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M3U2 Grammar and usage

Read the explanation and speak out the word it explains.

a feeling of worry, esp. one that is shared n. 关心;忧虑 by many people to involve sb., to be about sth.; to cause worry to s

omeone; to take an interest in sth. concern vt. 涉及;使担忧;对……感兴趣 to forbid (= refuse to allow), esp. officially; an official order that prevents sth. from happening ban vt. & n. 禁止;取缔

not mixed with anything else; with nothing added pure adj. 纯的,纯净的,纯粹的 being the only existing one of its type or, more generally, unusual or special in some unique way adj. 独特的 to reach, enter or use sth. vt. 进入;使用 a way of entering or reaching a place; the access opportunity or right to use sth. n. 通道;(使用的)机会,权利

a letter, number or other mark or sign used in writing or printing; a person represented in a film, play or story; the particular combination of qualities in a person or place that makes them different character from others n. (书写或印刷)文字,符号;人物;性格 the loud, rough noise that a dog and some other animals make; (of a dog) to make a loud rough noise n. & vt. (狗)叫 bark connected with someone's race racial adj. 人种的,种族的

Revise the definition of a noun clause, and go through ‘English and its history’ and find as many noun clauses as you can.

Eg. That is why English has so many difficult rules that confuse people. The question of whether English will keep on changing in the future is easy to answer. It is certain that this process will continue.

Part 1:
Noun clauses introduced by question words

Join each pair of sentences
Where does a person come from? This will affect his or her style of speech.

Where a person comes from will affect his or her style of speech.

Join each pair of sentences
Why does English have such strange rules? You can begin to see it!

You can begin to see why English has such strange rules!

Join each pair of sentences
Why does English have so many difficult rules that confuse people? That is the reason.

That is why English has so many difficult rules that confuse people.

We can use a question word to introduce a noun clause. The clause can function as the subject, object or predicative of the sentence.

Where a person comes from will affect his or her style of speech. (subject) You can begin to see why English has such strange rules! (object) That is why English has so many difficult rules that confuse people. (predicative)

In a noun clause that is introduced by a question word, we change the word order into that of a statement.
What are people from the north saying? People from the south find it difficult to understand.

People from the south find it difficult to understand what people from the north are saying.

We cannot leave out the question words in noun clauses.

Decide what sentence element each underlined noun clause is in its sentence. (P28)
I always wondered when IO would get the English novel my parents had promised to give me. I finally got it today. What I alwaysS dreamt of has come true. It is really exciting!

The difficulty is howP I’m going to read the book without a dictionary. Looking up every new word will certainly be a waste of time. Miss Cheng always told us to guess the meanings of new words from O the context. I used to wonder why we should do this. I understand now, but the P question is what I should do if I cannot guess the meanings. I must talk to Miss Cheng about this tomorrow.

Fill in the blanks with suitable question words. (P29) ‘Borrowed words’ — good or bad? Languages keep borrowing words from other languages. This is one of the reasons why languages keep changing almost _____ every day. ______ What we should do about the increasing number of ‘borrowed words’ in our vocabulary is something that deserves careful thought. In England nowadays, there is no one to decide ______ which new words should be accepted into the language.

A standard was first set for the English why language by King Henry VII. That is ____ we have the phrase ‘the King’s English’. King Henry VII was a poet who showed great concern for language. He set a standard for _____ how people were to speak English, but today ______ who can make a decision like that is anyone’s guess! However, there is an organization to make decisions like this in France. _____ How French will be used is decided by a government department.

At one time the department banned some ‘borrowed words’ from English, including ‘weekend’ and ‘e-mail’. French people supported this because they wanted to keep their language pure and unique. Today, the spread of ‘borrowed words’ is mostly due to the easily accessed Internet and television programmes from across the world. Some people are optimistic and believe that this process is good, while others worry that it may result in language pollution. ______ Which opinion you agree with is up to you.

Part 2:
Preparatory subject it

Empty subject

It is certain that this process will continue, and people will keep inventing new words and new ways of saying things.
A noun clause as the subject of a sentence

The preparatory subject it is often used to balance the sentence with a long subject. The preparatory subject it acts as its grammatical subject and the real subject is at the end of the sentence.

It is important for us to learn English well today.
when the subject is a to infinitive
preparatory subject

It is important that we should learn English well today.
when we use a noun clause as the subject of a sentence

It is no use wasting your time reading such books all day.
when the subject is a verb-ing form

He appears to be proud of his daughter. It appears that he is proud of his daughter. She turns out to be my cousin. It turns out that she is my cousin.
It can also be used before seem, appear, happen, turn out and prove as the preparatory subject of a sentence.

It is a good idea to make an official statement about the incident. Making an official statement about the incident is a good idea.
We usually use the preparatory subject it with a clause or to infinitive (preferable), but with the verb-ing form we prefer the real subject at the beginning.

Finish Part A on page 31. Answers (2) It requires a good understanding of their behaviour to know what they mean. (3) It always puzzles me why my dog barks in certain ways. (4) it won’t be difficult to buy a machine like this

Finish Part B on page 31. Answers 2. It happens that several racial groups live in Singapore. 3. It is fun to hear different people speaking different languages all at the same time. 4. It is certain that I’ll see you next week.

1. The following question words can be used to introduce noun clauses: what, which, who/whom, whose, when, _________________________________ where, why and how ____________________. 2. The word order in a noun clause that is introduced by a question word is _______________. of a statement 3. Can we leave out the question words in noun clauses?

Individual activity

Quiz I: Multiple choice. 1. — Could you do me a favor? — It depends on ____ it is. A. which B. whichever C. what D. whatever 2. — I think it’s going to be a big problem. — Yes, it could be. — I wonder ____ we can do about it. A. if B. how C. what D. that

3. ____ we can’t get seems better than ____ we have. A. What; what B. What; that C. That; that D. That; what
4. _______ is a fact that English is being accepted as an international language. A. There B. This C. That D. It

5. Choosing the right dictionary depends on ______ you want to use it for. (2007江苏) A. what B. why C. how D. whether 6. Could I speak to _________ is in charge of International Sales, please? (2007山东) A. anyone B. someone C. whoever D. no matter who

7. ____ matters most in learning English is enough practice. (2007全国II) A. What B. Why C. Where D. Which 8. _____ he referred to in his article was unknown to the general reader. (2007上海) A. That B. What C. Whether D. Where

9. You can only be sure of ________ you

have at present; you cannot be sure of
something _____ you might get in the future. (2007安徽) A. that; what C. which; that B. what; / D. /; that

10. ____ parents say and do has a lifelong effect on their children. (2007陕西) A. That B. Which C. What D. As 11. It is none of your business ______ other people think about you. Believe yourself. (2007福建) A. how B. what C. which D. when

12. By improving reading skills, you can read faster and understand more of ______ you read. (2007上海春) A. that B. what C. which D. whether 13. Why not try your luck downtown, Bob? That’s ______ the best jobs are. (2007浙江) A. where B. what C. when D. why

14. The seaside here draws a lot of tourists every summer. Warm sunshine and soft sands make ____ it is. (2007天津) A. what B. which C. how D. where 15. As his best friend, I can make accurate guesses about _____ he will do or think. (2008上海) A. what B. which C. whom D. that

16. It has been proved ______ eating vegetables in childhood helps to protect you against serious illnesses in later life. (2008上海) A. if B. because C. when D. that 17. The last time we had great fun was _____ we were visiting the Water Park. (2008天津) A. where B. how C. when D. why

18. People in Chongqing are proud of ______ they have achieved in the past ten years. (2008重庆) A. that B. which C. what D. how 19. ______ was most important to her, she told me, was her family. (2008山东) A. It B. This C. What D. As

20. It is obvious to the students ______ they should get well prepared for their future. (2009天津) A. as B. which C. whether D. that 21. _____ some people regard as a drawback is seen as a plus by many others. (2010北京) A. Whether B. What C. That D. How

22. It is uncertain _____ side effect the

medicine will bring about, although
about two thousand patients have

taken it. (2010浙江)
A. that C. how B. what D. whether

23. We haven’t discussed yet _______ we are going to place our new furniture. (2010全国I) A. that B. which C. what D. where 24. Cindy shut the door heavily and burst into tears. No one in the office knew _____ she was so angry. (2010湖南) A. where B. whether C. that D. why

25. — I prefer shutting myself in and listening to music all day on Sundays. — That’s _______ I don’t agree. You should have a more active life. (2010 江苏) A. where B. how C. when D. what

26. ___ Barbara Jones offers to her fans is honesty and happiness. (2011北京) A. Which B. What C. That D. Whom 27. Before a problem can be solved, it must be obvious _____ the problem itself is. (2011湖南) A. what B. that C. which D. why

Quiz II: Translation. he was born (他出生在何地) 1. Where _________________ has not been found. will win the match (谁会赢得比 2. Who _____________________ 赛) is still unknown. comes (谁来都) is welcome. 3. Whoever ______________ Why the person was murdered (那个 4. ___________________________ 人为什么被谋杀) is still unknown. It is a pity (that) (真遗憾) the weather 5. _______________ isn’t good for our outing today.

6. I asked them ____________________ where they learned to
paint (他们在哪学习的绘画). ______

7. Could you tell me __________________ what you will choose
(选择哪个) as a gift for your mother?

how I can get to the 8. Can you tell me ___________________
_____________ railway station (怎么去火车站)? 9. _____________________ It is not yet decided who (还没决定谁) will do that job.

Finish Part C1 and Part C2 on page 100.



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