monument in memory of the national hero. We named the lake Rebecca in memory of her. The Dragon Boat Festival is to the memory of Qu Yuan.
in memory of短语中 memory 前不用冠 词，类似结构的词组还有： in honor of 纪念…… in front of 在…… 前面 in place of 代替…… in possession of 拥有, 持有…… in need of 需要…… in favor of 赞同 / 有利于……
1). My sister was against my suggestion A it. (2006 陕 while my brother was ______ 西卷) A. in favour of B. in memory of C. in honour of D. in search of 2).为了纪念那些勇敢的消防战士，一部 电影即将开拍。(memory) (2009 上海) A film will be made / shot in memory of those brave fire fighters.
6. …, people eat food in the shape of skulls and cakes … in the shape of 呈现某种形状, 以某种形式
The roses are placed in the shape of heart. The end of the performance show is in the shape of Happy New Year. in the form of 用?的形式 in the name of 以?的名义，凭?；假 借?的名义
7. … they can dress up and go to their ... dress up 穿上盛装, 打扮 Don’t bother to dress up; come as you are. She dressed up in Elizabethan costume for the fancy-dress ball. Gates dressed up as Father Christmas. Most people liked to dress up for Spring Festival.
dress作及物动词时, 不接clothes之类的表示 衣服的名词, 而是接表示人的句词或代词, 意 思是“给?穿衣服”。当表示自己穿衣服时, 则用反身代词。 如： Wake up children and dress them. dress的过去分词常用来构成get dressed与be dressed短语, 前者表示动态, 后者表示静态, 穿 何种衣服, 则用介词in。 如: Harry up and get dressed. The girl was dressed in red.
动词dress的其他用法： dress sb. 给某人穿衣 dress oneself 给自己穿衣服 dress in 穿…衣服 ? She dressed her son in uniform in a hurry because he couldn’t dress himself.??
dress与put on, wear，have on的区别? dress表动作，意思是“(给自己或帮别人)穿衣 服”，可单独用作不及物动词，接宾语要用表 示人的名词、代词或反身代词。? put on表动作，意思是“穿上、戴上”，其宾 语是衣服、鞋、帽、手套、袜子、眼镜等。? wear表状态，意思是“穿着、戴着”，除了接 普通衣饰类，还可指佩戴手表、首饰、徽章、 花；以及留发型、胡须的长短等，含义最广。 have on表状态且是静态，意思是“穿着、戴 着”，多用于口语，是比较普通的用语，不用 于进行时。
用dress / wear / put on / have on填空。
have 1) It’s autumn. But the trees still ______ leaves ______. on 2) She was __________ dressed in her brother’s clothes. 3) She ______ wore an angry expression. put on his coat and went out. 4) He __________
8. … ho helped gain India’s independence from Britain. gain v. 得到；获得；增加 He has gained rich experience in these years. The singer is gaining in popularity. Our army gained the battle. I gained five pounds in a week.
gain, acquire, achieve, achieve＆ obtain
gain 指通过较大努力获得某种利益或好处；亦可指军 事上的武力夺取等。 acquire 多指经过努力逐步获得才能、知识、习惯等， 也可用于对财物等的获得。 Reading and communicating are both fast ways to acquire a language.
The movie star has achieved success and wealth. obtain用于正式语体中。 He obtained the house with a bank loan.
用 gain, acquire, earn, achieve的适当 形式填空。
achieved success and 1) The movie star ________ wealth. earned a lot of praise from the public. 2) He _______ 3) I'm new in the job but I'm already gaining ______ experience. acquire 4) I took on it as an opportunity to ______ fresh skills.
You are old enough to _____ D your own living. (2011 辽宁) A. win B. gain C. take D. earn 【解析】考察动词辨析。earn one’s living 谋生，win 赢得，gain 获得； take 拿，取。
9. look forward to 盼望；期待 这个短语里的to是介词，后面接名词、代词或 动名词做宾语。 We look forward to the return of spring. I look forward to staying alone in the house.
这类动词短语还有： pay attention to, lead to, stick to, devote to, be / get / become used to, prefer… to…, get down to
1). 我们盼望能参加下星期举行的艺术节开 幕式。(look forward to) (2004上海春考） We are looking forward to taking part in the opening ceremonial of the art festival to be held next week. 2). We’ve just moved into a bigger house C it. (2010 and there’s a lot to do. Let’s ____ 福建) A. keep up with B. do away with C. get down to D. look forward to
10. as though = as if 好象， 仿佛， 似乎 as though / as if引导的句子如果表示很可能的 事实，就用陈述语气。 It looks as though / as if it is going to rain.
as if / as though引导的句子如果表示不太真实、 有疑问的事情，后面要接虚拟语气。as if / as though引导的从句所用的时态比前面真实句所 用的时态倒退一个时态。 He behaved as though nothing had happened. Susan is walking slowly as though she were tired.
构成形容词的后缀分两大类。一类是加到名词 上；另一类是加到动词上。 ㈠加到名词上的后缀主要有： ① -y： bloody, dirty, healthy, muddy ② -ly： costly, friendly, lovely, orderly, timely ③ -ful： careful, faithful, helpful, peaceful ④ -less： careless, harmless, senseless, useless ⑤ -ous /-ious： dangerous; courageous, envious, mysterious
⑥ -al /-tal /-ial /-tial： accidental, horizontal, colonial, influential ⑦ -ic /-etic /-atic： artistic, sympathetic, systematic ⑧ -ish： childish, foolish, selfish ⑨ -like： life-like, business-like, war-like ⑩ -ed /-en： skilled, horned, golden, wooden
㈡加到动词上的后缀有： ① -ent /-ant: dependent, different, observant, pleasant ② -able /-ible: agreeable, comfortable, defensible, sensible ③ -ive /-tive /-ative /-itive， active, attentive, imaginative, sensitive ④ -ed /-en: advanced, noted, stolen, swollen ⑤ -ing: annoying, disgusting, entertaining
名词后缀 -ment, -t, -ture, -ion/-ition, -al, -ance, -ent, er, -ant 等，这些名词后缀都要加到适当的动词 上。如：arrangement, restraint, fixture, celebration, extension, competition, renewal, assistance, resident, exporter, attendant。 -ness, -y/-ty/-ity, -th, -ce/-cy 等，可以加到 适当的形容词上。如： darkness, kindness, honesty, loyalty, simplicity, truth, warmth, importance, absence, efficiency
Discovering useful words and expressions
1 Which of these words can become adjectives with the –ous or –al ending? Which can become nouns with the –(a)tion ending? Choose the correct ending for each word then write the new word. Use the dictionary to help you.
religion religious danger dangerous
production education celebration prediction
humour humourous produce courage courageous educate culture cultural nation national celebrate predict
2 Complete the passage below with the words and expressions in the box. as though, belief, celebration, Christians, custom, have fun with, origin, religious
Many people think that Christmas is a western celebration __________, but in fact it is really a worldwide holiday. Christmas actually as a ________ religious festival Christians around the world. Its celebrated by _________ ______ origin is around the 3rd or 4th century AD, custom of remembering Jesus’ birth when the _______ on December 25th first started. Today, of course, as though it many people celebrate Christmas __________ have fun with family, were just a holiday to ______________ belief rather than a holiday about a _______.
3 Complete each of the sentence with a suitable word or phrase from the box in its correct form. custom, admire, feast, harvest, trick, belief, starve, gather, gain, look forward to
1. Don’t _______________the look forward to day you stop suffering, because when it comes you know you’ll be dead. –Tennessee Williams 2. A dog _________ starving at his master’s gate predicts the ruin of the state. – William Blake 3. I would rather have a mind opened by wonder than one closed by ________. custom – Gerry Spence
4. ______ Gather you rosebuds while you may, old time is still a-flying, and this same flower that smiles today, tomorrow will be dying. – Robert Herrick 5. However big the fool, there is always admire him. a bigger fool to ________ – Nicolas Boileau-Despreaux 6. ______, Belief then, is the great guide of human life. – David Hume
7. Other people’s ________ harvests are always
the best _________, harvests but one’s own children are always the best children. –Unknown 8. There is no ______ feast on earth does not end in parting. –Unknown
9. Everyone has some ______ tricks they can do, but each has his own way of doing them. –Unknown gain ; 10. Those who can lose shall _____ those who wish for _____shall lose. gain --Unknown
There are things that must be done That are not yet begun Things that I must do When I want to be with you Although we’re far apart You’re with me in my heart No one else will do I just want to be with you I want to be with you Can’t you hear me? I need you near me I want to be with you I need you near me, my love
The two of us are one Mother of my son No one else will do I just want to be with you
I want to be with you Can you hear me? I need you near me I want to be with you I need you near me, my love
The BONZO DOG BAND are a band created by a group of British art-school denizens of the 1960s. They combined elements of music hall, trad jazz, psychedelic rock, and avant-garde art.
Read the text again and pay attention to
modal verbs like may, might, will, would,
can, could, shall, should and must.
1. 情态动词有一定的意义，表示或暗示某种情绪或 态度，表示可能、建议、愿望、必要、允许、能 力等。 2. 情态动词没有人称和数的变化，即不随主语的不 同而变化。 3. 情态动词不能独立使用，必须和实义动词一起构 成谓语。 4. 情态动词除ought和have外，后面只能接不带to的 不定式。 5. 情态动词没有非谓语形式，即没有不定式、分词 等形式。
只作情态动词的: can/could, may/might,
ought to, must
可情态可实义的: need, dare/dared 可情态可助动词的: shall/should,
相当于情态动词的: have to, used to
1. must, can’t 1) must 表示必须、必要, must表示主观多一些 而have to则表示客观多一些。回答must引出 的问句时, 如果是否定的回答, 不能用mustn’t, 而要用needn’t或don’t have to。如： — Must we hand in our exercise books today? — Yes, you must. (No, you don’t have to.) 2) can’t在口语中代替mustn’t时，表示禁止 或不准。如: You can’t play football in the street.
3) must 表示推测时, 只能用于肯定句。 There must be something wrong with the computer. 这个电脑肯定出了问题。 You have worked hard all day. You must be tired.你努力学了一整天了，一定累了吧。 4) must +be doing/do 表示对现在的动作进行 肯定推测。如: 他现在一定在看小说。 He must be reading novels now. They have bought a new car. They must have a lot of money. 他们买了一辆新车, 他们一定很有钱。
5) must +have done 表示对过去发生的事情
They are playing basketball, they must have
finished their homework.
The road is wet. It must have rained last night.
2. can, could 1) can /could 表示推测时, 只能用在否定句 或疑问句中。 It’s so late. Can Tom be reading? 这么晚了, 汤姆还在看书吗？ It can’t be Mary. She has fallen ill. 这个人不可能是玛丽, 她生病了。 She couldn’t be telling lies. 她不可能在说谎。
2) can/could have done 对过去发生行为的可能
I saw him just now so he couldn’t have gone
The door was locked. She couldn’t have been at home.
3) can/could have done “本可以, 本来可能 已经” 用于肯定句中, 表示对过去发生的事情做出 的判断。 你本来可以考的更好。 You could have had a better mark.
3. may/might 1) may/might表示推测时, 只能用于陈述句, 表示对现在或将来要发生的动作把握不大。 她们明天可能会到这里来。 They may come here tomorrow.
They may be still waiting for us.
2) might 可用于指过去的行为或者表示可能性 更小。 他也许在作功课吧。 He might be doing his homework now. 我问他我是否可以离开。 I asked him if I might leave. I asked him ―May I leave now?‖
3) might/may have done, 表示对过去发生的动作
他可能去医务室了。 He may have gone to the clinic. 他可能已经从报纸上知道这个消息了。 He might have read about the news in the newspaper.
Will /Would you do…? 表请求, 意志, 愿望, 决心。 would 表过去反复发生的动作或某种倾向 “总是，总要” used to 表过去常常(现在已没有这种习惯) ―过去常常” used to 可与状态动词连用, would不可以 e.g. He used to be a quiet boy. ( √ ) He would be a quiet boy. ( × )
1) 表示请求、建议等, would比will委婉 客气。 Would you pass me the book? 2) 表示意志、愿望和决心。如： I will never do that again. They asked if we would do that again.
5. shall, should 1) 在一、三人称的疑问句中, shall用来 询问对方的意愿。如： Shall we begin our lesson? When shall he be able to leave the hospital? 2) 用于二、三人称的陈述句中, 表说话人 命令、警告、允诺等口吻。如：
He shall have the book when I finish reading. You shall do as I say. 3) should表示劝告、建议、命令, 其同义 词是 ought to; 在疑问句中, 通常用 should 代替 ought to。如： You should go to class right away.
4) should/ought to have done 过去应该
— You should have written with a pen,
not a pencil. — Yes, I know I ought to have, but I had no pen to write with.
5) should / ought not to have done
过去不应该做的事情却做了, 表责备、 悔恨情感。如： I was really anxious about you. You shouldn’t have left home without a word.
I’m not feeling well in the stomach, I shouldn’t have eaten so much fried chicken just now. 6) needn’t have done 过去本不必做的 事情实际上却做了。如： You needn’t have told him that.
1. When you are very sure of something, you use must in positive sentences and cannot or can’t in negative sentences. e.g. You must be Jeanne. I’m Mathilde Loisel. We used to know each other very well. It can’t be true! I don’t believe it. 2. When you are quite sure about something, you use can. e.g. Attending a ball can be exciting.
3. When you think that something is possible, but you are not very sure, you use could, may or might. e.g. You could borrow some jewelery from your friend Jeanne, who is married to a rich man.
You may not know that the necklace I returned
is not the one that I had borrowed.
Don’t you have a friend who might lend you
Practice 2:表示推测——情态动词的重要用法 1. You must be Mr Smith----I was told to expect you here. 2. He must have known what we wanted. 3. We may have read the same report. 4. He can’t have slept through all that noise. 5. There’s someone outside----who can it be? 6. What can they be doing? 7. These pills might help to cure your disease. 8. You could be right, I suppose.
情态动词 肯定的推测 对将来 + V. 常见must be + V. 对现在 对过去 + V. + have done + be doing
+ V. + have done + be doing 可以用not表示“可能不” + V. + be doing + V. + be doing + have done + have done
+V. + V.
Practice 3: Fill in the blanks.
1. I don’t know where she is, she _______ may be in Wuhan. must be marking 2. At this moment, our teacher ________________ our exam papers. 这时, 我们老师想必在批改试卷。 3. The road is wet. It ________________ must have rained last night. (rain) 4. Your mother ______________________ must have been looking for you. 你妈妈一定一直在找你。
5. Philip ________________________ may (might) have been hurt seriously in
the car accident.
6. ---Linda has gone to work, but her bicycle is
still here. may (might) have gone (go) by bus. ---She _____________________
can’t have found his car, for he came 7. Mike ________________ to work by bus this morning. 迈克一定还没有找回他的车, 因为早上他是 坐公共汽车来上班的。
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1. ─ _____ you interrupt now? Can’t you see I’m on the phone? ─ Sorry Sir, but it’s urgent. （2012重庆） A. Can B. Should C. Must D. Would 答案：C 解析：句意“—你现在一定要打断我吗? 难 道你不能看到我在打电话吗? —对不起先 生,事情很急” 。根据语境结合选项的词义， C选项符合题意。
2. One of our rules is that every student _____ wear school uniform while at school. (2012辽宁) A. might B. could C. shall D. will
答案：C 解析：shall用于第二、第三人称表示说话 人给对方命令、警告、允诺或威胁。这儿 是说根据学校规定，学生在校时都必须要 穿校服。
3. I got close enough to hear them speaking Chinese, and I said ―Ni Hao,‖ just as I _____ do in China. （2012四川） A. must B. might C. can D. should
解析：本题考查情态动词。句意为：我靠 他们足够的近，以听见他们说汉语，而且 我会像我在中国可能做的那样说“你好”。 might表示“可能”。故选B。
4. I ______ thank you too much for all your help to my son while we were away from home. (2012陕西) A. won’t B. can’t C. can D. will 答案： B 解析：考查情态动词。所填情态动词与 too 构成固定句型can’t / couldn’t … too …， 意思是“再……都不为过”， 故选B。
5. — Shall I inform him of the change of the schedule right now? — I am afraid you _______, in case he comes late for the meeting. （2011 福建） A. will B. must C. may D. can 答案：B 解析：根据下句后半部分“以免他开会迟 到”，可知是告诉上句说话人“你必须立刻 告诉”，故答案为B。本句的意思是：--- 我 应该立刻通知他安排的变化吗？--- 恐怕你 得立刻告诉他，以免他开会迟到。
6. — I don’t really like James. Why did you invite him? — Don’t worry. He come. He said he wasn’t certain what his plans were. (2011 北京) A. must not B. need not C. would not D. might not 答案：D 解析：根据语境“他说他不太确定他的计划 是什么”可知 “他可能不会来”。must not―不准”；need not―不必”；would not―不会”；might not―可能不”。
7. Jack described his father, who ____ a brave boy many years ago, as a strong– willed man. （2010 安徽卷） A. would be B. would have been C. must be D. must have been 答案：D 解析：句意为“杰克把他的父亲描述为一 个意志坚强的人，他的父亲多年前肯定很 勇敢”用must have been表示对过去事情 的肯定推测。
8. You _____ buy a gift, but you can if you want to. （2010 湖南卷） A. must B. mustn't C. have to D. don't have to 答案：D 解析：don’t have to 意为“没有必要”， 符合语境，句意为：“你没有必要买礼 物，但如果你想买的话，你也可以买。”
9. I have told you the truth. ______ I keep repeating it? （2010 江西卷） A. Must B. Can C. May D. Will 答案：A 解析： must 必须, 一定 can 可以, 能够， may 也许，will 意愿, 倾向性动作。前半句 说我告诉你事实了, 这里用的是现在完成 时, 表示过去的动作对现在造成了影响, 既 然我已经说了, 我还必须重复一遍吗？
10. I_______ have watched that movie — it’ll give me horrible dreams. （2010山 东卷） A. shouldn’t B. needn’t C. couldn’t D. mustn’t 答案：A 解析：句意应为“我本来不应该看那部电 影的----它会使我做噩梦的。”表示“本 来不应该做而做了某事”用shouldn’t have done, 所以A项正确。
11.(10安徽32) Jack described his father, D who _______a brave boy many years ago, as a strong–willed man A. would be C. must be B. would have been D. must have been
D 12. (10湖南23) You ______ buy a gift, but
you can if you want to.
A. must C. have to B. mustn’t D. don’t have to
13. (10江西23) I have told you the truth. ______ A I keep repeating it? A. Must B. Can C. May D. Will
14. Some people who don’t like to talk
much are not necessarily shy; they ___ B
just be quiet people. (2009安徽卷) A. must C. should B. may D. would
15. One of the few things you ____ D say
about English people with certainty is that they talk a lot about the weather. (2009北京卷) A. need C. should B. must D. can
16. He did not regret saying what he did C it differently. but felt that he _____ (2009江苏卷) A. could express B. would express C. could have expressed D. must have expressed
17. — It’s the office! So you _____ A know eating is not allowed here. — Oh, sorry. (2009湖南卷) A. must B. will C. may D. need 18. What do you mean, there are only ten tickets? There _______ A be twelve. (2009 全国卷I) A. should B. would C. will D. shall
19. I can’t leave. She told me that I _____ B stay here until she comes back. (2009 全国卷II) A. can B. must C. will D. may 20. He must be helping the old man to water the flowers, _______? A (2009 陕西卷) A. is he B. isn’t he C. must he D. mustn’t he
21. It ____ C have been Tom that parked the car here, as he is the only one with a car. (2009上海卷) A. may C. must B. can D. should
22. ---- Will you go skating with me this winter vacation? ---- It _____ B . (2002上海) A. all depended B. all depends C. is all depended D. is all depending 解析: 答案B。It all depends 是“不确定”、 “看情况”的意思。
23. I failed in the final examination last term and only then _____ D the importance of studies. (2004重庆 ) A. I realized B. I had realized C. had I realized D. did I realize
解析: 答案为D. 句首为“only + 副词”时, 句子 要用部分倒装语序; 根据语境应为一般过去 时态。
24. ---- I would never come to this restaurant again. The food is terrible! ---- _______. ( 2004全国 ) B A. Nor am I B. Neither would I C. Same with me D. So do I 答案B。第一个句子使用了would, 用neither 表示附和的意义时, 助动词应与上文一致。
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Choose the best answers.
1. As he had heart attack, he was told that he ____ C continue the work. A. needn't B. may not C. mustn't D. can't 2. An Englishman who ____ B not speak Italian was once traveling in Italy. A. must B. could C. may D. might 3. I ____ B like to make a suggestion. A. could B. would C. must D. might 4. I know things are hard with you, but you ____ C try to get over the difficulties. A. can B. may C. must D. ought
5. We hope that as many people as possible D _____ join us for the picnic tomorrow. A. may B. must C. should D. can 6. — I think I’ll give Bob a ring. D You haven’t been in touch —You _____. with him for ages. A. will B. may C. would D. should 7. — Could I have a word with you, Mum? B — Oh dear, if you ______. A. can B. must C. may D. should
8. It is usually warm in my hometown in March, but it _____ B be rather cold sometimes. A. must B. can C. should D. would 9. You don’t have to know the name of the author to find a book. You _____ C find the book by the title. A. must B. need C. can D. would B sound like a simple task, 10. Although this ____ great care is needed. A. must B. may C. shall D. should
11. You ______ B be hungry already — you had lunch only two hours ago! A. wouldn’t B. can’t C. mustn’t D. needn’t 12. According to the air traffic rules, you ___ D switch off your mobile phone before boarding. A. may B. can C. would D. should A have left school, for her bike is 13. She ______ still here. A. can’t B. wouldn’t C. shouldn’t D. mustn’t
Complete the following sentences using modal verbs.
1. You’ve been working all day. You ______ must be very tired. can’t be Lisa. She’s 2. I wonder who that is. It _____ in the library at this time. 3. It is a long time since we met last time. You should _____ come and see us more often. 4. I haven’t decided where I’m going for my may go to Australia. holidays. I _____
5. My father’s birthday is coming. What shall I get him? _____ will 6. Why don’t you try on this dress? It _______ look nice on you. 7. --- Who was the man talking with your teacher? might be her brother. --- I’m not sure. It ______ 8. I don’t know when the guests be here. They will / could arrive at any time. _________
1. Practise of WB P42 Ex. 1, Ex 2 and Ex 3. 2. Please find out 10 sentences with modal
verbs, and try to get their meanings.