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unit4 grammar 虚拟语气


虚拟语气

1) 概念 虚拟语气用来表示说话人的主观愿望或假 想,所说的是一个条件,不一定是事实,或 与事实相反。 2) 在条件句中的应用 条件句可分为两类,一类为真实条件句, 一类为非真实条件句。非真实条件句表示的 是假设的或实际可能性不大的情况,故采用 虚拟语气。

在条件状语从句中,表示与事实相反的条件和结果。 1) 与现在事

实相反: ? If 主语 …, 主语 should (would +V原 were 2)与过去事实相反: could, might) V-ed ? If 主语 ,主语 +have Ved should (would had Ved 3)与将来事实相反: could, might) ? If 主语 …, 主语 +V原
should were to did should (would could, might)

虚拟语气假设条件句型注意点: 1.假设条件从句谓语动词发生的时间与主句 所假设的谓语动词不一致,叫做错综条件 虚拟语气。主句和从句的谓语动词要依照 假设的时间而定。 If the weather had been finer, the crops would be growing still better. If you had followed the teacher’s advice, you wouldn’t be in the hospital.

2.假设条件虚拟倒装。 条件从句中有should, were, had三个助动词可以把if省略,并将 这三个词提至句首。 If I were you, I would give it up. Were I you, I would give it up.

If I had had time, I would have run round that lake again. Had I had time, I would have run round that lake again. If there should be a flood, what should we do? Should there be a flood, what should we do?

注意: 在虚拟语气的从句中,动词'be'的过去时态一律用 "were",不用was, 即在从句中be用were代替。 If I were you, I would go to look for him. 如果我是你,就会去找他。 If he were here, everything would be all right. 如果他在这儿,一切都会好的。

典型例题 _____ to do the work, I should do it some other day. A. If were IB. I were C. Were I D. Was I

在虚拟条件状语中如果有were, should, had这三个词主语提前, 变成 were, should, had +主语的形式。但要注意,在虚拟条件状语从句 中,省略连词的倒装形式的句首不能用动词的缩略形式。如我们可 说 Were I not to do., 而不能说 Weren't I to do.

1. Had you listened to the doctor, you _________ all right now. A. are B. were C. would be D. would have been 2. __________ any change about the date, please tell me immediately. A. Will there be B. Should there be C. There will be D. There should be 3. __________ today, he would get there by Friday. A. Would he leave B. Was he leaving C. Were he to leave D. If he leave

4. Should it rain, the crops _____ . A. would be saved B. would have been saved C. will be saved D. had been saved 5. You _____ come earlier. The bus left a moment ago. A.would B. should have C. may D. have 6. What should we do if it _____ tomorrow? A. should snow B. would snow C. snow D. will snow

1.We use mixed conditionals when the main clause and the if-clause are about different tenses. Eg. If you had come and attended the meeting yesterday, you would know what we are doing now. If you had followed my advice, you would not be in trouble now.

Part A Answers A (1) had not studied (2) would not be (4) would have (3) had studied (6) would be (5) knew (8) would not be (7) could help

2.use otherwise, or and phrases beginning with with, without and but for to replace an ifclause in implied conditionals

Without air (If there were not air) , there would be no living things. But for your help (If it hadn’t been for your help) , I couldn’t have done it. I was busy that day. Otherwise I would have gone there with them. (If I hadn’t been busy that day, I would have gone there with them.) I would have finished the work, but I have been ill. (If I hadn’t been ill, I would have finished the work.)

3.In adverbial clauses introduced by even if, as if, as though and if only we can use unreal conditionals.
他那样对待我,好像我是陌生人似的。 He treated me as if I were a stranger.

她谈论那部影片,就好像她确实看过一样。
She talked about the film as if she had really seen it.

Part B

Answers
(1)Without (3)otherwise/or (5)With (7) even if (9) If only (2) otherwise/or (4) wish (6) Without (8) without (10) as if

虚拟语气特殊句型: 现在: did(were) 1.wish/if only 过去:had done 未来: would do 1.I wish I were a bird.(现在)

2.I wish I hadn’t made such a mistake.(过去) 3.We wish our parents wouldn’t punish us. (将来)

If only I knew his name! If only we had followed your advice!

If only I could see him again!
要是我们的父母能和我们住在一起就好了。 要是我没错过火车就好了! If only our parents could live with us! If only I hadn’t missed the train!

I wish I were as tall as you. 我希望和你一样高。 He wished he hadn‘t said that. 他希望他没讲那样
的话。

I wish it would rain tomorrow. 我希望明下雨就好
了。 2)wish to do表达法。

wish sb / sth to do I wish to see the manager.
= I want to see the manager. I wish the manager to be informed at once. = I want the manager to be informed at once.

现在: did

2. would rather that

过去: had done 未来: did

I would rather you paid me now. I would rather you had gone, too. Don’t come. I would rather you came tomorrow.

did 3.It’s (about/high) time +that should do It’s high time that you went. It’s high time that you were 你该走了。 going. It’s high time that you should go. 我们该去 It’s time that we went to bed.

睡觉了。

It’s time that we should go to bed.

4.表示要求,命令,建议的虚拟语气。 1.宾语从句。常见动词: 一个坚持,两个命 令,三个建议,四个要求。即 1.insist 2. order, command

3. advise, suggest, propose
4. demand , require, request, desire 这些动词后面的宾语从句要使用虚拟语 气用法。即从句中的动词 使用should + 动 词原形,或者将should省略。

我们建议Tom 去休息一下。 他坚决要求我到场。 国王命令囚犯明天要实施死刑。

他们要求我们派他们去那儿工作。 We suggested that Tom have a rest. He insisted that I (should )be present.
The king ordered that the prisoners be killed the next day. They requested that we (should) send them to work there.

I suggest that we (should) hold a meeting next week. He insisted that he (should ) be sent there.
注意: 如suggest, insist不表示"建议" 或"坚

持要某人做某事时",即它们用于其本意" 暗示、表明"、"坚持认为"时,宾语从句用 陈述语气。
1.The guard at gate insisted that everybodyobey ____(obey)the rules.

was 2.He insisted that she______(be)seriously ill and that _________(send) to hospitals at once. be sent
3.He suggested that we________(have) a meeting at once. have

was 4.His pale face suggested that he______(be) ill.

以上动词相应的名词构成的名词性从句包括 主语从句,表语从句和同位语也要使用虚 拟语气。从句中的动词形式一样。

order, advice, suggestion, proposal, demand, request, desire

1.(NMET 06) Eliza remembers everything exactly as if it ____________ yesterday. A. was happening B. happens C. has happened D. happened 2. (05江苏) ---Don’t you think it necessary that he ________ to Miami but to New York? ---I agree, but the problem is ________he has refused to. A. will not be sent; that B. not be sent; that C. should not be sent; what D. should not send; what 3. (05湖北) If I ________plan to do anything I wanted to, I’d like to go to Tibet and travel through as much of it as possible. A. would B. could C. had to D. ought to

It’s suggested that the plan be carried out. My demand is that she should come to see me once a week. All of us are for the advice that the chemical factory should be closed down.

5. It’s necessary /strange/ natural/ important + that---Clause 从句中的动词要用虚拟,即 (should)+动词原形

It is important that we ( should ) master a foreign language. It is strange that she refuse to come to the party. It’s necessary that we should study hard.

I. Multiple choice: 1. We demanded that we __________ of any change in the plan. A. informed B. would be informed C. be informed D. had been informed 2. It’s necessary that he _________ a recognized qualification. A. has B.have C. had D. having 3. It's high time we ____________ our attention to this problem. A. turned B. turn C. had turned D. would turn

4. If only you __________ him what I said! Everything would have been all right. A. didn't told B. hadn't told C. would not tell D. would have not told 5. He must have had an accident, or he____________ here then. A. would have been B. had been C. should have been D. could be 6. Much labour would have been saved if the electronic computers_____________ before. A. had invented B. were invented C. should have been invented D. had been invented

7. _____________ cease advertising, prices would be significantly reduced. A. Were they to B. Could they C. If they D. Would they 8. Five minutes earlier, and we ____________ the last bus. A. had caught B. should have caught C. could have caught D. caught 9. You ____________ the clothes! We have a washerwoman to do that sort of thing. A. shouldn't have washed B. mustn't have washed C. can not have washed D. needn't have washed

10. Jean doesn't want to work right away because she thinks that if she _________ a job she probably wouldn't be able to see her friends very often. A. has to get B. were to get C. had got D. could have got 11. The mad man was put in the soft-padded cell lest he _____________ himself. A. injure B. had injured C. injured D. would injure 12. It is politely requested by the hotel management that radios __________ after 11 o'clock at night. A. were not played B. not to play C. not be played D. did not play

13. You don't have to be in such a hurry. I would rather you _________ on business first. A. would go B. will go C. went D. have gone 14. It is important that enough money ___________ to fund the project. A. be collected B. must be collected C. was collected D. can be collected 15. If only the committee __________ the regulations and put them into effect as soon as possible. A. approve B. will approve C. can approve D. would approve

16. I don't think it advisable that Tom ________ to the job since he has no experience. A. is assigned B. will be assigned C. be assigned D. has been assigned 17. You _________ her in her office last Friday; she's been out of town for two weeks. A. needn't have seen B. must have seen C. might have seen D. can't have seen 18. We didn't know his telephone number, otherwise we _________ him. A. would have telephoned B. must have telephoned C. would telephone D. had telephoned

19. It is recommended that the project _________ until all the preparations have been made. A. is not started B. will not be started C. not be started D. is not to be started 20. I wish I ________ longer this morning, but I had to get up and come to class. A. could have slept B. slept C. might have slept D. have slept 21. I ________ her to the party but I didn't know her well. A. ought have invited B. would have invited C. should invite D. may have invited 22. You ________ to town to see the film last week. It will be on TV tomorrow. A. needn't go B. should not go C. had better not go D. needn't have gone

23.---- Would you have called her up had it been possible? ----Yes, but I _____ busy doing my homework.. A. Was B. were C. had been D. would be 24. It was essential that the application forms ______back before the deadline A. must be sent B. would be sent C. be sent D. were sent 25. It is important that we ________. A. shall close the window before we leave B. will close the window before we leave C. must close the window before we leave D. close the window before we leave

II. Translation: 1.我不知道他的电话号码,否则我就打电话给他了。 I didn't know his telephone number, otherwise I would have telephoned him. 2. 他本可以给你更多的帮助,即使他很忙。 He might have given you more help, even though he was very busy. 3.---如果可能的话你会不会打电话给他? ---会的,不过我当时在忙着做家庭作业呢。 ---- Would you have called her up had it been possible? ---- Yes, but I were busy doing my homework..

4.如果你昨晚没有看电影那么晚的话,你现 在就不会那么困了。 If you hadn’t seen that film late last night, you wouldn't be so sleepy. 5. 没有电,今天人类的生活就完全不同了。 Without electricity, human life would be quite different today

1) 如果你没有开着窗户睡觉的话,你就不会 感冒了。
If you had not slept with the window open,you would not have caught a cold.

2) 要不是明天有测验我今天晚上就去听音乐 会。
If I were not to have a test, I would go to the concert tonight.

3) 如果他在这儿的话,他会帮我们的。
If he were here, he should help us.

6. 某些简单句的固定句型:

Heaven help him!
God bless you! May you succeed! Long live the People’s Republic of China!


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